All 80 seats in the New Zealand House of Representatives
41 seats were needed for a majority
The 1931 New Zealand general election was a nationwide vote to determine the shape of the New Zealand Parliament's 24th term. It resulted in the newly formed coalition between the United Party and the Reform Party remaining in office as the United-Reform coalition Government, although the opposition Labour Party made some minor gains despite tallying more votes than any other single party.
The New Zealand Parliament is the legislature of New Zealand, consisting of the Queen of New Zealand (Queen-in-Parliament) and the New Zealand House of Representatives. The Queen is usually represented by a governor-general. Before 1951, there was an upper chamber, the New Zealand Legislative Council. The Parliament was established in 1854 and is one of the oldest continuously functioning legislatures in the world.
The 24th New Zealand Parliament was a term of the New Zealand Parliament. It opened on 23 February 1932, following the 1931 election. It was dissolved on 1 November 1935 in preparation for the 1935 election. The 24th Parliament was extended by one year because the 1935 election was held later than anticipated due to the ongoing depression, similarly the 1919, and the 1943 elections were held two years late, having been postponed during World War I and World War II respectively.
The United Party of New Zealand, a party formed out of the remnants of the Liberal Party, formed a government between 1928 and 1935, and in 1936 merged with the Reform Party to establish the National Party.
In the 1928 election, the Reform Party won 28 seats to the United Party's 27 seats. Shortly after the election the Reform Party lost a vote of no-confidence and the United Party managed to form a government, the United Government, with the support of the Labour Party, with governing Reform Party going into the opposition. In 1931, however, the agreement between United and Labour collapsed due to differing opinions on how to counter the Great Depression. The Reform Party, fearing that the Depression would give Labour a substantial boost, reluctantly agreed to form a coalition with United to avert elections. By forming a coalition, United and Reform were able to blunt Labour's advantage, ending the possibility of the anti-Labour vote being split.
The New Zealand general election of 1928 was held on 13 and 14 November in the Māori and European electorates, respectively, to elect 80 MPs to the 23rd session of the New Zealand Parliament.
The Reform Party, formally the New Zealand Political Reform League, was New Zealand's second major political party, having been founded as a conservative response to the original Liberal Party. It was in government between 1912 and 1928, and later formed a coalition with the United Party, and then merged with United to form the modern National Party.
The United Government of New Zealand was the government of New Zealand from 1928 to 1931, defeating the long-lived Reform Government. The United Party had been formed in 1927 from the remnants of the Liberal Party under Sir Joseph Ward, who had made a political comeback. They did not manage an outright win, but formed a government with Labour Party support. However, Ward was in poor health and was eventually succeeded by George Forbes. The new cabinet was notable for its inexperience, with four ministers not having sat in the House of Representatives previously.
The date for the main 1931 elections was 2 December, a Wednesday. Elections to the four Māori electorates were held the day before. 874,787 people were registered to vote, and there was a turnout of 83.3%. This turnout was below average for the time period.
In New Zealand politics, Māori electorates, colloquially known as the Māori seats, are a special category of electorate that gives reserved positions to representatives of Māori in the New Zealand Parliament. Every area in New Zealand is covered by both a general and a Māori electorate; there are currently seven Māori electorates. Since 1967 candidates in Māori electorates have not needed to be Māori themselves, but to register as a voter in the Māori electorates people need to declare they are of Māori descent.
Voter turnout is the percentage of eligible voters who cast a ballot in an election. Eligibility varies by country, and the voting-eligible population should not be confused with the total adult population. Age and citizenship status are often among the criteria used to determine eligibility, but some countries further restrict eligibility based on sex, race, or religion.
The number of seats was 80, a number which had been fixed since 1902.However, in four electorates (Bay of Plenty, Oroua, Pahiatua, Waitomo) there was only one candidate.
Bay of Plenty is a New Zealand electoral division returning one member to the New Zealand House of Representatives. The current representative is Todd Muller of the National Party, first elected at the 2014 election. He replaced Tony Ryall, also of the National Party, who retired after representing the seat since 1996.
Oroua was a parliamentary electorate in the Manawatu-Wanganui region of New Zealand from 1902 to 1938.
Pahiatua is a former New Zealand parliamentary electorate in the Wairarapa region. It existed from 1896 to 1996, and was represented by nine Members of Parliament, including Prime Minister Keith Holyoake for 34 years.
The 1931 election saw the recently formed governing coalition retain office as the United-Reform Coalition, winning fifty-one seats, including four independents. This was a drop of four seats from what the two parties had won in the previous elections, but was still considerably better than many had expected given the economic situation. The Labour Party won twenty-four seats, a gain of five. In the popular vote (including pro-coalition independents), the coalition won 54.0% of the vote, down from the 66.1% that the two parties had won previously. Labour won 34.3%. The only other party to gain a place in Parliament was the Country Party, which won a single seat. Four other independents were elected. Four candidates were elected unopposed: Walter Broadfoot in Waitomo, John Cobbe in Oroua, Alfred Ransom in Pahiatua, and Kenneth Williams in Bay of Plenty.
An independent or nonpartisan politician is an individual politician not affiliated with any political party. There are numerous reasons why someone may stand for office as an independent.
The New Zealand Labour Party, or simply Labour, is a centre-left political party in New Zealand. The party's platform programme describes its founding principle as democratic socialism, while observers describe Labour as social-democratic and pragmatic in practice. It is a participant of the international Progressive Alliance.
The Country Party of New Zealand was a political party which appealed to rural voters. It was represented in Parliament from 1928 to 1938. Its policies were a mixture of rural advocacy and social credit theory.
|Independents (in support of Coalition)||75,069||10.53||4||+3|
|Country Party||Harold Rushworth||16,710||2.34||1||±0|
The following table shows the detailed results: Key
Reform Labour United Country Party Independent Liberal Ratana Independent
Independent Liberal is a description allowed in politics to denote party affiliation. It is used to designate a politician as a liberal, yet independent of the official Liberal Party of a country. Those parties were the Liberal Party of Canada, or the Liberal Party of the United Kingdom, or the New Zealand Liberal Party.
|Auckland Central||Bill Parry||3,793||Harold Penfound Congdon|
|Auckland East||James Donald||Frederick Schramm||2,256||Harold Percy Burton|
|Auckland Suburbs||Rex Mason||1,223||Richard Herbert Marryatt|
|Auckland West||Michael Joseph Savage||4,517||Hugh Ross Mackenzie|
|Avon||Dan Sullivan||3,039||Harben Robert Young|
|Awarua||Philip De La Perrelle||2,148||Norman McIntyre|
|Bay of Islands||Harold Rushworth||1,209||Allen Bell|
|Bay of Plenty||Kenneth Williams||Uncontested|
|Buller||Harry Holland||3,631||John Menzies|
|Central Otago||William Bodkin||2,516||Charles Todd|
|Chalmers||Alfred Ansell||172||Norman Hartley Campbell|
|Christchurch East||Tim Armstrong||3,206||George Frederick Allen|
|Christchurch North||Henry Holland||2,077||Elizabeth McCombs|
|Christchurch South||Ted Howard||2,798||Charles Samuel "Charlie" McCully|
|Clutha||Fred Waite||Peter McSkimming||1,530||Fred Waite|
|Dunedin Central||Charles Statham||262||Peter Neilson|
|Dunedin North||James Wright Munro||524||John McCrae|
|Dunedin South||William Burgoyne Taverner||Fred Jones||3,644||William Burgoyne Taverner|
|Dunedin West||William Downie Stewart Jr.||924||John Gilchrist|
|Eden||Arthur Stallworthy||1,270||Bill Anderton|
|Egmont||Charles Wilkinson||1,308||F. Gawith|
|Franklin||Jack Massey||2,457||Harry Oswald Mellsop|
|Gisborne||Douglas Lysnar||David William Coleman||317||Douglas Lysnar|
|Grey Lynn||John Fletcher||John A. Lee||3,242||John Fletcher|
|Hamilton||Alexander Young||3,072||Hubert Beebe|
|Hauraki||Walter William Massey||2,750||Charles Robert Petrie|
|Hawke's Bay||Hugh Campbell||2,259||Edward Cullen|
|Hurunui||George Forbes||3,953||R. J. Logan|
|Hutt||Walter Nash||2,823||James Kerr|
|Invercargill||Vincent Ward||James Hargest||508||William McChesney|
|Kaiapoi||Richard Hawke||1,414||John Archer|
|Kaipara||Gordon Coates||2,084||Albert Edward Robinson|
|Lyttelton||James McCombs||32||Frederick Willie Freeman|
|Manawatu||Joseph Linklater||2,246||Clifford Hunter|
|Manukau||Bill Jordan||3,394||Stanley Rickards|
|Marsden||Alfred Murdoch||2,942||James Gillespie Barclay|
|Masterton||George Sykes||1,951||Peter Butler|
|Mataura||David McDougall||943||Thomas Golden|
|Mid-Canterbury||David Jones||Jeremiah Connolly||136||David Jones|
|Motueka||George Black||517||Keith Holyoake|
|Napier||Bill Barnard||1,456||John Butler|
|Nelson||Harry Atmore||100||Herbert Everett|
|New Plymouth||Sydney George Smith||3,472||William Sheat|
|Oamaru||John Andrew MacPherson||1,046||John Kirkness|
|Otaki||William Hughes Field||1,321||Jim Thorn|
|Palmerston||Jimmy Nash||1,245||Joe Hodgens|
|Parnell||Bill Endean||4,821||John William Yarnall|
|Patea||Harold Dickie||3,495||W. G. Simpson|
|Raglan||Lee Martin||Stewart Reid||806||Lee Martin|
|Rangitikei||James Thomas Hogan||Alexander Stuart||15||James Thomas Hogan|
|Riccarton||Herbert Kyle||589||Archibald Albany McLachlan|
|Roskill||George Munns||Arthur Shapton Richards||171||William John Holdsworth|
|Rotorua||Cecil Clinkard||57||Alexander Moncur|
|Stratford||William Polson||1,518||J W McMillan|
|Tauranga||Charles MacMillan||658||Bill Sullivan|
|Temuka||Thomas Burnett||1,237||Thomas Herbert Langford|
|Thames||Albert Samuel||464||John Sommerville Montgomerie|
|Timaru||Clyde Carr||820||Herbert N. Armstrong|
|Waikato||Frederick Lye||981||Solomon Netheim Ziman|
|Waimarino||Frank Langstone||591||William Henry Wackrow|
|Waipawa||Albert Jull||386||John Davies Ormond, Jr.|
|Wairarapa||Thomas McDonald||Alexander McLeod||616||Thomas McDonald|
|Wairau||Edward Healy||1,424||William Girling|
|Waitaki||John Bitchener||885||Alexander McLean Paterson|
|Waitemata||Alexander Harris||2,378||Arthur Osborne|
|Wallace||Adam Hamilton||2,842||Peter Gilfedder|
|Wanganui||Bill Veitch||590||Bill Rogers|
|Wellington Central||Peter Fraser||2,471||Robert Darroch|
|Wellington East||Bob Semple||593||Thomas Forsyth|
|Wellington North||Charles Henry Chapman||1,061||George Troup|
|Wellington South||Robert McKeen||2,659||Will Appleton|
|Wellington Suburbs||Robert Alexander Wright||2,570||Tom Brindle|
|Westland||James O'Brien||1,121||John Greenslade|
|Eastern Maori||Āpirana Ngata||3,211||Pita Moko|
|Northern Maori||Taurekareka Henare||1,188||Paraire Karaka Paikea|
|Southern Maori||Tuiti Makitanara||19||Eruera Tirikatene|
|Western Maori||Taite Te Tomo||1,436||Toko Ratana|
The 1935 New Zealand general election was a nationwide vote to determine the shape of the New Zealand Parliament's 25th term. It resulted in the Labour Party's first electoral victory, with Michael Joseph Savage becoming the first Labour Prime Minister. The governing coalition, consisting of the United Party and the Reform Party, suffered a major defeat, attributed by many to their handling of the Great Depression. The year after the election, United and Reform took their coalition further, merging to form the modern National Party.
The 25th New Zealand Parliament was a term of the New Zealand Parliament. It opened on 25 March 1936, following the 1935 election. It was dissolved on 16 September 1938 in preparation for the 1938 election.
The New Zealand general election of 1925 was held 4 November to elect a total of 80 MPs to the 22nd session of the New Zealand Parliament. A total number of 678,877 (90.02%) voters turned out to vote. In one seat there was only one candidate.
Auckland Central is a New Zealand electoral division returning one member to the New Zealand House of Representatives. Its current representative is Nikki Kaye, a member of the National Party; she has represented the seat since 2008.
Auckland East was a New Zealand electorate, situated in the east of Auckland. It existed between 1861 and 1887, and again between 1905 and 1946.
Christchurch East, originally called Christchurch City East, is a current New Zealand parliamentary electorate. It was first created for the 1871 election and was abolished for two period, from 1875–1905 and again from 1946–1996. It was last created for the introduction of the MMP voting system for the 1996 election. The current MP is Poto Williams, a member of the New Zealand Labour Party who was first elected in the 2013 Christchurch East by-election.
Dunedin North is a New Zealand parliamentary electorate, returning one Member of Parliament (MP) to the New Zealand House of Representatives. It was established for the 1905 election and has existed since. It is currently held by David Clark of the New Zealand Labour Party, who replaced the long-standing representative Pete Hodgson. It is considered a safe Labour seat, with Labour holding the seat for all but one term (1975–1978) since 1928.
Wellington Central is an electorate, represented by a Member of Parliament in the New Zealand House of Representatives. Its MP since November 2008 has been Labour Party's Grant Robertson.
Grey Lynn is a former New Zealand parliamentary electorate, in the city of Auckland. It existed from 1902 to 1978, and was represented by nine Members of Parliament.
Daniel Stewart Reid was a New Zealand politician of the Reform Party.
Motueka is a former New Zealand parliamentary electorate. It was first created in 1860 and lasted until 1890 election. In 1896 election the Motueka electorate was recreated, and lasted until 1946 election.
Timaru was a New Zealand Parliamentary electorate, in the South Island. It existed continuously from 1861 to 1996 and was represented by eleven Members of Parliament.
The United–Reform Coalition, also known as the National Political Federation from 1935, was a coalition between two of the three major parties of New Zealand, the United and Reform parties, from 1931–1936. The Coalition formed the Government of New Zealand from its formation in September 1931, successfully contesting and winning the 1931 general election in December. The Coalition was defeated at the 1935 general election by Labour. The following year the coalition was formalised by the formation of the modern New Zealand National Party.
The 22nd New Zealand Parliament was a term of the New Zealand Parliament. Its composition was determined by the 1925 election, and it sat until the 1928 election.
Alexander Donald McLeod was a Reform Party Member of Parliament in the Wairarapa region of New Zealand. He was Minister of Lands (1924–1928) and Industries and Commerce (1926–1928) in the Reform Government.
The Hutt by-election was a by-election in the New Zealand electorate of Hutt, an urban seat at the bottom of the North Island. The by-election was held on 18 December 1929, and was precipitated by the resignation of sitting United member of parliament Thomas Wilford on who had been appointed the High Commissioner to the United Kingdom by Prime Minister Joseph Ward. The by-election was contested by Walter Nash of the Labour Party, James Kerr from the United Party and Harold Johnston of the Reform Party. The lead up to the by-election was marred by harsh words between candidates.
The Waitemata by-election was held on 19 July 1941 was caused by the death of Jack Lyon during the term of the 26th New Zealand Parliament. Mary Dreaver of the Labour Party won the by-election; she was the third woman elected to the House of Representatives.
The 1936 Manukau by-election was a by-election during the 25th New Zealand Parliament in the Manukau electorate. It was held on Wednesday 30 September 1936. This by-election came about because of the resignation of Bill Jordan during the term of the 25th New Zealand Parliament. The by-election in the Manukau electorate was contested by Arthur Osborne for Labour and Frederick Doidge for National, with Osborne winning the election.