1928 Summer Olympics

Last updated

1928 Olympics poster.jpg
Poster for the 1928 Summer Olympics
Host city Amsterdam, Netherlands
Nations46
Athletes2,883 (2,606 men, 277 women)
Events109 in 14 sports (20 disciplines)
Opening28 July
Closing12 August
Opened by
Stadium Olympisch Stadion
Summer
Paris 1924 Los Angeles 1932
Winter
St Moritz 1928 Lake Placid 1932

The 1928 Summer Olympics (Dutch: Olympische Zomerspelen 1928), officially known as the Games of the IX Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event that was celebrated from 28 July to 12 August 1928 in Amsterdam, Netherlands. The city of Amsterdam had previously bid for the 1920 and 1924 Olympic Games, but was obliged to give way to war-torn Antwerp in Belgium for the 1920 Games and Pierre de Coubertin's Paris for the 1924 Games. The United States won the most gold and overall medals.

Contents

The only other candidate city for the 1928 Olympics was Los Angeles, which would eventually be selected to host the Olympics four years later. In preparation for the 1932 Summer Olympics, the United States Olympic Committee reviewed the costs and revenue of the 1928 Games. The committee reported a total cost of US$1.183 million with receipts of US$1.165 million, giving a negligible loss of US$18,000, which was a considerable improvement over the 1924 Games. [2]

Host city selection

Dutch nobleman Frederik van Tuyll van Serooskerken first proposed Amsterdam as host city for the Summer Olympic Games in 1912, even before the Netherlands Olympic Committee was established.

The Olympic Games were cancelled in 1916 due to World War I. In 1919, the Netherlands Olympic Committee abandoned the proposal of Amsterdam in favor of their support for the nomination of Antwerp as host city for the 1920 Summer Olympics. In 1921, Paris was selected for the 1924 Summer Olympics on the condition that the 1928 Summer Olympics would be organized in Amsterdam. This decision, supported by the Netherlands Olympic Committee, was announced by the International Olympic Committee (IOC) on 2 June 1921.

The US request to allocate the 1928 Summer Olympics to Los Angeles was without success in 1922 and again in 1923. [3] Los Angeles was eventually selected as host city for the 1932 Summer Olympics, being the only bidder for that year. [4] :p.915

Highlights

The international parking sign (white P on blue background) was first designed for the 1928 Games Nederlands verkeersbord E4.svg
The international parking sign (white P on blue background) was first designed for the 1928 Games

Sports

During the 1928 Summer Olympics, there were 14 sports, 20 disciplines and 109 events in the tournament. In parentheses is the number of events per discipline. [4] :pp.973–985

Eight Dutch stamps from 1928, showing different sports of the Amsterdam Olympics Postzegel 1928 olympiade.jpg
Eight Dutch stamps from 1928, showing different sports of the Amsterdam Olympics

Women's athletics and team gymnastics debuted at these Olympics, [10] in spite of criticism. Five women's athletics events were added: 100 meters, 800 meters, high jump, discus, and 400 meter hurdles. In protest of the limited number of events, British women athletes, boycotted the Games. [11] Halina Konopacka of Poland became the first female Olympic track and field champion. Reports that the 800 meter run ended with several of the competitors being completely exhausted were widely (and erroneously) circulated. As a result, the IOC decided that women were too frail for long distance running, and women's Olympic running events were limited to 200 meters until the 1960s. [12]

Tennis disappeared from the program, only to reappear in 1968 as a demonstration sport.

Demonstration sports

These Games also included art competitions in five categories: architecture, painting, sculpture, literature, and poetry. However, the IOC no longer considers these to be official medal events, so the medals awarded are not included in today's Olympic medal counts. [13]

Venues

Fourteen sports venues were used for the 1928 Summer Olympics. The Swim Stadium was demolished in 1929 with it being a temporary venue. [4] :p.193 The Het Kasteel football stadium was renovated in 1998–99. The Monnikenhuize stadium was demolished in 1950. The Schermzaal sports hall has also been demolished. The Olympic Stadium was renovated between 1996 and 2000, and is still in use. The Old Stadion was demolished in 1929 and replaced with housing in the Amsterdam area.

VenueSportsCapacityRef.
Amersfoort Modern pentathlon (riding)Not listed [4] :p.277
Amsterdam Cycling (road)Not listed [4] :p.264
Buiten-IJ Sailing 2,263 [4] :pp.271–4
Hilversum Equestrian (dressage and cross-country), Modern pentathlon (running)4,763 [4] :pp.167, 236, 694
Krachtsportgebouw Boxing, Weightlifting, Wrestling 4,634 [4] :pp.200–1, 205
Monnikenhuize (Arnhem) Football 7,500 [14]
Old Stadion Field hockey, Football29,787 [4] :pp.173–80
Olympic Sports Park Swim Stadium Diving, Modern pentathlon (swimming), Swimming, Water polo 6,000 [4] :pp.205–9
Olympic Stadium Athletics, Cycling (track), Equestrian (jumping), Football, Gymnastics, Korfball 33,025 [4] :pp.173–205
Schermzaal Fencing, Modern pentathlon (fencing)559 [4] :pp.170, 202, 205
Sloterringvaart, Sloten Rowing 2,230 [4] :pp.172, 267–72
Sparta Stadion Het Kasteel (Rotterdam)Football11,026 [15] [16]
Zeeburg Shooting GroundsModern pentathlon (shooting)10,455 [4] :p.277
Zuiderzee Sailing2,263 [4] :pp.271–4
Location map Netherlands Greater Amsterdam.png
Red pog.svg
Red pog.svg
Red pog.svg
Red pog.svg
Red pog.svg
Red pog.svg
Map of the Amsterdam region with Olympic venues marked. The Krachtsportgebouw, Oude Stadion and Schermzaal were located next to the Olympic Stadium.
Netherlands relief location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Red pog.svg
Red pog.svg
Red pog.svg
Red pog.svg
Red pog.svg
Red pog.svg
Map of the Netherlands with Olympic venues marked
The Olympisch Stadion in 1928 Olympic Stadium Amsterdam 1928.jpg
The Olympisch Stadion in 1928
Prince Hendrik watching the football match Netherlands-Uruguay (0-2) Olympische Zomerspelen 1928 Opening ZKH Hendrik.jpg
Prince Hendrik watching the football match Netherlands–Uruguay (0–2)

Participating nations

Participants 1928 Summer Olympic games countries.png
Participants
Number of athletes 1928 Summer olympics team numbers.png
Number of athletes

A total of 46 nations were represented at the Amsterdam Games. Malta, Panama, and Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe) competed at the Olympic Games for the first time. Germany returned after having been banned in 1920 and 1924. [17]

Participating National Olympic Committees

Number of athletes by National Olympic Committees

Medal count

These are the top ten nations that won medals at the 1928 Games.

RankNationGoldSilverBronzeTotal
1US flag 48 stars.svg  United States 22181656
2Flag of Germany (3-2 aspect ratio).svg  Germany 1071431
3Flag of Finland.svg  Finland 88925
4Flag of Sweden.svg  Sweden 761225
5Flag of Italy (1861-1946).svg  Italy 75719
6Flag of Switzerland.svg  Switzerland 74415
7Flag of France.svg  France 610521
8Flag of the Netherlands.svg  Netherlands*69419
9Flag of Hungary (1915-1918, 1919-1946; 3-2 aspect ratio).svg  Hungary 4509
10Canadian Red Ensign (1921-1957).svg  Canada 44715
Totals (10 nations)817678235

Poster

Official poster 1928-summer-oympics-poster.jpg
Official poster

The official poster for the Games was designed by Jos Rovers, and 10,000 copies were made.

The poster displays a running man in a white shirt, with in the background the Olympic Stadium and the Olympic flag.

The IOC never succeeded in obtaining the copyright of the image. Therefore, out of practical considerations, the IOC used a different poster, with the German text Olympische Spiele, and an athlete partly covered in the Dutch national flag, holding a peace leaf in his hand. The poster was made for a German book about the Amsterdam Olympics. [18]

Last surviving competitor

The last living competitor of the 1928 Summer Olympics was Clara Marangoni, a member of the silver-medal winning Italian gymnastic team who had been 12 years old during the Olympics.

She died 18 January 2018, at the age of 102. She was also the oldest living Olympic medalist at the time of her death. [19]

See also

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This 1928 Summer Olympics medal table comprises two tables of countries ranked by the number of medals won during the 1928 Summer Olympics. The 1928 Summer Olympics were held in and around Amsterdam in the Netherlands from 17 May 1928 to 22 August 1928. A total of 2,883 athletes from 46 countries participated in the sports competition, in 14 sports and 109 events. Additionally, five art competitions were held with 13 events combined. 327 sports medals and 29 arts medals were awarded during the 1928 Summer Olympics. A total of 5,901 souvenir medals were given; 5,139 medals to contestants and officials, and 762 medals to persons that contributed to the Olympics by rendering their services. The souvenir medals are not displayed in the medal tables.

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Chile at the 1928 Summer Olympics

Chile competed at the 1928 Summer Olympics in Amsterdam, Netherlands. 38 competitors took part in 22 events in 6 sports.

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Netherlands at the Olympics country entered in olympic games

The Netherlands first sent athletes to the Olympic Games in 1900, and has participated in almost all Games since then with the exception of 1904 Summer Olympics in St. Louis. In 1956, the nation boycotted the Games in Melbourne as a protest against the Soviet invasion in Hungary just a few weeks before the beginning of the Games.

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References

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  3. "America Bids for Games: Olympics of 1928 May be Held in This Country" (NYT archive). The New York Times . 6 April 1923. p. 15.
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  12. Jules Boykoff (26 July 2016). "The forgotten history of female athletes who organized their own Olympics". www.bitchmedia.org. Retrieved 28 July 2016.
  13. Joseph Stromberg (24 July 2012). "When the Olympics Gave Out Medals for Art". Smithsonian . Retrieved 11 October 2018.
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  19. Turner, Amanda (23 January 2018). "Carla Marangoni, Oldest Olympic Medalist, Dies at 102". International Gymnast Magazine . Retrieved 15 February 2018.
Preceded by
Paris
Summer Olympic Games
Amsterdam

IX Olympiad (1928)
Succeeded by
Los Angeles