1924 Tour de France

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1924 Tour de France
Tour de France 1924.png
Route of the 1924 Tour de France followed counterclockwise, starting in Paris
Race details
Dates22 June – 20 July
Stages15
Distance5,425 km (3,371 mi)
Winning time222h 15' 30"
Results
Jersey yellow.svg WinnerFlag of Italy (1861-1946).svg  Ottavio Bottecchia  (ITA)(1st class)
  SecondFlag of Luxembourg.svg  Nicolas Frantz  (LUX)(1st class)
  ThirdFlag of Belgium (civil).svg  Lucien Buysse  (BEL)(1st class)
  1923
1925  

The 1924 Tour de France was the 18th edition of the Tour de France and was won by Ottavio Bottecchia. He was the first Italian cyclist to win the Tour and the first rider to hold the yellow jersey the entire event. The race was held over 5,425 km with an average speed of 23.972 km/h (14.896 mph). [1] 60 riders finished the race from the original 157 cyclists.

Tour de France Cycling competition

The Tour de France is an annual men's multiple stage bicycle race primarily held in France, while also occasionally passing through nearby countries. Like the other Grand Tours, it consists of 21 day-long stages over the course of 23 days. It has been described as "the world’s most prestigious and most difficult bicycle race".

Ottavio Bottecchia Italian racing cyclist

Ottavio Bottecchia was an Italian cyclist and the first Italian winner of the Tour de France.

Italy European country

Italy, officially the Italian Republic, is a European country located in Southern Europe consisting of a peninsula delimited by the Alps and surrounded by several islands. Located in the middle of the Mediterranean sea and traversed along its length by the Apennines, Italy has a largely temperate seasonal climate including Mediterranean and Alpine zones. The country covers a total area of 301,340 km2 (116,350 sq mi), and land area of 294,140 km2 (113,570 sq mi), and shares open land borders with France, Switzerland, Austria, Slovenia, and the enclaved microstates of Vatican City and San Marino. Italy has a territorial exclave in Switzerland (Campione) and a maritime exclave in the Tunisian Sea (Lampedusa). With around 60 million inhabitants, Italy is the fourth-most populous member state of the European Union.

Contents

Entrants of the 1924 Tour included several past and future winners including defending champion Henri Pélissier (1923), Philippe Thys (1913, 1914, 1920), Lucien Buysse (1926) and Nicolas Frantz (1927, 1928).

1923 Tour de France cycling race

The 1923 Tour de France was the 17th edition of the Tour de France, taking place 24 June to 22 July. It consisted of 15 stages over 5386 km, ridden at an average speed of 24.233 km/h. The race was won by Henri Pélissier with a convincing half-hour lead to his next opponent, Italian Ottavio Bottecchia. In total, 139 cyclists entered the race, of which 48 finished. Pélissier's victory was the first French victory since 1911, as the Tour de France had been dominated by Belgian cyclists since then.

Philippe Thys Belgian cyclist and a three-time champion of the Tour de France

Philippe Thys was a Belgian cyclist and three times winner of the Tour de France.

1913 Tour de France cycling race

The 1913 Tour de France was the 11th edition of the Tour de France, taking place between 29 June and 27 July. The total distance was 5,287 kilometres (3,285 mi) and the average speed of the riders was 26.715 kilometres per hour (16.600 mph). The competition was won by the Belgian Philippe Thys, after in the crucial sixth stage Eugène Christophe broke his bicycle and lost several hours because he had to do the repairs by himself. In the last stage, Thys also had mechanical problems, but he got help during the repairs, and only got a penalty of ten minutes.

The event saw the increase of the time bonus for stage wins move from 2 minutes to 3 minutes. In addition, it was the final year of the 15-stage format that had started in 1910. One of the most important events of the race occurred on the third stage, when defending champion Pélissier quit the race because of a new fight with tour organiser Henri Desgrange.

1910 Tour de France cycling race

The 1910 Tour de France was the eighth edition of the Tour de France, taking place 3 to 31 July. It consisted of 15 stages over 4,734 kilometres (2,942 mi), ridden at an average speed of 28.680 km/h. It was the first Tour to enter the Pyrenees mountains. Two main candidates for the victory were 1909 winner François Faber, a sprinter, and Octave Lapize, a climber, both members of the powerful Alcyon team. Because of the points system, their chances for the overall victory were approximately equal. The race was not decided until the final stage, after which Lapize had won by a difference of only four points.

Changes from the previous Tour

In 1923, a time bonus of two minutes for each stage winner had been introduced. This was considered successful, and the time bonus was increased to three minutes for the 1924 Tour de France. [2]

After the 1923 Tour de France, the winner Henri Pélissier had said that the runner-up Bottecchia would go on to win the race. [3]

Participants

Race overview

Ottavio Bottecchia, winner of the 1924 Tour de France Ottavio Bottecchia 1923.jpg
Ottavio Bottecchia, winner of the 1924 Tour de France

In 1924, there was a rule that the cyclists had to finish with everything they started with, and the officials suspected that Pélissier would start in the cold morning with many jerseys, and remove them once the day warmed up. [4] The rule had been introduced in 1920, when all the cyclists were sponsored by the combined sponsor La Sportive, to prevent waste of material. [5] Pélissier objected to the rule, on the ground that the jerseys that he wore were his own, and had not been provided by the sponsor.

La Sportive is the name under which French cyclists rode in the first years after the First World War, when there was not enough money for conventional cycling teams.

At the start of the third stage, a tour official checked how many jerseys Henri Pélissier was wearing. Pélissier was angry, and declared that he would not start the race. [5] He did so anyway, but retired at Coutances, together with his brother Francis Pélissier and teammate Maurice Ville. [4] The three cyclists met journalist Albert Londres of Petit Parisien, [6] to whom they complained about the circumstances in which the cyclists had to race. [4] In that third stage, that ended on a circuit, Theophile Beeckman crossed the finish line first. However, the bell indicating the last lap was not rung, and Philippe Thys was placed ex aequo on the first place by the officials. [6]

In the first five stages, the cyclists finished in groups, and the time bonus of three minutes for the winner was the only thing that separated the cyclists. After the third and fourth stage, Bottecchia had the same time as Beeckman, although Bottecchia was still given the yellow jersey as classification leader. [2] In the sixth and seventh stage, Bottecchia extended his lead in the Pyrenees. [7] After these stages, he had a margin of 50 minutes over second-placed Nicolas Frantz.

In the Alps, Bottecchia was not so dominant anymore. In stages 10 to 13, Frantz won back a few minutes per stage, but it was not enough. In the thirteenth stage, Bottecchia ran into a dog and fell. [8] Nicolas Frantz tried to win back time, but failed.

In the penultimate stage, Italian Giovanni Brunero was in third place in the overall classification, [2] when he had to give up. [8] Prior to the last stage, the margin between Bottecchia and Frantz was still 32 minutes. Bottecchia won the final stage to Paris, and the time bonus of 3 minutes made the margin 35 minutes.

Results

In each stage, all cyclists started together. The cyclist who reached the finish first, was the winner of the stage. The time that each cyclist required to finish the stage was recorded. For the general classification, these times were added up; the cyclist with the least accumulated time (after compensating for time bonuses and/or time penalties) was the race leader, identified by the yellow jersey.

Stage winners

Stage characteristics and winners [2] [9] [10] [11]
StageDateCourseDistanceType [n 1] WinnerRace leader
122 June Paris to Le Havre 381 km (237 mi)Plainstage.svgPlain stageFlag of Italy (1861-1946).svg  Ottavio Bottecchia  (ITA)Flag of Italy (1861-1946).svg  Ottavio Bottecchia  (ITA)
224 June Le Havre to Cherbourg 371 km (231 mi)Plainstage.svgPlain stageFlag of France.svg  Romain Bellenger  (FRA)Flag of Italy (1861-1946).svg  Ottavio Bottecchia  (ITA)
326 June Cherbourg to Brest 405 km (252 mi)Plainstage.svgPlain stageFlag of Belgium (civil).svg  Philippe Thys  (BEL)
Flag of Belgium (civil).svg  Théophile Beeckman  (BEL)
Flag of Italy (1861-1946).svg  Ottavio Bottecchia  (ITA)
428 June Brest to Les Sables-d'Olonne 412 km (256 mi)Plainstage.svgPlain stageFlag of France.svg  Félix Goethals  (FRA)Flag of Italy (1861-1946).svg  Ottavio Bottecchia  (ITA)
530 June Les Sables-d'Olonne to Bayonne 482 km (300 mi)Plainstage.svgPlain stageFlag of Belgium (civil).svg  Omer Huyse  (BEL)Flag of Italy (1861-1946).svg  Ottavio Bottecchia  (ITA)
62 July Bayonne to Luchon 326 km (203 mi)Mountainstage.svgStage with mountain(s)Flag of Italy (1861-1946).svg  Ottavio Bottecchia  (ITA)Flag of Italy (1861-1946).svg  Ottavio Bottecchia  (ITA)
74 July Luchon to Perpignan 323 km (201 mi)Mountainstage.svgStage with mountain(s)Flag of Italy (1861-1946).svg  Ottavio Bottecchia  (ITA)Flag of Italy (1861-1946).svg  Ottavio Bottecchia  (ITA)
86 July Perpignan to Toulon 427 km (265 mi)Plainstage.svgPlain stageFlag of Belgium (civil).svg  Louis Mottiat  (BEL)Flag of Italy (1861-1946).svg  Ottavio Bottecchia  (ITA)
98 July Toulon to Nice 280 km (170 mi)Mountainstage.svgStage with mountain(s)Flag of Belgium (civil).svg  Philippe Thys  (BEL)Flag of Italy (1861-1946).svg  Ottavio Bottecchia  (ITA)
1010 July Nice to Briançon 275 km (171 mi)Mountainstage.svgStage with mountain(s)Flag of Italy (1861-1946).svg  Giovanni Brunero  (ITA)Flag of Italy (1861-1946).svg  Ottavio Bottecchia  (ITA)
1112 July Briançon to Gex 307 km (191 mi)Mountainstage.svgStage with mountain(s)Flag of Luxembourg.svg  Nicolas Frantz  (LUX)Flag of Italy (1861-1946).svg  Ottavio Bottecchia  (ITA)
1214 July Gex to Strasbourg 360 km (220 mi)Mountainstage.svgStage with mountain(s)Flag of Luxembourg.svg  Nicolas Frantz  (LUX)Flag of Italy (1861-1946).svg  Ottavio Bottecchia  (ITA)
1316 July Strasbourg to Metz 300 km (190 mi)Plainstage.svgPlain stageFlag of France.svg  Arsène Alancourt  (FRA)Flag of Italy (1861-1946).svg  Ottavio Bottecchia  (ITA)
1418 July Metz to Dunkerque 433 km (269 mi)Plainstage.svgPlain stageFlag of France.svg  Romain Bellenger  (FRA)Flag of Italy (1861-1946).svg  Ottavio Bottecchia  (ITA)
1520 July Dunkerque to Paris 343 km (213 mi)Plainstage.svgPlain stageFlag of Italy (1861-1946).svg  Ottavio Bottecchia  (ITA)Flag of Italy (1861-1946).svg  Ottavio Bottecchia  (ITA)
Total5,425 km (3,371 mi) [1]

General classification

Bottecchia became the first Italian cyclist who won the Tour de France, and the first cyclist to wear the yellow jersey from the start to the end of the Tour de France. [4]

Final general classification (1–10) [2]
RankRiderCategoryTime
1Flag of Italy (1861-1946).svg  Ottavio Bottecchia  (ITA)1226h 18' 21"
2Flag of Luxembourg.svg  Nicolas Frantz  (LUX)1+ 35' 36"
3Flag of Belgium (civil).svg  Lucien Buysse  (BEL)1+ 1h 32' 13"
4Flag of Italy (1861-1946).svg  Bartolomeo Aimo  (ITA)1+ 1h 32' 47"
5Flag of Belgium (civil).svg  Théophile Beeckman  (BEL)1+ 2h 11' 12"
6Flag of France.svg  Joseph Muller  (FRA)1+ 2h 35' 33"
7Flag of France.svg  Arsène Alancourt  (FRA)1+ 2h 41' 31"
8Flag of France.svg  Romain Bellenger  (FRA)1+ 2h 51' 09"
9Flag of Belgium (civil).svg  Omer Huyse  (BEL)2+ 2h 58' 13"
10Flag of Belgium (civil).svg  Hector Tiberghien  (BEL)1+ 3h 05' 04"

Aftermath

A few days after Henri Pélissier quit the race, he sent a letter to the communist magazine l'Humanité, writing that he accepted "‘excessive fatigue, suffering, pain" as part of the cycling profession, but that he wanted to be treated as a human being. [12] Tour organiser Desgrange still kept to his formula of trying to get the cyclists to ride individually until 1930, when he accepted that cyclists would run in teams and introduced nationalized teams.

The number of stages increased in the next years. For example, in 1925 the cyclists went from Brest to Bayonne in two stages, racing 900 km (560 mi) in total; in 1926 this was done in four stages, racing 894 km (556 mi). With these shorter stages, the cyclists did not have to start in the middle of the night.

Bottecchia would win the Tour de France again in 1925. The runner-up, Nicolas Frantz, would win in 1927 and 1928; in 1928 he would repeat the feat of Bottecchia of wearing the yellow jersey the entire race.

Notes

  1. There was no distinction in the rules between plain stages and mountain stages; the icons shown here indicate which stages included mountains.

Related Research Articles

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References

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  3. "The Tour - Year 1923". Amaury Sport Organisation. Archived from the original on 23 July 2009. Retrieved 21 July 2009.
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  5. 1 2 Dauncey, Hugh; Hare, Geoff (2003). The Tour de France, 1903-2003. Routledge. pp. 86–88. ISBN   978-0-7146-5362-4 . Retrieved 25 June 2009.
  6. 1 2 "18ème Tour de France 1924 - 3ème étape" (in French). Mémoire du cyclisme. Archived from the original on 6 March 2012. Retrieved 28 October 2016.
  7. "1924 - 18th Tour de France". Amaury Sport Organisation. Archived from the original on 15 July 2009. Retrieved 25 June 2009.
  8. 1 2 "1924: Ottavio Bottecchia bezorgt Italië eerste Touroverwinning" (in Dutch). Tourdefrance.nl. 19 March 2003. Archived from the original on 16 October 2012. Retrieved 25 June 2009.
  9. "283 coureurs cyclistes vont partier pour un voyages de 5.425 kilomètres". Le Petit Parisien (in French). Gallica Bibliothèque Numérique. 21 June 1924. Retrieved 28 July 2010.
  10. Augendre 2016, p. 22.
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Bibliography

Commons-logo.svg Media related to 1924 Tour de France at Wikimedia Commons