1929

Last updated

Millennium: 2nd millennium
Centuries:
Decades:
Years:
1929 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar 1929
MCMXXIX
Ab urbe condita 2682
Armenian calendar 1378
ԹՎ ՌՅՀԸ
Assyrian calendar 6679
Bahá'í calendar 85–86
Balinese saka calendar 1850–1851
Bengali calendar 1336
Berber calendar 2879
British Regnal year 19  Geo. 5   20  Geo. 5
Buddhist calendar 2473
Burmese calendar 1291
Byzantine calendar 7437–7438
Chinese calendar 戊辰(Earth  Dragon)
4625 or 4565
     to 
己巳年 (Earth  Snake)
4626 or 4566
Coptic calendar 1645–1646
Discordian calendar 3095
Ethiopian calendar 1921–1922
Hebrew calendar 5689–5690
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat 1985–1986
 - Shaka Samvat 1850–1851
 - Kali Yuga 5029–5030
Holocene calendar 11929
Igbo calendar 929–930
Iranian calendar 1307–1308
Islamic calendar 1347–1348
Japanese calendar Shōwa 4
(昭和4年)
Javanese calendar 1859–1860
Juche calendar 18
Julian calendar Gregorian minus 13 days
Korean calendar 4262
Minguo calendar ROC 18
民國18年
Nanakshahi calendar 461
Thai solar calendar 2471–2472
Tibetan calendar 阳土龙年
(male Earth-Dragon)
2055 or 1674 or 902
     to 
阴土蛇年
(female Earth-Snake)
2056 or 1675 or 903

1929 ( MCMXXIX ) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar , the 1929th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 929th year of the 2nd millennium , the 29th year of the 20th century , and the 10th and last year of the 1920s decade. During the year 1929, there was two solar eclipses and two penumbral lunar eclipses:

Roman numerals Numbers in the Roman numeral system

Roman numerals are a numeral system that originated in ancient Rome and remained the usual way of writing numbers throughout Europe well into the Late Middle Ages. Numbers in this system are represented by combinations of letters from the Latin alphabet. Modern usage employs seven symbols, each with a fixed integer value:

A common year is a calendar year with 365 days, as distinguished from a leap year, which has 366. More generally, a common year is one without intercalation. The Gregorian calendar,, employs both common years and leap years to keep the calendar aligned with the tropical year, which does not contain an exact number of days.

A common year starting on Tuesday is any non-leap year that begins on Tuesday, 1 January, and ends on Tuesday, 31 December. Its dominical letter hence is F. The current year, 2019, is a common year starting on Tuesday in the Gregorian calendar. The last such year was 2013 and the next such year will be 2030, or, likewise, 2014 and 2025 in the obsolete Julian calendar, see below for more. Any common year that starts on Sunday, Monday or Tuesday has two Friday the 13ths. This common year contains two Friday the 13ths in September and December. Leap years starting on Monday share this characteristic. From July of the year that precedes this year until September in this type of year is the longest period that occurs without a Friday the 13th. Leap years starting on Saturday share this characteristic, from August of the common year that precedes it to October in that type of year.

Contents

This year marked the end of a period known in American history as the Roaring Twenties after the Wall Street Crash of 1929 ushered in a worldwide Great Depression. In the Americas, an agreement was brokered to end the Cristero War, a Catholic counter-revolution in Mexico. The Judicial Committee of the Privy Council, a British high court, ruled that Canadian women are persons in the Edwards v. Canada (Attorney General) case. The 1st Academy Awards for film were held in Los Angeles, while the Museum of Modern Art opened in New York City. The Peruvian Air Force was created.

Roaring Twenties period in the 1920s in the United States and Western Europe of sustained economic prosperity with a distinctive cultural edge

The Roaring Twenties refers to the decade of the 1920s in Western society and Western culture. It was a period of economic prosperity with a distinctive cultural edge in the United States and Western Europe, particularly in major cities such as Berlin, Chicago, London, Los Angeles, New York City, Paris, and Sydney. In France, the decade was known as the "années folles", emphasizing the era's social, artistic and cultural dynamism. Jazz blossomed, the flapper redefined the modern look for British and American women, and Art Deco peaked. Not everything roared: in the wake of the hyper-emotional patriotism of World War I, President Warren G. Harding "brought back normalcy" to the politics of the United States. This period saw the large-scale development and use of automobiles, telephones, movies, radio, and electrical appliances being installed in the lives of thousands of Westerners. Aviation soon became a business. Nations saw rapid industrial and economic growth, accelerated consumer demand, and introduced significantly new changes in lifestyle and culture. The media focused on celebrities, especially sports heroes and movie stars, as cities rooted for their home teams and filled the new palatial cinemas and gigantic sports stadiums. In most major democratic states, women won the right to vote. The right to vote made a huge impact on society.

Wall Street Crash of 1929 stock market crash of 1929

The Wall Street Crash of 1929, also known as the Stock Market Crash of 1929 or the Great Crash, was a major stock market crash that occurred in late October 1929. It started on October 24 and continued until October 29, 1929, when share prices on the New York Stock Exchange collapsed.

Great Depression 20th-century worldwide economic depression

The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression that took place mostly during the 1930s, beginning in the United States. The timing of the Great Depression varied across nations; in most countries, it started in 1929 and lasted until the late 1930s. It was the longest, deepest, and most widespread depression of the 20th century. In the 21st century, the Great Depression is commonly used as an example of how intensely the world's economy can decline.

In Asia, the Republic of China and the Soviet Union engaged in a minor conflict after the Chinese seized full control of the Manchurian Chinese Eastern Railway, which ended with a resumption of joint administration. In the Soviet Union, General Secretary Joseph Stalin expelled Leon Trotsky and adopted a policy of collectivization. The Grand Trunk Express began service in India. Rioting between Muslims and Jews in Jerusalem over access to the Western Wall took place in the Middle East. The centenary of Western Australia was celebrated. The Afghan Civil War, which started in November in the preceding year, continued until October.

Republic of China (1912–1949) 1912–1949 country in Asia, when the Republic of China governed mainland China

The Republic of China (ROC) was a sovereign country that existed between 1912 and 1949 in Mainland China, which is now controlled by the People's Republic of China. It was established in January 1912 after the Xinhai Revolution, which overthrew the Qing dynasty, the last imperial dynasty of China. The Republic's first president, Sun Yat-sen, served only briefly before handing over the position to Yuan Shikai, the leader of the Beiyang Army. Sun's party, the Kuomintang (KMT), then led by Song Jiaoren, won the parliamentary election held in December 1912. However, Song was assassinated on Yuan's orders shortly after; and the Beiyang Army, led by Yuan, maintained full control of the Beiyang government. Between late 1915 and early 1916, Yuan Shikai was the self-proclaimed Emperor of China before abdicating due to popular unrest. After Yuan's death in 1916, the authority of the Beiyang government was further weakened by a brief restoration of the Qing dynasty. Cliques in the Beiyang Army claimed individual autonomy and clashed with each other during the ensuing Warlord Era.

Soviet Union 1922–1991 country in Europe and Asia

The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), was a Marxist-Leninist sovereign state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991. Nominally a union of multiple national Soviet republics, its government and economy were highly centralized. The country was a one-party state, governed by the Communist Party with Moscow as its capital in its largest republic, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. Other major urban centres were Leningrad, Kiev, Minsk, Tashkent, Alma-Ata, and Novosibirsk. It spanned over 10,000 kilometres (6,200 mi) east to west across 11 time zones, and over 7,200 kilometres (4,500 mi) north to south. It had five climate zones: tundra, taiga, steppes, desert and mountains.

Sino-Soviet conflict (1929) 1929 border conflict

The Sino-Soviet conflict of 1929 was an armed conflict between the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and Chinese warlord Zhang Xueliang of the Republic of China over the Chinese Eastern Railway.

The Kellogg–Briand Pact, a treaty renouncing war as an instrument of national policy, went into effect. In Europe, the Holy See and the Kingdom of Italy signed the Lateran Treaty. The Idionymon law was passed in Greece to outlaw political dissent. Spain hosted the Ibero-American Exposition which featured pavilions from Latin American countries. The German airship LZ 127 Graf Zeppelin flew around the world in 21 days.

Kellogg–Briand Pact 1928 international agreement

The Kellogg–Briand Pact is a 1928 international agreement in which signatory states promised not to use war to resolve "disputes or conflicts of whatever nature or of whatever origin they may be, which may arise among them". Parties failing to abide by this promise "should be denied of the benefits furnished by [the] treaty". It was signed by Germany, France, and the United States on 27 August 1928, and by most other states soon after. Sponsored by France and the U.S., the Pact renounced the use of war and calls for the peaceful settlement of disputes. Similar provisions were incorporated into the Charter of the United Nations and other treaties and it became a stepping-stone to a more activist American policy. It is named after its authors, United States Secretary of State Frank B. Kellogg and French foreign minister Aristide Briand. The pact was concluded outside the League of Nations and remains in effect.

Lateran Treaty Treaty between the Holy See and Italy establishing Vatican City State

The Lateran Treaty was one of the Lateran Treaty of 1929 or Lateran Accords, agreements made in 1929 between the Kingdom of Italy and the Holy See, settling the "Roman Question". They are named after the Lateran Palace, where they were signed on 11 February 1929. The Italian parliament ratified them on 7 June 1929. It recognized Vatican City as an independent state, with the Italian government, at the time led by Benito Mussolini as prime minister, agreeing to give the Roman Catholic Church financial compensation for the loss of the Papal States. In 1947, the Lateran Treaty was recognized in the Constitution of Italy as regulating the relations between the state and the Catholic Church.

The term idionymon was defined by a Greek law, voted in 1929, after being introduced by the Eleftherios Venizelos government. It was a law "concerning safety measures for the social establishment and protection of the freedom". It was aiming to penalize the "insurrectional" ideas and in particular to fire prosecution against communists, anarchists and enforce repression against the unionist mobilizations.

Summary

Middle East, Asia, and Pacific Isles

On August 1 of this year the 1929 Palestine riots broke out between Palestinians and Jews over control of the Western Wall. The rioting, initiated in part when British police tore down a screen the Jews had constructed in front of the Wall, [1] continued until the end of the month. In total, 133 Jews and 116 Palestinians were killed. [2] [3] Two of the more famous incidents occurring during these riots were the August 23–24 1929 Hebron massacre, in which almost 70 Jews were killed by Palestinians and the remaining Jews are forced to stay at Hebron. The Palestinians had been told that Jews were killing Palestinians. Jews would not return to Hebron until after the Six-Day War in 1967. [4] The other major clash was the 1929 Safed massacre, in which 18–20 Jews were killed by Palestinians in Safed in similar fashion. [5] Elsewhere in the Middle East, Iraq took a big step toward gaining independence from the British. The Iraqi government had, since the end of World War I and the beginning of the British Mandate in the Middle East, consistently resisted British hegemony. In September, Great Britain announced it would support Iraq's inclusion in the League of Nations, signaling the beginning of the end of their direct control of the region. [6]

August 1 is the 213th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. 152 days remain until the end of the year.

1929 Palestine riots A series of violent riots and terrorist acts by Arabs against the Jewish community in Mandatory Palestine

The 1929 Arab riots in Palestine, or the Buraq Uprising, also known as the 1929 Massacres, refers to a series of demonstrations and riots in late August 1929 when a long-running dispute between Muslims and Jews over access to the Western Wall in Jerusalem escalated into violence.

Palestinians Ethnic group

The Palestinian people, also referred to as Palestinians or Palestinian Arabs, are an ethnonational group comprising the modern descendants of the peoples who have lived in Palestine over the centuries, including Jews and Samaritans, and who today are largely culturally and linguistically Arab. Despite various wars and exoduses, roughly one half of the world's Palestinian population continues to reside in historic Palestine, the area encompassing the West Bank, the Gaza Strip and Israel. In this combined area, as of 2005, Palestinians constituted 49% of all inhabitants, encompassing the entire population of the Gaza Strip (1.865 million), the majority of the population of the West Bank and 20.95% of the population of Israel proper as Arab citizens of Israel. Many are Palestinian refugees or internally displaced Palestinians, including more than a million in the Gaza Strip, about 750,000 in the West Bank and about 250,000 in Israel proper. Of the Palestinian population who live abroad, known as the Palestinian diaspora, more than half are stateless, lacking citizenship in any country. Between 2.1 and 3.24 million of the diaspora population live in neighboring Jordan, over 1 million live between Syria and Lebanon and about 750,000 live in Saudi Arabia, with Chile's half a million representing the largest concentration outside the Middle East.

Early in 1929, the Afghan Civil War saw the Afghan leader King Amanullah lose power to the Saqqawists under Habibullāh Kalakāni. Kalakani's rule, however, only lasted nine months. Nadir Shah replaced him in October, starting a line of monarchs which would last 40 years. [7] In India, a general strike in Bombay continued throughout the year despite efforts by the British. [8] On December 29, the All India Congress in Lahore declared Indian independence from Britain, something it had threatened to do if Britain did not grant India dominion status. [9] China and Russia engaged in a minor conflict after China seized full control of the Manchurian Chinese Eastern Railway. Russia counterattacked and took the cities of Hailar and Manchouli after issuing an ultimatum demanding joint control of the railway to be reinstated. The Chinese agreed to the terms on November 26. The Japanese would later see this defeat as a sign of Chinese weakness, leading to their taking control of Manchuria. [10] The Far East began to experience economic problems late in the year as the effects of the Great Depression began to spread. Southeast Asia was especially hard hit as its exports (spice, rubber, and other commodities) were more sensitive to economic problems. [11] In the Pacific, on December 28 – "Black Saturday" in Samoa – New Zealand colonial police killed 11 unarmed demonstrators, an event which led the Mau movement to demand independence for Samoa. [12]

Afghan Civil War (1928–1929)

The Afghan Civil War was fought from 14 November 1928 to 13 October 1929. Rebelling, and subsequently governing Saqqawist forces under Habibullāh Kalakāni fought against various opposing tribes and rival monarchs in the Kingdom of Afghanistan, among whom Mohammed Nādir Khān eventually achieved a preponderant role. Despite early successes, such as the capture of Kabul and defeat of Amanullah Khan on 17 January 1929 or the capture of Kandahar on 3 June, the Saqqawists were eventually deposed by anti-Saqqawist forces led by Nadir on 13 October 1929, leading to Nadir's ascension as King of Afghanistan, who ruled until his assassination on 3 November 1933.

Saqqawists 1920s and 1930s armed group in Afghanistan

The Saqqawists were an armed group in the Kingdom of Afghanistan who were active from the 1924 to 1931. They were led by Habibullāh Kalakāni, and in January 1929 they managed to take control of the capital of Afghanistan, Kabul. Following military reversals in the Afghan Civil War (1928–1929), they were forced out of the capital in October 1929. Saqqawist activity ended in 1931.

Habibullāh Kalakāni King of Afghanistan (1929)

King Habibullah Kalakani, , was King of Afghanistan from 17 January 1929 to 13 October 1929. During the Afghan Civil War (1928–1929), he contested the Afghan throne with Amanullah Khan. After defeating Amanullah, he was eventually defeated by Mohammed Nadir Shah. Khalilullah Khalili, a Kohistani poet laureate, depicts King Habibullah Kalakani as a best king of Afghanistan, "and best manager of govermental imports and exports." Kalakani was nicknamed Bacha-e Saqaw and bandit king.

Europe

Western

In 1929, the Fascist Party in Italy tightened its control. National education policy took a major step towards being completely taken over by the agenda of indoctrination. [13] In that year, the Fascist government took control of the authorization of all textbooks, all secondary school teachers were required to take an oath of loyalty to Fascism, and children began to be taught that they owed the same loyalty to Fascism as they did to God. [13]

On February 11, Mussolini signed the Lateran Treaty, making Vatican City a sovereign state. [14] On July 25, Pope Pius XI emerged from the Vatican and entered St. Peter's Square in a huge procession witnessed by about 250,000 persons, thus ending nearly 60 years of papal self-imprisonment within the Vatican. [15] Italy used the diplomatic prestige associated with this successful agreement to adopt a more aggressive foreign policy. [16] Germany experienced a major turning point in this year due to the economic crash. The country had experienced prosperity under the government of the Weimar Republic until foreign investors withdrew their German interests. This began the crumbling of the Republican government in favor of Nazism. [17] In 1929, the number of unemployed reached three million. [18] On July 27, the Geneva Convention, held in Switzerland, addressed the treatment of prisoners of war in response to problems encountered during World War I. [19]

On May 31, the British general election returned a hung parliament yet again, with the Liberals in position to determine who would have power. These elections were known as the "Flapper" elections due to the fact that it was the first British election in which women under 30 could vote. [20] A week after the vote, on June 7 the Conservatives conceded power rather than ally with the Liberals. Ramsay MacDonald founded a new Labour government the next day. [21]

1929 is regarded as a turning point by French historians, who point out that it was last year in which prosperity was felt before the effects of the Great Depression. The Third Republic had been in power since before World War I. On July 24, French prime minister Raymond Poincaré resigned for medical reasons; he was succeeded by Aristide Briand. Briand adopted a foreign policy of both peace and defensive fortification. The Kellogg–Briand Pact, renouncing war as an instrument of foreign policy, went into effect in this year (it was first signed in Paris in 1928 by most leading world powers). [22] The French began work on the Maginot Line in this year, as a defense against a possible German attack, and on September 5 Briand presented a plan for the United States of Europe. [23] On October 22, Briand was replaced as Prime Minister by André Tardieu. [24] Primo de Rivera's dictatorship in Spain experienced growing dissatisfaction among students and academics, as well as businessmen who blamed the government for recent economic woes. Many called for a fascist regime, like that in Italy. [25]

Eastern

In May, Joseph Stalin consolidated his power in the Soviet Union by sending Leon Trotsky into exile. The only country that would grant Trotsky asylum was Turkey, in return for his help during Turkey's civil war. He and his family left the USSR aboard ship on February 12. [26] Stalin turned on his former political ally, Nikolai Bukharin, who was the last real threat to his power. By the end of the year Bukharin had been defeated. [ clarification needed ] Once Stalin was in power, he turned his former support for Lenin's New Economic Policy into opposition. [27] In November, Stalin declared that it "The Year of the Great Breakthrough" and stated that the country would focus on industrial programs as well as on collectivizing the grain supply. He hoped to surpass the West not only in agriculture, but in industry. [28] Millions of Soviet farmers were removed from their private farms, their property was collected, and they were moved to state-owned farms. Stalin emphasized in 1929 a campaign demonizing kulaks as a plague on society. Kulak property was taken and they were deported by cattle train to areas of frozen tundra. [29]

The timber market in Finland began to decline in 1929 due to the Great Depression, as well as the Soviet Union's entrance into the market. Financial and political problems culminated in the birth of the fascist Lapua Movement on November 23 in a demonstration in Lapua. The movement's stated aim was Finnish democracy and anti-communism. [30] The Finnish legislature received heavy pressure to remove basic rights from Communist groups. [31] Politics in Lithuania was heated, as President Voldemaras was unpopular in some quarters, and survived an assassination attempt in Kaunas. [32] Later, while attending a meeting of the League of Nations, he was ousted in a coup by President Smetona, who made himself dictator. Upon Voldemaras' removal from office, Geležinis Vilkas went underground and received aid and encouragement in its activities from Germany. [32] Yugoslavia was renamed the "Kingdom of Yugoslavia" as King Alexander sought to unite the Balkans under his rule. [33] The state's new Monarchy replaced the old parliament, which had been dominated by Serbs. [34]

North America

In October 1929, the British Judicial Committee of the Privy Council overturned a ruling by the Supreme Court of Canada that women could not be members of the legislature. This case, which came to be known as the Persons Case, had important ramifications not just for the rights of women but because in overturning the case, the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council engendered a radical change in the Canadian judicial approach to the Canadian constitution, an approach that has come to be known as the "living tree doctrine". The five women who initiated the case are known in Canada as the Famous Five. [35] In November, the 1929 Grand Banks earthquake occurred off the south coast of Newfoundland in the Atlantic Ocean. It registered as a Richter magnitude 7.2 submarine earthquake centered on Grand Banks, broke 12 submarine transatlantic telegraph cables and triggered a tsunami that destroyed many south coast communities in the Burin Peninsula area, killing 28 (as of 1997, Canada's most lethal earthquake). [36]

The Mexican Cristero War continued in 1929 as clerical forces attempted an assassination of the provisional president in a train bombing in February. The attempt failed. Plutarco Calles, at the center of power for the anti-clerics, continued to gather power in Mexico City. His government was considered an enemy to more conservative Mexicans who held to traditional forms of government and more religious control. Calles founded the National Revolutionary Party early in the year to increase his power; a party which was, ironically, seen by foreigners as fascist and which was in opposition to the Mexican Right. A special election was held in this year, which Jose Vasconselos lost to Ortiz Rubio. By this time, the war had ended. [37] The last group of rebels was defeated on June 4, and in the same month US Ambassador Dwight Morrow initiated talks between parties. On June 21 an agreement was brokered ending the Cristero War. On June 27, church bells rang and mass was held publicly for the first time in three years. The agreement heavily favored the government, as priests were required to register with the government and religion was banned from schools. [38]

The major event of the year for the United States was the stock market crash on Wall Street, which was to have international effects. On September 3, the Dow Jones Industrial Average (DJIA) peaked at 381.17, a height it would not reach again until November 1954. Then, from October 24October 29, stock prices suffered three multi-digit percentage drops, wiping out more than $30 billion from the New York Stock Exchange (10 times greater than the annual budget of the federal government). [39] On December 3 U.S. President Herbert Hoover announced to the U.S. Congress that the worst effects of the recent stock market crash were behind the nation, and that the American people had regained faith in the economy. [40]

Literature, arts, and entertainment

Literature of the time reflected the memories many harbored of the horrors of World War I. A major seller was All Quiet on the Western Front by Erich Maria Remarque. Remarque was a German who had fought in the war at age eighteen and been wounded in the Third Battle of Ypres. He stated that he intended the book to tell the story "of a generation of men who, even though they may have escaped its shells, were destroyed by the war." Another 1929 book reflecting on World War I was Ernest Hemingway's A Farewell to Arms , as well as Good-Bye to All That by Robert Graves. [41] In lighter media, a few stars of the comic industry made their debut, including Tintin , a comic book character created by Hergé, who would appear in over 200 million comic books in 60 languages. Popeye , another comic strip character created by Elzie Crisler Segar, also appeared in this year.

Within the film industry, on May 16 the 1st Academy Awards were presented at the Hollywood Roosevelt Hotel, with Wings winning Best Picture. Also, Hallelujah! became the first Hollywood film to contain an entirely black cast, and Atlantic , a film about the Titanic , is an early sound-on-film movie. The arts were in the midst of the Modernist movement, as Pablo Picasso painted two cubist works, Woman in a Garden and Nude in an Armchair, during this year. The surrealist painters Salvador Dalí and René Magritte completed several works, including The First Days of Spring and The Treachery of Images . On November 7 in New York City, the Museum of Modern Art opened to the public. The latest in modern architecture was also represented by the Barcelona Pavilion in Spain, and the Royal York Hotel in Toronto, at its completion the tallest building in the British Empire.

Science and technology

The year saw several advances in technology and exploration. On June 27 the first public demonstration of color TV was held by H. E. Ives and his colleagues at Bell Telephone Laboratories in New York. The first images were a bouquet of roses and an American flag. A mechanical system was used to transmit 50-line color television images between New York and Washington. The BBC broadcast a television transmission for the first time. By November, Vladimir Zworykin had taken out the first patent for color television. On November 29, Bernt Balchen, U.S. Admiral Richard Byrd, Captain Ashley McKinley, and Harold June, became the first to fly over the South Pole. Within the year, Britain, Australia and New Zealand began a joint Antarctic Research Expedition, and the German airship Graf Zeppelin began a round-the-world flight (ended August 29). This year Ernst Schwarz describes Bonobo (Pan paniscus) as a different species from common chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes), both closely related phylogenetically to human beings.

Events

January

February

February 26: Grand Teton National Park. Park Dedication in 1929 in Grand Teton NP-NPS.jpg
February 26: Grand Teton National Park.

March

March 4: Herbert Hoover is 31st President of the United States. President Hoover portrait.jpg
March 4: Herbert Hoover is 31st President of the United States.

April

May

June

July

August

September

October

October 24-29: The Wall Street Crash of 1929, the beginning of the Great Depression. Crowd outside nyse.jpg
October 2429: The Wall Street Crash of 1929, the beginning of the Great Depression.

November

December

Births

Births
January  · February  · March  · April  · May  · June  · July  · August  · September  · October  · November  · December

January

Haruo Nakajima Haruo Nakajima 2013 (cropped).jpg
Haruo Nakajima
Martin Luther King Jr. Martin Luther King, Jr..jpg
Martin Luther King Jr.
Patriarch Filaret Filaret Denysenko July 2014.jpg
Patriarch Filaret
Rudolf Mossbauer Mossbauer.jpg
Rudolf Mössbauer
Jean Simmons Studio publicity Jean Simmons.jpg
Jean Simmons

February

Vic Morrow Vic Morrow in Blackboard Jungle Trailer.jpg
Vic Morrow
Alejandro Jodorowsky Utopiales 2011 Alejandro Jodorowsky 16.jpg
Alejandro Jodorowsky
James Hong James Hong 2014.jpg
James Hong
Alexy II Patriarch Alexey II of Russia.jpg
Alexy II
Frank Gehry Frank O. Gehry - Parc des Ateliers (cropped).jpg
Frank Gehry

March

Cecil Taylor Taylor Cecil moersfestival 120508.jpg
Cecil Taylor
Christa Wolf Bundesarchiv Bild 183-B0509-0010-006, Christa Wolf.jpg
Christa Wolf
Lennart Meri Lennart Meri 1998.jpg
Lennart Meri

April

Jane Powell Jane Powell 1952.jpg
Jane Powell
Andre Previn Andre Previn.jpg
André Previn
Jacques Brel Jacques Brel 1963.jpg
Jacques Brel
Max von Sydow Max von Sydow Cannes 2016.jpg
Max von Sydow

May

Audrey Hepburn Audrey Hepburn 1956.jpg
Audrey Hepburn
Sam Nujoma Sam Nujoma.jpg
Sam Nujoma
Betty Carter Betty Carter in Pori July 1978.jpg
Betty Carter
Peter Higgs Nobel Prize 24 2013.jpg
Peter Higgs

June

Karolos Papoulias Karolos Papoulias.jpg
Karolos Papoulias
John Turner John Turner by Gage Skidmore.jpg
John Turner
Anne Frank AnneFrankSchoolPhoto.jpg
Anne Frank
Sabah Al-Ahmad Al-Jaber Al-Sabah Sheikh Sabah IV (cropped).jpg
Sabah Al-Ahmad Al-Jaber Al-Sabah

July

Gerald Edelman Professor Gerald M. Edelman (cropped).jpg
Gerald Edelman
Imelda Marcos Imelda Marcos.jpg
Imelda Marcos
Hassan II of Morocco Hassan II of Morocco, 1983.jpg
Hassan II of Morocco
Jose Vicente Rangel Jose Vicente Rangel.png
José Vicente Rangel
Jean Baudrillard WikipediaBaudrillard20040612-cropped.png
Jean Baudrillard
Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis JBK In Ft Worth (11-22-63).jpg
Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis

August

Hafizullah Amin Hafizullah Amin.jpg
Hafizullah Amin
Francis Gary Powers RIAN archive 35172 Powers Wears Special Pressure Suit.jpg
Francis Gary Powers
Yasser Arafat YasserArafat.jpg
Yasser Arafat

September

Bob Newhart Comedian Bob Newhart.jpg
Bob Newhart
Arnold Palmer Arnold Palmer (cropped).jpg
Arnold Palmer
Murray Gell-Mann MurrayGellMannJI1.jpg
Murray Gell-Mann
Anne Meara Anne Meara 1975.JPG
Anne Meara
Lata Mangeshkar Lata Mangeshkar at an event.jpg
Lata Mangeshkar

October

Fernanda Montenegro Atriz Fernanda Montenegro.jpg
Fernanda Montenegro
Violeta Chamorro Violeta Chamorro 1993.jpg
Violeta Chamorro
Ursula K. Le Guin UrsulaLeGuin.01.jpg
Ursula K. Le Guin
Yevgeny Primakov E Primakov 03.jpg
Yevgeny Primakov
Bud Spencer Bud Spencer 2015.jpg
Bud Spencer

November

Grace Kelly Grace Kelly MGM photo.jpg
Grace Kelly
Ed Asner Ed Asner - 1985.jpg
Ed Asner

December

Bob Hawke Bob Hawke 1987 portrait crop.jpg
Bob Hawke
Christopher Plummer Christopher Plummer 2014.jpg
Christopher Plummer
Fernando Sebastian Aguilar Card. Sebastian (34385660763).jpg
Fernando Sebastián Aguilar

Deaths

January

Wyatt Earp Wyatt Earp portrait.png
Wyatt Earp
La_Goulue La Goulue.jpg
La_Goulue

February

Jose Gutierrez Guerra Jose Gutierrez Guerra.jpg
Jose Gutierrez Guerra
Thomas Burke Thomas Burke 1918.jpg
Thomas Burke

March

Ferdinand Foch Ferdinand Foch by Melcy, 1921.png
Ferdinand Foch

April

Karl Benz Carl-Benz coloriert.jpg
Karl Benz

May

June

July

Ali Ahmad Khan Ali Ahmad Khan Luynab.png
Ali Ahmad Khan

August

Emile Berliner Emile Berliner.jpg
Emile Berliner
Millicent Fawcett Millicent Fawcett.jpg
Millicent Fawcett
Thorstein Veblen Veblen3a.jpg
Thorstein Veblen

September

Tanaka Giichi Tanaka Giichi.jpg
Tanaka Giichi

October

Gustav Stresemann Bundesarchiv Bild 146-1989-040-27, Gustav Stresemann.jpg
Gustav Stresemann
Venerable Varghese Payyappilly Palakkappilly Payyappilly Varghese Kathanar.jpg
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Related Research Articles

1908 Year

1908 (MCMVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar and a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar, the 1908th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 908th year of the 2nd millennium, the 8th year of the 20th century, and the 9th year of the 1900s decade. As of the start of 1908, the Gregorian calendar was 13 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, the 1951st year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 951st year of the 2nd millennium, the 51st year of the 20th century, and the 2nd year of the 1950s decade.

1931 (MCMXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, the 1931st year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 931st year of the 2nd millennium, the 31st year of the 20th century, and the 2nd year of the 1930s decade.

1939 Year

1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar, the 1939th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 939th year of the 2nd millennium, the 39th year of the 20th century, and the 10th and last year of the 1930s decade. This year also marks the start of the Second World War, the largest and deadliest conflict in human history.

1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and a leap year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar, the 1912th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 912th year of the 2nd millennium, the 12th year of the 20th century, and the 3rd year of the 1910s decade. As of the start of 1912, the Gregorian calendar was 13 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar, the 1943rd year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 943rd year of the 2nd millennium, the 43rd year of the 20th century, and the 4th year of the 1940s decade.

1907 (MCMVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar, the 1907th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 907th year of the 2nd millennium, the 7th year of the 20th century, and the 8th year of the 1900s decade. As of the start of 1907, the Gregorian calendar was 13 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1906 (MCMVI) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar, the 1906th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 906th year of the 2nd millennium, the 6th year of the 20th century, and the 7th year of the 1900s decade. As of the start of 1906, the Gregorian calendar was 13 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1902 (MCMII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar, the 1902nd year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 902nd year of the 2nd millennium, the 2nd year of the 20th century, and the 3rd year of the 1900s decade. As of the start of 1902, the Gregorian calendar was 13 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 1936th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 936th year of the 2nd millennium, the 36th year of the 20th century, and the 7th year of the 1930s decade.

1910 (MCMX) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar, the 1910th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 910th year of the 2nd millennium, the 10th year of the 20th century, and the 1st year of the 1910s decade. As of the start of 1910, the Gregorian calendar was 13 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, the 1940th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 940th year of the 2nd millennium, the 40th year of the 20th century, and the 1st year of the 1940s decade.

1881 (MDCCCLXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar, the 1881st year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 881st year of the 2nd millennium, the 81st year of the 19th century, and the 2nd year of the 1880s decade. As of the start of 1881, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar, the 1921st year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 921st year of the 2nd millennium, the 21st year of the 20th century, and the 2nd year of the 1920s decade. As of the start of 1921, the Gregorian calendar was 13 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1932 (MCMXXXII) was a leap year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar, the 1932nd year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 932nd year of the 2nd millennium, the 32nd year of the 20th century, and the 3rd year of the 1930s decade.

1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar, the 1933rd year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 933rd year of the 2nd millennium, the 33rd year of the 20th century, and the 4th year of the 1930s decade.

1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, the 1925th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 925th year of the 2nd millennium, the 25th year of the 20th century, and the 6th year of the 1920s decade.

1930 (MCMXXX) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 1930th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 930th year of the 2nd millennium, the 30th year of the 20th century, and the 1st year of the 1930s decade.

1934 (MCMXXXIV) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, the 1934th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 934th year of the 2nd millennium, the 34th year of the 20th century, and the 5th year of the 1930s decade.

2014 (MMXIV) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2014th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 14th year of the 3rd millennium, the 14th year of the 21st century, and the 5th year of the 2010s decade.

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