Poster for the 1928 Summer Olympics
|Host city||Amsterdam, Netherlands|
|Athletes||2,883 (2,606 men, 277 women)|
|Events||109 in 14 sports (20 disciplines)|
The 1928 Summer Olympics (Dutch: Olympische Zomerspelen 1928), officially known as the Games of the IX Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event that was celebrated from 28 July to 12 August 1928 in Amsterdam, Netherlands. The city of Amsterdam had previously bid for the 1920 and 1924 Olympic Games, but was obliged to give way to war-torn Antwerp in Belgium for the 1920 Games and Pierre de Coubertin's Paris for the 1924 Games. The United States won the most gold and overall medals.
The only other candidate city for the 1928 Olympics was Los Angeles, which would eventually be selected to host the Olympics four years later. In preparation for the 1932 Summer Olympics, the United States Olympic Committee reviewed the costs and revenue of the 1928 Games. The committee reported a total cost of US$1.183 million with receipts of US$1.165 million, giving a negligible loss of US$18,000, which was a considerable improvement over the 1924 Games.
Dutch nobleman Frederik van Tuyll van Serooskerken first proposed Amsterdam as host city for the Summer Olympic Games in 1912, even before the Netherlands Olympic Committee was established.
The Olympic Games were cancelled in 1916 due to World War I. In 1919, the Netherlands Olympic Committee abandoned the proposal of Amsterdam in favor of their support for the nomination of Antwerp as host city for the 1920 Summer Olympics. In 1921, Paris was selected for the 1924 Summer Olympics on the condition that the 1928 Summer Olympics would be organized in Amsterdam. This decision, supported by the Netherlands Olympic Committee, was announced by the International Olympic Committee (IOC) on 2 June 1921.
The US request to allocate the 1928 Summer Olympics to Los Angeles was without success in 1922 and again in 1923. p.915Los Angeles was eventually selected as host city for the 1932 Summer Olympics, being the only bidder for that year. :
During the 1928 Summer Olympics, there were 14 sports, 20 disciplines and 109 events in the tournament. In parentheses is the number of events per discipline. pp.973–985:
Women's athletics and team gymnastics debuted at these Olympics,in spite of criticism. Five women's athletics events were added: 100 meters, 800 meters, high jump, discus, and 400 meter hurdles. In protest of the limited number of events, British women athletes, boycotted the Games. Halina Konopacka of Poland became the first female Olympic track and field champion. Reports that the 800 meter run ended with several of the competitors being completely exhausted were widely (and erroneously) circulated. As a result, the IOC decided that women were too frail for long distance running, and women's Olympic running events were limited to 200 meters until the 1960s.
Tennis disappeared from the program, only to reappear in 1968 as a demonstration sport.
These Games also included art competitions in five categories: architecture, painting, sculpture, literature, and poetry. However, the IOC no longer considers these to be official medal events, so the medals awarded are not included in today's Olympic medal counts.
Fourteen sports venues were used for the 1928 Summer Olympics. The Swim Stadium was demolished in 1929 with it being a temporary venue. p.193 The Het Kasteel football stadium was renovated in 1998–99. The Monnikenhuize stadium was demolished in 1950. The Schermzaal sports hall has also been demolished. The Olympic Stadium was renovated between 1996 and 2000, and is still in use. The Old Stadion was demolished in 1929 and replaced with housing in the Amsterdam area.:
|Amersfoort||Modern pentathlon (riding)||Not listed||:p.277|
|Amsterdam||Cycling (road)||Not listed||:p.264|
|Hilversum||Equestrian (dressage and cross-country), Modern pentathlon (running)||4,763||:pp.167, 236, 694|
|Krachtsportgebouw||Boxing, Weightlifting, Wrestling||4,634||:pp.200–1, 205|
|Old Stadion||Field hockey, Football||29,787||:pp.173–80|
|Olympic Sports Park Swim Stadium||Diving, Modern pentathlon (swimming), Swimming, Water polo||6,000||:pp.205–9|
|Olympic Stadium||Athletics, Cycling (track), Equestrian (jumping), Football, Gymnastics, Korfball||33,025||:pp.173–205|
|Schermzaal||Fencing, Modern pentathlon (fencing)||559||:pp.170, 202, 205|
|Sloterringvaart, Sloten||Rowing||2,230||:pp.172, 267–72|
|Sparta Stadion Het Kasteel (Rotterdam)||Football||11,026|
|Zeeburg Shooting Grounds||Modern pentathlon (shooting)||10,455||:p.277|
A total of 46 nations were represented at the Amsterdam Games. Malta, Panama, and Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe) competed at the Olympic Games for the first time. Germany returned after having been banned in 1920 and 1924.
|Participating National Olympic Committees|
These are the top ten nations that won medals at the 1928 Games.
|Totals (10 nations)||81||76||78||235|
The official poster for the Games was designed by Jos Rovers, and 10,000 copies were made.
The poster displays a running man in a white shirt, with in the background the Olympic Stadium and the Olympic flag.
The IOC never succeeded in obtaining the copyright of the image. Therefore, out of practical considerations, the IOC used a different poster, with the German text Olympische Spiele, and an athlete partly covered in the Dutch national flag, holding a peace leaf in his hand. The poster was made for a German book about the Amsterdam Olympics.
The last living competitor of the 1928 Summer Olympics was Clara Marangoni, a member of the silver-medal winning Italian gymnastic team who had been 12 years old during the Olympics.
She died 18 January 2018, at the age of 102. She was also the oldest living Olympic medalist at the time of her death.
The Summer Olympic Games or the Games of the Olympiad, first held in 1896, is a major international multi-sport event normally held once every four years. The most recent Olympics were held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The International Olympic Committee (IOC) organises the Games and oversees the host city's preparations. In each Olympic event, gold medals are awarded for first place, silver medals are awarded for second place, and bronze medals are awarded for third place; this tradition began in 1904. The Winter Olympic Games were created out of the success of the Summer Olympics.
The Winter Olympic Games is a major international multi-sport event held once every four years for sports practiced on snow and ice. The first Winter Olympic Games, the 1924 Winter Olympics, were held in Chamonix, France. The modern Olympic Games were inspired by the ancient Olympic Games, which were held in Olympia, Greece, from the 8th century BC to the 4th century AD. Baron Pierre de Coubertin founded the International Olympic Committee (IOC) in 1894, leading to the first modern Summer Olympic Games in Athens, Greece in 1896. The IOC is the governing body of the Olympic Movement, with the Olympic Charter defining its structure and authority.
The 1936 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XI Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event held in 1936 in Berlin, Germany. Berlin won the bid to host the Games over Barcelona, Spain, on 26 April 1931, at the 29th IOC Session in Barcelona. It marked the second and most recent time the International Olympic Committee gathered to vote in a city that was bidding to host those Games.
The 1948 Winter Olympics, officially known as the V Olympic Winter Games, was a winter multi-sport event celebrated in 1948 in St. Moritz, Switzerland.
The 1948 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XIV Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event which was held in London, United Kingdom from 29 July to 14 August 1948.
The 1896 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the I Olympiad, was the first international Olympic Games held in modern history. Organised by the International Olympic Committee (IOC), which had been created by Pierre de Coubertin, it was held in Athens, Greece, from 6 to 15 April 1896.
The 1928 Winter Olympics, officially known as the II Olympic Winter Games, were a winter multi-sport event which was celebrated February 11–19, 1928 in St. Moritz, Switzerland.
The 1996 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XXVI Olympiad, commonly known as Atlanta 1996, and also referred to as the Centennial Olympic Games, were an international multi-sport event that was held from July 19 to August 4, 1996, in Atlanta, Georgia, U.S. These Games, which were the fourth Summer Olympics to be hosted by the United States, marked the centennial of the 1896 Summer Olympics in Athens—the inaugural edition of the modern Olympic Games. They were also the first since 1924 to be held in a different year from a Winter Olympics, under a new IOC practice implemented in 1994 to hold the Summer and Winter Games in alternating, even-numbered years.
The 1976 Summer Olympics, officially called the Games of the XXI Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event in Montreal, Quebec, Canada, in 1976, and the first Olympic Games held in Canada.
The 1932 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the X Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event that was held from July 30 to August 14, 1932, in Los Angeles, California, United States.
The 1924 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the VIII Olympiad, were an international multi-sport event which was celebrated in 1924 in Paris, France.
The 1920 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the VII Olympiad, were an international multi-sport event in 1920 in Antwerp, Belgium.
The 1936 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XI Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event held in Berlin, Germany, from 1 August to 16 August. Berlin had previously been chosen to host the 1916 Summer Olympics, which were subsequently cancelled due to the First World War. The 1936 Games had 3,963 athletes from 49 National Olympic Committees (NOCs) participating in a total of 129 events in 19 sports. This was the highest number of nations represented at any Games to date. Athletes from 32 NOCs won medals, of which 21 secured at least one gold medal. As a result, 17 NOCs were left without any medal. The host NOC, Germany, received a total of 89 medals, a record for a united German team, although East Germany broke that record in 1976, 1980 and 1988.
This 1928 Summer Olympics medal table comprises two tables of countries ranked by the number of medals won during the 1928 Summer Olympics. The 1928 Summer Olympics were held in and around Amsterdam in the Netherlands from 17 May 1928 to 22 August 1928. A total of 2,883 athletes from 46 countries participated in the sports competition, in 14 sports and 109 events. Additionally, five art competitions were held with 13 events combined. 327 sports medals and 29 arts medals were awarded during the 1928 Summer Olympics. A total of 5,901 souvenir medals were given; 5,139 medals to contestants and officials, and 762 medals to persons that contributed to the Olympics by rendering their services. The souvenir medals are not displayed in the medal tables.
The 1900 Summer Olympics were held in Paris, France, from May 14 to October 28, 1900, as part of the 1900 World's Fair. A total of 997 athletes representing 24 nations participated in 95 events in 19 sports at these games. Women competed in the Olympics for the first time during the 1900 games. 21 of the 24 participating nations earned medals, in addition to 12 medals won by teams made up of athletes from multiple nations. The host nation of France flooded the field, comprising over 72% of all the athletes ; given that, America dominated athletically, winning the second-most gold (19), silver (14), and bronze (14) medals, while fielding fewer than 8% of the athletes.
Chile competed at the 1928 Summer Olympics in Amsterdam, Netherlands. 38 competitors took part in 22 events in 6 sports.
Art competitions formed part of the modern Olympic Games during its early years, from 1912 to 1948. The competitions were part of the original intention of the Olympic Movement's founder, Pierre de Frédy, Baron de Coubertin. Medals were awarded for works of art inspired by sport, divided into five categories: architecture, literature, music, painting, and sculpture.
The Netherlands first sent athletes to the Olympic Games in 1900, and has participated in almost all Games since then with the exception of 1904 Summer Olympics in St. Louis. In 1956, the nation boycotted the Games in Melbourne as a protest against the Soviet invasion in Hungary just a few weeks before the beginning of the Games.
The Women's World Games were the first international women's sports events in track and field. The games were held four times between 1922 and 1934. They were established by Alice Milliat and the Fédération Sportive Féminine Internationale (FSFI) to compensate for the lack of women's sports at the Olympic Games. The games were an important step towards women's equality in sports. A forerunner tournament was held in Monte Carlo in March 1921.
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IX Olympiad (1928)