All 80 seats in the New Zealand House of Representatives
41 seats needed for a majority
The New Zealand general election of 1922 was held on Monday, 6 December in the Māori electorates, and on Tuesday, 7 December in the general electorates to elect a total of 80 MPs to the 21st session of the New Zealand Parliament. A total number of 700,111 (87.7%) voters turned out to vote.In one seat (Bay of Plenty) there was only one candidate.
In New Zealand politics, Māori electorates, colloquially known as the Māori seats, are a special category of electorate that gives reserved positions to representatives of Māori in the New Zealand Parliament. Every area in New Zealand is covered by both a general and a Māori electorate; there are currently seven Māori electorates. Since 1967 candidates in Māori electorates have not needed to be Māori themselves, but to register as a voter in the Māori electorates people need to declare they are of Māori descent.
The 21st New Zealand Parliament was a term of the New Zealand Parliament. It was elected at the 1922 general election in December of that year.
The New Zealand Parliament is the legislature of New Zealand, consisting of the Queen of New Zealand (Queen-in-Parliament) and the New Zealand House of Representatives. The Queen is usually represented by her governor-general. Before 1951, there was an upper chamber, the New Zealand Legislative Council. The New Zealand Parliament was established in 1854 and is one of the oldest continuously functioning legislatures in the world. It has met in Wellington, the capital of New Zealand, since 1865.
1922 was the year residents of the Chatham Islands were enfranchised for the first time (included in Lyttelton and Western Māori electorates).
The Chatham Islands are a New Zealand archipelago in the Pacific Ocean about 800 kilometres (500 mi) east of the South Island of New Zealand. The archipelago consists of about ten islands within a 40-kilometre (25 mi) radius, the largest of which are Chatham Island and Pitt Island. Some of these islands, formerly cleared for farming, are now preserved as nature reserves to conserve some of the unique flora and fauna. As of 2013 the islands had a resident population of 600. The local economy depends largely on conservation, tourism, farming, and fishing.
Lyttelton is a port town on the north shore of Lyttelton Harbour, at the northwestern end of Banks Peninsula and close to Christchurch, on the eastern coast of the South Island of New Zealand.
William Massey formed a government, but with the loss in support for the Reform Party he had to negotiate for support with Independents, and with two Liberal Party members.
William Ferguson Massey, commonly known as Bill Massey, was a politician who served as the 19th Prime Minister of New Zealand from May 1912 to May 1925. He was the founding leader of the Reform Party, New Zealand's second organised political party, from 1909 until his death.
The Reform Party, formally the New Zealand Political Reform League, was New Zealand's second major political party, having been founded as a conservative response to the original Liberal Party. It was in government between 1912 and 1928, and later formed a coalition with the United Party, and then merged with United to form the modern National Party.
The New Zealand Liberal Party was the first organised political party in New Zealand. It governed from 1891 until 1912. The Liberal strategy was to create a large class of small land-owning farmers who supported Liberal ideals, by buying large tracts of Māori land and selling it to small farmers on credit. The Liberal Government also established the basis of the later welfare state, with old age pensions, developed a system for settling industrial disputes, which was accepted by both employers and trade unions. In 1893 it extended voting rights to women, making New Zealand the first country in the world to enact universal female suffrage.
Liberal was in decline and disorganised. Just before the 1925 election (held on 4 November), two Liberal MPs from Christchurch who had supported Massey (along with Independents Harry Atmore and Allen Bell) were appointed to the Legislative Council. They were Leonard Isitt and George Witty who were both appointed to the Legislative Council by Gordon Coates on 28 October 1925. Both were Liberals and their retirement removed "a source of some bitterness from the Party’s ranks (Coates rewarded them with seats in the Legislative Council the day after the election)".Gordon Coates was Reform, and both of their seats went to Reform candidates in 1925.
The New Zealand general election of 1925 was held 4 November to elect a total of 80 MPs to the 22nd session of the New Zealand Parliament. A total number of 678,877 (90.02%) voters turned out to vote. In one seat there was only one candidate.
Harry Atmore was a New Zealand Independent Member of Parliament for Nelson in the South Island.
Lt. Colonel Allan (Allen) Bell was a New Zealand Member of Parliament for the Bay of Islands in Northland.
|Party||Candidates||Total votes||Percentage||Seats won|
*Note: For numbers of candidates see Wilson (1985) p295; for numbers of votes and percentage see Wilson (1985) p289. Electorate results given below include 38 Reform and 21 Liberal members. The figures given in the table agree with Mackie and Rose, as well as the article on New Zealand elections.
The results of the 1922 election were as follows:
Reform Liberal Labour Independent Liberal Independent
The New Zealand Labour Party, or simply Labour, is a centre-left political party in New Zealand. The party's platform programme describes its founding principle as democratic socialism, while observers describe Labour as social-democratic and pragmatic in practice. It is a participant of the international Progressive Alliance.
Independent Liberal is a description allowed in politics to denote party affiliation. It is used to designate a politician as a liberal, yet independent of the official Liberal Party of a country. Those parties were the Liberal Party of Canada, or the Liberal Party of the United Kingdom, or the New Zealand Liberal Party.
An independent or nonpartisan politician is an individual politician not affiliated with any political party. There are numerous reasons why someone may stand for office as an independent.
|Ashburton||William Nosworthy||1,482||Henry Manwell Jones|
|Avon||Dan Sullivan||2,036||George Warren Russell|
|Awarua||John Hamilton||Philip De La Perrelle||51||John Hamilton|
|Auckland Central||Bill Parry||1,003||Albert Glover|
|Auckland East||Clutha Mackenzie||John A. Lee||751||Clutha Mackenzie|
|Auckland West||Michael Joseph Savage||1,349||John Farrell|
|Bay of Islands||Vernon Reed||Allen Bell||188||Vernon Reed|
|Bay of Plenty||Kenneth Williams||Uncontested|
|Buller||Harry Holland||1,541||John Menzies|
|Chalmers||James McColl Dickson||679||Joseph Stephens|
|Christchurch East||Henry Thacker||Tim Armstrong||1,094||Henry Thacker|
|Christchurch North||Leonard Isitt||1,950||John Archer|
|Christchurch South||Ted Howard||3,140||H C Lane|
|Clutha||Alexander Malcolm||John Edie||120||Alexander Malcolm|
|Dunedin Central||Charles Statham||723||John Gilchrist|
|Dunedin North||James Wright Munro||55||J J Clark|
|Dunedin West||Thomas Sidey||1,281||John McManus|
|Dunedin South||William Downie Stewart||1,727||C M Moss|
|Eden||James Parr||675||Rex Mason|
|Egmont||Oswald Hawken||372||D L A Astbury|
|Ellesmere||Heaton Rhodes||732||J C Free|
|Franklin||William Massey||2,750||Joseph Rea|
|Grey Lynn||Fred Bartram||1,407||William John Holdsworth|
|Gisborne||Douglas Lysnar||500||George Wildish|
|Hamilton||New electorate||Alexander Young||2,043||Arthur Shapton Richards|
|Hawke's Bay||Hugh Campbell||Gilbert McKay||317||Andrew Hamilton Russell|
|Hurunui||George Forbes||1,198||S Andrew|
|Hutt||Thomas Wilford||802||David Pritchard|
|Invercargill||Josiah Hanan||993||J Armstead|
|Kaipara||Gordon Coates||2,464||Robert Hornblow|
|Kaiapoi||David Jones||David Buddo||65||David Jones|
|Lyttelton||James McCombs||614||R MacCartney|
|Manawatu||Edward Newman||Joseph Linklater||1,505||F D Whibley|
|Manukau||Frederic Lang||Bill Jordan||209||Frederic Lang|
|Marsden||Francis Mander||Alfred Murdoch||136||William Jones|
|Masterton||George Sykes||556||A. C. Holmes|
|Mataura||George Anderson||1,041||David McDougall|
|Motueka||Richard Hudson||538||R Patterson|
|Napier||Vigor Brown||Lewis McIlvride||763||John Mason|
|Oamaru||Ernest Lee||John MacPherson||14||Ernest Lee|
|Ohinemuri||Hugh Poland||939||Stephen Shepherd Allen|
|Oroua||David Guthrie||43||John Cobbe|
|Nelson||Harry Atmore||2,164||A. Gilbert|
|Otaki||William Hughes Field||58||G. H. M. McClure|
|Pahiatua||Archibald McNicol||Alfred Ransom||59||Archibald McNicol|
|Palmerston||Jimmy Nash||1,067||Joe Hodgens|
|Parnell||James Samuel Dickson||2,324||S M Wren|
|Patea||Edwin Dixon||James Randall Corrigan||151||Edwin Dixon|
|Raglan||Richard Bollard||776||S C G Lye|
|Rangitikei||William Spiers Glenn||1,007||F P Brady|
|Riccarton||George Witty||235||Herbert Kyle|
|Roskill||Vivian Potter||2,007||Alfred Hall-Skelton|
|Rotorua||Frank Hockly||404||Cecil Clinkard|
|Stratford||Robert Masters||363||John Hine|
|Taranaki||Sydney George Smith||134||Charles Bellringer|
|Tauranga||William Herries||1,440||Laurence Johnstone|
|Temuka||Thomas Burnett||407||Thomas Herbert Langford|
|Thames||Thomas William Rhodes||790||W A Allan|
|Timaru||James Craigie||Frank Rolleston||288||Percy Vinnell|
|Waikato||Alexander Young||Frederick Lye||44||J T Johnson|
|Waimarino||Robert William Smith||Frank Langstone||887||Robert William Smith|
|Waipawa||George Hunter||1,076||John Joshua Langridge|
|Wairarapa||Alexander Donald McLeod||698||J W Card|
|Waitemata||Alexander Harris||1,271||Frank Henry Burbush|
|Wairau||Richard McCallum||William Girling||186||Richard McCallum|
|Waitaki||John Bitchener||William Paul|
|Waitomo||William Thomas Jennings||John Rolleston||25||William Thomas Jennings|
|Wakatipu||James Horn||1,637||J Ritchie|
|Wallace||Adam Hamilton||John Charles Thomson||205||Adam Hamilton|
|Wanganui||Bill Veitch||1,072||John Coull|
|Wellington Central||Peter Fraser||4,202||William Bennett|
|Wellington North||John Luke||375||Harry Combs|
|Wellington East||Alfred Newman||Alec Monteith||473||Thomas Forsyth|
|Wellington South||George Mitchell||Robert McKeen||422||George Mitchell|
|Wellington Suburbs||Robert Wright||291||Alexander Croskery|
|Westland||Tom Seddon||James O'Brien||487||Tom Seddon|
|Eastern Maori||Āpirana Ngata||1,501||Taranaki Kanara te Uamairangi|
|Northern Maori||Taurekareka Henare||1,441||Nau Parone Kawiti|
|Southern Maori||Henare Uru||87||Peter MacDonald|
|Western Maori||Māui Pōmare||798||Ngarangi Katitia|
A boundary redistribution resulted in the abolition of one seat:
At the same time, one new seat was created:
The New Zealand general election of 1911 was held on Thursday, 7 and 14 December in the general electorates, and on Tuesday, 19 December in the Māori electorates to elect a total of 80 MPs to the 18th session of the New Zealand Parliament. A total number of 590,042 (83.5%) voters turned out to vote. In two seats there was only one candidate.
Auckland East was a New Zealand electorate, situated in the east of Auckland. It existed between 1861 and 1887, and again between 1905 and 1946.
Rotorua is a New Zealand parliamentary electorate, returning one Member of Parliament to the New Zealand House of Representatives. It was first established in 1919, and has existed continuously since 1954. The current MP for Rotorua is Todd McClay of the National Party, who won the electorate in the 2008 general election from incumbent Labour MP Steve Chadwick.
Waimarino was a New Zealand parliamentary electorate that existed from 1911 to 1954, and from 1963 to 1972. It was rural in nature and was represented by four Members of Parliament.
Franklin was a rural New Zealand parliamentary electorate. It existed from 1861 to 1996 during four periods.
Bay of Islands is a former New Zealand parliamentary electorate. It existed during various periods between 1853 and 1993. It was thus one of the original 24 electoral districts, and New Zealand's first ever MP was elected, although unopposed, in the Bay of Islands; Hugh Carleton thus liked to be called the Father of the House.
Waitemata was a New Zealand parliamentary electorate, from 1871 to 1946, and then from 1954 to 1978. It was represented by 18 members of parliament.
Awarua was a New Zealand parliamentary electorate from 1881 to 1996.
Riccarton is a former New Zealand parliamentary electorate. It existed from 1893 to 1978, and was represented by eight Members of Parliament.
Southern Maori was one of the four original New Zealand parliamentary Māori electorates, from 1868 to 1996.
Kaipara is a former New Zealand parliamentary electorate north of Auckland that existed from 1902 to 1946, and from 1978 to 1996.
Parnell was a parliamentary electorate in the city of Auckland, New Zealand, from 1861 to 1954, with one break of eight years.
Hurunui was a parliamentary electorate in the Canterbury region of New Zealand, from 1902 to 1963.
Waipawa was a parliamentary electorate in the Hawke's Bay region of New Zealand, from 1881 to 1946.
Wellington North was, from 1905 to 1946, a parliamentary electorate within the area encompassing New Zealand's capital, Wellington. The electorate was represented by four Members of Parliament.
Temuka was a parliamentary electorate in the Canterbury region of New Zealand from 1911 to 1946. The electorate was represented by four Members of Parliament.
Hawke's Bay was a parliamentary electorate in the Hawke's Bay region of New Zealand from 1881 to 1996. In 1986 it was renamed Hawkes Bay.
The 20th New Zealand Parliament was a term of the New Zealand Parliament. It was elected at the 1919 general election in December of that year.