|1933 Atlantic hurricane season|
Season summary map
|First system formed||May 14, 1933|
|Last system dissipated||November 17, 1933|
|• Maximum winds||160 mph (260 km/h)|
|• Lowest pressure||929 mbar (hPa; 27.43 inHg)|
|Total damage||$86.6 million (1933 USD)|
The 1933 Atlantic hurricane season was the second-most active Atlantic hurricane season on record, behind only the 2005 season, with 20 storms forming in the northwest Atlantic Ocean, breaking the record set by 1887. The season also produced highest Accumulated Cyclone Energy (ACE) on record in the Atlantic basin, with a total of 259. The season ran through the summer and the first half of fall in 1933, with activity as early as May and as late as November. A tropical cyclone was active for all but 13 days from June 28 to October 7. The year was surpassed in total number of tropical cyclones by the 2005 season, which broke the record with 28 storms. Tropical cyclones that did not approach populated areas or shipping lanes, especially if they were relatively weak and of short duration, may have remained undetected. Because technologies such as satellite monitoring were not available until the 1960s, historical data on tropical cyclones from this period are often not reliable. Compensating for the lack of comprehensive observation, one hurricane researcher estimates the season could have produced 24 tropical cyclones.
The Atlantic hurricane season is the period in a year when hurricanes usually form in the Atlantic Ocean. Tropical cyclones in the North Atlantic are called hurricanes, tropical storms, or tropical depressions. In addition, there have been several storms over the years that have not been fully tropical and are categorized as subtropical depressions and subtropical storms. Even though subtropical storms and subtropical depressions are not technically as strong as tropical cyclones, the damages can still be devastating.
The 2005 Atlantic hurricane season was the most active Atlantic hurricane season in recorded history, shattering numerous records. The impact of the season was widespread and catastrophic. Its storms caused an estimated total of 3,960 deaths and approximately $180.7 billion in damage, making it the second costliest season on record, surpassed only by the 2017 season.
The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's oceans, with an area of about 106,460,000 square kilometers. It covers approximately 20 percent of the Earth's surface and about 29 percent of its water surface area. It separates the "Old World" from the "New World".
Of the 20 storms during the season, 11 attained hurricane status. Six of those were major hurricanes, with sustained winds of over 111 mph (179 km/h). Two of the hurricanes reached winds of 160 mph (260 km/h), which is a Category 5 –the highest of 5– on the modern Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale. The season produced several deadly storms, with eight storms killing more than 20 people. All but 3 of the 20 known storms affected land at some point during their durations.
The 1933 season was the most active of its time, surpassing the previous record-holder of 19 storms in 1887. Fifteen of the season's storms made landfall as tropical cyclones, and another struck land as extratropical storms. Eight tropical storms, including six hurricanes, hit the United States during the season, including the Chesapeake–Potomac hurricane, which the U.S. Weather Bureau described as one of the most severe in history to impact the Mid-Atlantic States. Seven tropical storms, including four hurricanes, hit Mexico, two of which caused severe damage in the Tampico area.
The 1887 Atlantic hurricane season was the most active Atlantic hurricane season on record at the time. However, it has been surpassed by the 1933 and 2005, now tying with the 1995, 2010, 2011, and the 2012 seasons for having the third most number of storms. 1887 also featured five off-season storms. The season ran through the summer and almost all of the fall in 1887, and was surpassed in total number of tropical cyclones only by the seasons of 1933 and the record-breaking 2005. The 1887 season saw tropical activity as early as May, and as late as December. Tropical cyclones that did not approach populated areas or shipping lanes, especially if they were relatively weak and of short duration, may have remained undetected. Because technologies such as satellite monitoring were not available until the 1960s, historical data on tropical cyclones from this period may not be comprehensive. An undercount bias of zero to six tropical cyclones per year between 1851 and 1885 and zero to four per year between 1886 and 1910 has been estimated. Of the known 1887 cyclones, Tropical Storm One and Tropical Storm Three were first documented in 1996 by Jose Fernandez-Partagas and Henry Diaz. They also proposed large alterations to the known tracks of several of the other 1887 storms. Later re-analysis led to the known duration of Hurricane Six, and also that of Hurricane Fifteen, being increased.
The 1933 Chesapeake–Potomac hurricane was among the most damaging hurricanes in the Mid-Atlantic states in the eastern United States. The sixth storm and third hurricane of the very active 1933 Atlantic hurricane season, it formed in the eastern Atlantic, where it moved west-northwestward and eventually became a Category 4 on the Saffir-Simpson hurricane wind scale. A strong ridge over New England allowed a continued northwest course, bringing the storm south of Bermuda and later toward the middle coast of the eastern United States. Advance warning allowed hundreds of people to evacuate ahead of the hurricane making landfall. It did so in northeastern North Carolina on August 23 with winds of about 90 mph (150 km/h). Soon after, the eye crossed over Norfolk, Virginia, the first time that happened since 1821. The hurricane weakened into a tropical storm over northern Virginia shortly before passing near Washington, D.C., becoming the worst tropical cyclone there since 1896. Curving northward, the storm moved through Pennsylvania and New York before losing tropical characteristics on August 25. Now extratropical, the former hurricane moved across Atlantic Canada, dissipating on August 28.
The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration is an American scientific agency within the United States Department of Commerce that focuses on the conditions of the oceans, major waterways, and the atmosphere.
The season was continuously active, with six storms forming during the month of August alone. residents. The costliest hurricane was the Chesapeake–Potomac hurricane, which caused $27 million in damage from North Carolina to New Jersey. The hurricane produced rainfall that resulted in severe crop damage in Maryland.At the time, many storms received the distinction of being the earliest nth storm to form, such as the earliest fifth tropical storm to form in a season. Most of the records were broken in later years. During the season, the U.S. Weather Bureau issued storm and hurricane warnings for eight storms, including coastal portions of Texas, as well as from Florida to Massachusetts, forcing the evacuations of thousands of people. The deadliest storm of the season was a hurricane that struck Tampico, Mexico, killing over 184
Massachusetts, officially the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, is the most populous state in the New England region of the northeastern United States. It borders on the Atlantic Ocean to the east, the states of Connecticut and Rhode Island to the south, New Hampshire and Vermont to the north, and New York to the west. The state is named after the Massachusett tribe, which once inhabited the east side of the area, and is one of the original thirteen states. The capital of Massachusetts is Boston, which is also the most populous city in New England. Over 80% of Massachusetts's population lives in the Greater Boston metropolitan area, a region influential upon American history, academia, and industry. Originally dependent on agriculture, fishing and trade, Massachusetts was transformed into a manufacturing center during the Industrial Revolution. During the 20th century, Massachusetts's economy shifted from manufacturing to services. Modern Massachusetts is a global leader in biotechnology, engineering, higher education, finance, and maritime trade.
The 1933 Tampico hurricane was one of two storms in the 1933 Atlantic hurricane season to reach Category 5 intensity on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale. It developed on September 16 near the Lesser Antilles, and slowly intensified while moving across the Caribbean Sea. Becoming a hurricane on September 19, its strengthening rate increased while passing south of Jamaica. Two days later, the hurricane reached peak winds, estimated at 160 mph (260 km/h). After weakening, it made landfall on the Yucatán Peninsula, destroying several houses. One person was killed offshore Progreso, Yucatán during the storm.
Tampico is a city and port in the southeastern part of the state of Tamaulipas, Mexico. It is located on the north bank of the Pánuco River, about 10 kilometres (6 mi) inland from the Gulf of Mexico, and directly north of the state of Veracruz. Tampico is the fifth-largest city in Tamaulipas, with a population of 314,418 in the city proper and 929,174 in the metropolitan area.
In addition to the 20 tropical storms, there were several tropical depressions of lesser intensity. The first developed on June 1 in the northwest Caribbean and dissipated a few days later. Another depression developed on July 11 over Panama and also quickly dissipated. A tropical depression developed on July 17 in the northeastern Atlantic west of the Azores, and one ship reported hurricane-force winds; however, there was little evidence that the tropical system was organized, so it was not classified as a tropical storm. Originally, there was a tropical storm in the database in the Caribbean in the middle of August, but it was downgraded to a tropical depression due to lack of any reports of gale-force winds. Similarly, there was a tropical storm in the database in late September, but it was also downgraded to a tropical depression due to lack of gale-force winds.
The season produced the highest Accumulated Cyclone Energy (ACE) on record, with a total of 259. The measurement is a method to compare tropical cyclone activity between seasons. Originally, 1933 had an operational ACE of 213,which was surpassed by 1950, 1995, 2004, 2005, and 2017. However, the Atlantic hurricane reanalysis project found that the storms in 1933 were stronger than initially reported.
The 1950 Atlantic hurricane season was the first year in the Atlantic hurricane database (HURDAT) that storms were given names in the Atlantic basin. Names were taken from the Joint Army/Navy Phonetic Alphabet, with the first named storm being designated "Able", the second "Baker", and so on. It was an active season with sixteen tropical storms, with eleven of them developing into hurricanes. Six of these hurricanes were intense enough to be classified as major hurricanes—a denomination reserved for storms that attained sustained winds equivalent to a Category 3 or greater on the present-day Saffir–Simpson scale. One storm, the twelfth of the season, was unnamed and was originally excluded from the yearly summary, and three additional storms were discovered in re-analysis. The large quantity of strong storms during the year yielded, prior to modern reanalysis, what was the highest seasonal accumulated cyclone energy (ACE) of the 20th century in the Atlantic basin; 1950 held the seasonal ACE record until broken by the 2005 Atlantic hurricane season. However, later examination by researchers determined that several storms in the 1950 season were weaker than thought, leading to a lower ACE than assessed originally.
The 1995 Atlantic hurricane season was a hyperactive Atlantic hurricane season that is generally considered to be the start of an ongoing era of high-activity tropical cyclone formation in the Atlantic basin. It is tied with 1887, 2010, 2011, and 2012 for having the third most number of named storms. The season produced twenty-one tropical cyclones, nineteen named storms, as well as eleven hurricanes and five major hurricanes. The season officially began on June 1 and ended on November 30, dates which conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones develop in the Atlantic basin. The first tropical cyclone, Hurricane Allison, developed on June 2, while the season's final storm, Hurricane Tanya, transitioned into an extratropical cyclone on November 1.
The 2004 Atlantic hurricane season was a very deadly, destructive, and hyperactive Atlantic hurricane season, with over 3,200 deaths and more than $61 billion in damage. More than half of the 16 tropical cyclones brushed or struck the United States. Due to the development of a Modoki El Niño – a rare type of El Niño in which unfavorable conditions are produced over the eastern Pacific instead of the Atlantic basin due to warmer sea surface temperatures farther west along the equatorial Pacific – activity was above average. The season officially began on June 1 and ended on November 30, though the season's last storm, Otto, dissipated on December 3, extending the season beyond its traditional boundaries. The first storm, Alex, developed offshore of the Southeastern United States on July 31, one of the latest dates on record to see the formation of the first system in an Atlantic hurricane season. It brushed the Carolinas and the Mid-Atlantic, causing one death and $7.5 million (2004 USD) in damage. Several storms caused only minor damage, including tropical storms Bonnie, Earl, Hermine, and Matthew. In addition, hurricanes Danielle, Karl, and Lisa, Tropical Depression Ten, Subtropical Storm Nicole and Tropical Storm Otto had no effect on land while tropical cyclones.
|Tropical storm (SSHWS)|
|Duration||May 14 – May 19|
|Peak intensity||50 mph (85 km/h) (1-min) 1001 mbar (hPa)|
The first storm of the season formed on May 14 in the southwestern Caribbean Sea off the east coast of Nicaragua. It moved quickly to the north-northwest, passing just northeast of the eastern tip of Honduras. On May 15, the storm turned to the west and entered the Gulf of Mexico while moving around the Yucatán Peninsula. The next day, it attained peak winds of 50 mph (85 km/h), based on a ship report. Turning southward, the storm made landfall on Ciudad del Carmen in Mexico early on May 19 with winds of 40 mph (64 km/h). It dissipated over land later that day.
|Category 2 hurricane (SSHWS)|
|Duration||June 24 – July 8|
|Peak intensity||110 mph (175 km/h) (1-min) ≤ 965 mbar (hPa)|
A westward-moving tropical wave spawned a tropical depression on June 24 about halfway between the southern Lesser Antilles and the coast of Africa. The depression quickly intensified into a tropical storm, and by June 27 it became a hurricane off the northern coast of Guyana. At 2100 UTC that day, the hurricane struck extreme southern Trinidad with winds of 85 mph (137 km/h). After crossing the island, the hurricane moved across the Paria Peninsula in northeastern Venezuela with the same intensity. The hurricane was earliest to affect the region on record, and was the first storm in over 50 years to affected Trinidad and Venezuela. In Trinidad, 13 people were killed, about 1,000 people were left homeless, and damage was estimated at $3 million. In Venezuela, the hurricane caused power outages, destroyed several houses, and killed several people.
After crossing Venezuela into the eastern Caribbean, the hurricane moved northwestward and gradually intensified. On July 3 it struck western Cuba with winds of 100 mph (160 km/h). In the country, the storm killed 22 people, while damage amounted to $4 million. A building high pressure area turned the hurricane westward in the Gulf of Mexico, and after further strengthening the storm attained peak winds of 110 mph (175 km/h) on July 5. It turned to the west-southwest and made landfall in northeastern Mexico on July 7 with winds of 100 mph (160 km/h), about halfway between Tampico and the Mexico/United States border. It dissipated about 11 hours later over Mexico. There were several deaths and heavy damage in the area where the storm moved ashore. Across its path, the hurricane killed 35 people.
|Tropical storm (SSHWS)|
|Duration||July 14 – July 23|
|Peak intensity||50 mph (85 km/h) (1-min) 999 mbar (hPa)|
The third tropical storm of the season (initially classified as two separate storms but later identified as a single track) was first observed on July 14 near St. Kitts. It moved quickly westward and passed just south of Puerto Rico and Hispaniola as a weak storm. The system curved slightly to the west-northwest and brushed the northern coast of Jamaica before turning slightly westward and hitting the Mexican state of Quintana Roo. As it crossed the Yucatán Peninsula the cyclone weakened and eventually crossed into the Bay of Campeche. It moved quickly to the northwest, and made landfall near Matagorda Bay, in Texas on July 23 as a 45 mph (70 km/h) tropical storm. The system turned to the northeast, and became extratropical to the east of Dallas, Texas. The extratropical system moved slowly through northern Louisiana, turned to the northeast, and dissipated over northeastern Arkansas near Memphis, Tennessee.
While passing near Jamaica, the storm dropped heavy rainfall, including 9 inches (230 mm) in Kingston which led to flooding and washouts. The rainfall also damaged several bridges and roads and resulting in delays in train schedules. Mudslides and overflowing rivers flooded several towns with knee-deep waters. Moderate winds downed several banana trees across the island. Prior to the arrival of the storm in Texas, numerous coastal residents boarded up their houses and businesses and voluntarily evacuated further inland. Upon making landfall, the storm produced high tides. In eastern Texas and western Louisiana, the system dropped very heavy precipitation, which in places reached accumulations exceeding 20 inches (500 mm). The highest storm total occurred in Logansport, Louisiana, which reported 21.30 inches (541 mm) in a 4-day period. In Louisiana, the flooding severely damaged crops and forced about 250 families near Shreveport to evacuate their flooded homes. The torrential rainfall also resulted in overflowing rivers; numerous highways, roads, and railroads were either impassable or closed, with some locations experiencing water depths of up to 20 feet (6.1 m). Total damage reached nearly $2 million.
|Tropical storm (SSHWS)|
|Duration||July 24 – July 27|
|Peak intensity||60 mph (95 km/h) (1-min) 1008 mbar (hPa)|
A dissipating cold front spawned a tropical depression east of Bermuda on July 24. It moved east-northeastward initially, and intensified into a tropical storm early on July 25. Based on ship observations, it is estimated the storm attained peak winds of 60 mph (95 km/h). The storm turned to the northeast and was absorbed by a cold front southeast of Newfoundland early on July 27.
|Category 1 hurricane (SSHWS)|
|Duration||July 24 – August 5|
|Peak intensity||90 mph (150 km/h) (1-min) 975 mbar (hPa)|
On July 24, a tropical storm was detected. Located to the southeast of Antigua, it tracked west-northwestward, passing near St. Thomas with winds of up to 60 mph (95 km/h). The storm strengthened and attained hurricane status the next day north of Puerto Rico, and it continued its west-northwest movement. After moving through the northern Bahamas, the hurricane struck near Fort Pierce, Florida, with winds of 85 mph (135 km/h). The hurricane crossed the state and weakened to minimal tropical storm intensity. It turned to the west-southwest and re-strengthened to a hurricane on August 4 off the coast of Texas. It weakened again to tropical storm status and made its final landfall near Brownsville, Texas, on August 5 as a strong tropical storm. The system rapidly dissipated over northern Mexico.
While moving over Saint Christopher, the storm killed six people. Heavy rain was reported throughout the Virgin Islands. residents in vulnerable areas around Lake Okeechobee. Damage in Florida was minimal, limited to minor crops, roofs, and signs. In southern Texas, the hurricane produced moderate damage of $500,000, including disrupted telephone and telegraph lines. The hurricane produced high tides along the coast of Texas, covering parts of South Padre Island, and heavy rains in northern Mexico caused heavy damage.The hurricane caused the drowning of one person in the Bahamas, and moderate winds produced severe structural damage to the buildings in the archipelago. In Florida, the National Weather Bureau issued storm warnings between Miami to Titusville, while Governor David Sholtz issued a mandatory evacuation for 4,200
|Category 4 hurricane (SSHWS)|
|Duration||August 13 – August 25|
|Peak intensity||140 mph (220 km/h) (1-min) < 940 mbar (hPa)|
The Chesapeake Bay-Potomac Hurricane of 1933
A ship first reported a tropical depression near the Cape Verde islands on August 13. This system would become one of the most destructive hurricanes of the season. The storm moved towards the northwest and attained hurricane status on August 16. The hurricane continued to strengthen, and on August 21, it passed about 150 miles (240 km) southwest of Bermuda as a Category 3 hurricane. St. George's avoided a direct hit but reported wind speeds of up to 64 mph (103 km/h). On August 22, the hurricane turned west-northwest and reached its peak intensity, with maximum sustained winds of 140 mph (220 km/h), equivalent to a Category 4 hurricane in the modern-day Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale. However, it weakened quickly afterwards. On August 23, the storm made landfall on the Outer Banks of North Carolina as a Category 1 hurricane and continued to quickly weaken as it moved inland, away from its energy source.' The storm turned to the north, then to the northeast, passing through Virginia, Maryland, and Pennsylvania before weakening to a tropical depression over New York. The storm became extratropical on August 25 and turned to the east, moving through Atlantic Canada and dissipating on August 28.
The hurricane caused damage ranging from moderate to severe in the corridor between North Carolina and New Jersey, due to high tides and strong winds. inches (337.3 mm) in York, Pennsylvania. Overall, the hurricane caused $27 million in damage and 31 deaths.In the state of Maryland, the storm's effects resulted in severe crop damage, and many boats and piers were damaged or destroyed due to high tides and storm surge. This tide is notable as the one that separated Ocean City, MD from Assateague & Chincoteague Islands and allowed for the current harbor and inlet to the Atlantic as well as destroying the only rail bridge to the town, which was never rebuilt. The hurricane produced heavy rainfall along its path, with a peak of 13.28
|Tropical storm (SSHWS)|
|Duration||August 14 – August 21|
|Peak intensity||45 mph (75 km/h) (1-min) 1007 mbar (hPa)|
The seventh tropical storm of the season was first observed in the eastern Caribbean on August 14. It strengthened to reach winds of 45 mph (72 km/h). After passing just south of Jamaica, the storm turned to the northwest and crossed over both the Isle of Youth and western Cuba on August 18. It curved northward and dissipated west of Florida on August 21.
On Trinidad, rainfall from this storm and a subsequent tropical depression were the heaviest in nine years, which caused rivers to overflow and flooded parts of the island. Several boats were damaged or driven ashore from rough seas. The two storms caused damage to fields, highways, and houses, and caused the loss of crops such as cocoa and bananas. In all, damage totaled $3 million and there were 13 deaths on Trinidad. The storm produced heavy rainfall in eastern Jamaica, including a record 24-hour total of 12.2 inches (310 mm) in the Corporate Area, and Dallas Castle received 20.2 inches (510 mm) in 24 hours. This flooded and damaged properties and water systems in Kingston and Saint Andrew, leading to a water famine until the water mains were fixed. Damage totaled to over $2.5 million, and 70 people were reported killed due to the flooding. Damage was minimal in both Cuba and Florida.
|Category 5 hurricane (SSHWS)|
|Duration||August 22 – September 5|
|Peak intensity||160 mph (260 km/h) (1-min) <930 mbar (hPa)|
The Great Cuba-Brownsville Hurricane of 1933
The eighth storm of the season was one of two storms in the 1933 Atlantic hurricane season to reach the intensity of a Category 5 strength on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale. It formed on August 22 off the west coast of Africa, and for much of its duration it maintained a west-northwest track. The system intensified into a tropical storm on August 26 and into a hurricane on August 28. Passing north of the Lesser Antilles, the hurricane rapidly intensified as it approached the Turks and Caicos islands. It reached Category 5 status and its peak winds of 160 mph (260 km/h) on August 31. Subsequently, it weakened before striking northern Cuba on September 1 with winds of 120 mph (190 km/h). In the country, the hurricane left about 100,000 people homeless and killed over 70 people. Damage was heaviest near the storm's path, and the strong winds destroyed houses and left areas without power. Damage was estimated at $11 million.
After exiting from Cuba, the hurricane entered the Gulf of Mexico and restrengthened. On September 2, it re-attained winds of 140 mph (230 km/h). Initially the hurricane posed a threat to the area around Corpus Christi, Texas, and the local United States Weather Bureau forecaster advised people to stay away from the Texas coastline during the busy Labor Day Weekend. Officials declared martial law in the city and mandated evacuations. However, the hurricane turned more to the west and struck near Brownsville early on September 5 with winds estimated at 125 mph (205 km/h). It quickly dissipated after causing heavy damage in the Rio Grande Valley. High winds caused heavy damage to the citrus crop. The hurricane left $16.9 million in damage and 40 deaths in southern Texas.
|Tropical storm (SSHWS)|
|Duration||August 23 – August 30|
|Peak intensity||50 mph (85 km/h) (1-min) 999 mbar (hPa)|
On August 23, another tropical storm was observed north of Puerto Rico. It moved northwestward for three days, slowly strengthening as it moved over the open ocean. The storm turned to the northeast and reached peak sustained winds of 50 mph (80 km/h) a short distance to the west of Bermuda. It began weakening shortly thereafter, and on August 30 the storm became extratropical to the southeast of Newfoundland. It continued to the northeast and was last observed on August 31 over the north-central Atlantic Ocean. It did not cause significant effects on land.
|Tropical storm (SSHWS)|
|Duration||August 26 – August 29|
|Peak intensity||40 mph (65 km/h) (1-min) 1002 mbar (hPa)|
A tropical storm formed in the Bay of Campeche. It initially moved to the northwest. The cyclone remained a minimal tropical storm for most of its lifetime. On August 29, the storm turned to the west-southwest and made landfall near Tampico, Mexico, dissipating shortly thereafter. The tropical storm caused heavy rains near the coast, although winds were minor. Due to uncertainty as to its course, tropical storm warnings were issued for portions of the southern Texas coastline.
|Category 4 hurricane (SSHWS)|
|Duration||August 31 – September 7|
|Peak intensity||140 mph (220 km/h) (1-min) 945 mbar (hPa)|
The Treasure Coast Hurricane of 1933
A tropical storm was first observed on August 31, 225 miles (360 km) north-northeast of the island of Antigua. The storm rapidly intensified as it moved quickly to the west-northwest, attaining hurricane status later that day, and major hurricane strength on September 1, while located to the north of Puerto Rico. It continued west-northwestward and attained its peak intensity, with maximum sustained winds of 140 mph (225 km/h), on September 2. The hurricane, then at Category 4 on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale, moved through the northern Bahamas at peak intensity and weakened slightly before making landfall on Jupiter, Florida, with winds of 125 mph (200 km/h) on September 4. The system weakened rapidly over Florida to tropical storm status, and after turning to the north, decelerated. The weakening storm slowly moved through Georgia before dissipating near the Georgia/South Carolina border on September 7.
On Eleuthera Island, the Category 4 hurricane blew away the roofs of buildings, wrecked wharves, and lost boats. Hurricane warnings were issued for the eastern Florida coastline, and 3,000 people were evacuated around Lake Okeechobee to safer areas. In southeastern Florida, the strong winds broke many glass windows and downed trees and power lines; severe house damage was reported near the landfall location. The hurricane's powerful winds also severely damaged crops, including 4 million boxes of citrus fruit across the state. In total, Florida suffered $2 million in damage and two deaths.
|Category 4 hurricane (SSHWS)|
|Duration||September 8 – September 18|
|Peak intensity||140 mph (220 km/h) (1-min) <947 mbar (hPa)|
The Outer Banks Hurricane of 1933
On September 8, an area of disturbed weather to the east of the Lesser Antilles organized into a tropical storm. It moved north-northeastward, and after a turn to the northwest, the system intensified to hurricane strength on September 10. It steadily intensified and reached a peak strength of 140 mph (225 km/h) on September 15. It slowed as it turned to the north, striking southeastern North Carolina just west of Cape Hatteras as a Category 2 hurricane. After moving through the Outer Banks, the system accelerated to the northeast and became extratropical on September 18 about halfway between Cape Cod and the southern tip of Nova Scotia. The extratropical storm passed over Nova Scotia, Newfoundland, and Labrador before dissipating east of Greenland on September 22.
Strong winds from the hurricane downed trees and power lines in southeastern North Carolina, causing damage to many houses. The hurricane produced a storm surge that flooded coastal streets with 3 to 4 feet (0.9–1.2 m) of water. In all, the hurricane caused at least 21 deaths, primarily due to drowning in high waters. Damage totaled around $4.5 million.
|Category 2 hurricane (SSHWS)|
|Duration||September 10 – September 15|
|Peak intensity||110 mph (175 km/h) (1-min) 960 mbar (hPa)|
On September 10, as Hurricane Twelve was intensifying over the waters of the Atlantic Ocean, another area of disturbed weather developed into a tropical storm over the western Caribbean Sea off the coast of Guatemala. It moved slowly northward and strengthened, becoming a hurricane on September 12 just east of Belize. On the next day, the hurricane made landfall on the Mexican state of Quintana Roo, and the system weakened to a tropical storm as it moved northwestward across the Yucatán Peninsula. On September 14 it again regained hurricane status over the Bay of Campeche. The hurricane struck Tampico on September 15 and then dissipated.
The storm caused severe damage in Tampico and further inland, leaving several thousand homeless. According to The New York Times, at least 67 people were killed. Tuxpan, south of Tampico, also suffered heavy damage with many houses and office buildings destroyed. Total property losses were estimated at several million dollars.
|Category 5 hurricane (SSHWS)|
|Duration||September 16 – September 25|
|Peak intensity||160 mph (260 km/h) (1-min) 929 mbar (hPa)|
The Great Tampico Hurricane of 1933
On the other side of the Caribbean Sea, what would become the second Category 5 hurricane of the season, and the 14th tropical storm of the year, was first observed on September 16 to the east of the southern Leeward Islands. The cyclone, then a tropical depression, tracked to the west-northwest through the islands, slowly strengthening into a tropical storm on September 18. It attained hurricane strength on September 19 near Jamaica, then began a period of rapid intensification south of that island. On September 21, a ship measured a central pressure of 929 millibars (27 inHg), indicating that the hurricane had intensified to a peak of 160 mph (260 km/h). Continuing west-northwestward, the hurricane weakened somewhat and made landfall 40 miles (65 km) south of Cozumel Island on September 22. Winds at landfall were estimated to have been 140 mph (230 km/h), equivalent to a Category 4 hurricane by modern classification. The hurricane weakened slightly over the Yucatán Peninsula, but then re-strengthened over the Gulf of Mexico to reach a second peak intensity of 110 mph (175 km/h) on September 24. Shortly thereafter, the storm made landfall near Tampico. It dissipated on September 25 over Mexico.
Near Jamaica, the hurricane caused rough seas, although damage, if any, is unknown. m) pier and several buildings. Rough seas sunk several ships, and one person drowned. The rainfall caused several rivers to overflow, causing flooding and damage to roads and railroads in the state of Veracruz. Many people in low-lying areas around Tampico evacuated for the storm.While moving across the Yucatán Peninsula, the storm produced heavy rainfall and strong winds. In Cozumel, the winds destroyed a 300-foot (91
Reports indicate much of the city of Tampico was destroyed, and the total number of deaths and injuries amounted to over 5,000. Most of the deaths occurred from flood waters, which were 10 to 15 feet (3.0–4.6 m) deep and covered the entire city; many bodies were washed out to sea, and were never recovered. The flooding washed out roads and railroads, delaying relief efforts into the devastated area. Water and food supplies in and around Tampico were damaged or contaminated, resulting in a threat of famine or disease that further aggravated the situation. Torrential rains caused more flooding, and the powerful winds damaged or destroyed nearly every building in the city and left many homeless. The strong winds downed numerous power lines, leaving the entire city in blackout, and destroyed two large water towers. There were at least 10 cases of looting; all of the perpetrators were executed. Damage in and around Tampico totaled over $10 million, and the storm killed over 184 people.
The thousands of victims took refuge in churches, theatres, and public buildings. Immediately after the storm, the Mexican military placed the city under martial law.Military and federal authorities dispatched trains with food, water, and medicine, and planes bearing engineers and doctors. Mexican president Abelardo L. Rodríguez rallied citizens to aid the affected people in the storm area. The local chamber of deputies allowed $140,000 in funds for the storm victims.
|Category 1 hurricane (SSHWS)|
|Duration||September 24 – September 27|
|Peak intensity||75 mph (120 km/h) (1-min) 991 mbar (hPa)|
A storm of extratropical origin developed into a small tropical storm on September 24 southwest of the Azores. Initially the storm moved north-northwestward, and based on ship reports, it is estimated the system intensified into a hurricane on September 26. It passed west of the Azores as it turned to the north-northeast, weakening to a tropical storm later that day. On September 27 the storm became extratropical, and the next day it dissipated.
|Tropical storm (SSHWS)|
|Duration||October 1 – October 4|
|Peak intensity||45 mph (75 km/h) (1-min) 1012 mbar (hPa)|
A tropical disturbance moved through the Lesser Antilles in late September. After crossing Hispaniola, a tropical depression developed on October 1 north of the Dominican Republic. It moved northwestward initially and quickly intensified into a tropical storm. It had a broad wind field, indicating characteristics of a subtropical cyclone. After reaching peak winds of 45 mph (72 km/h), the storm turned to the northeast and weakened. It dissipated on October 4 to the southeast of Bermuda.
|Category 3 hurricane (SSHWS)|
|Duration||October 1 – October 8|
|Peak intensity||125 mph (205 km/h) (1-min) 940 mbar (hPa)|
On October 1, a tropical storm developed off the northeast coast of Nicaragua. It moved slowly northward and steadily intensified, becoming a hurricane on October 3 just west of Jamaica. The hurricane turned to the north-northwest and hit the Cuban province of La Habana with winds of 110 mph (175 km/h) on October 4. The hurricane passed over Havana and turned to the northeast and strengthened, becoming a major hurricane as it moved south of Miami, Florida. The hurricane reached a peak intensity of 125 mph (205 km/h) while passing through the Bahamas on October 6. The hurricane weakened as it accelerated to the northeast, and it became extratropical on October 8 to the south of Nova Scotia. It paralleled the Nova Scotia coast, turned to the east-southeast, and lost its tropical characteristics on October 9 over the open north Atlantic Ocean.
One person was killed in Jamaica due to flooding. million (1933 CAD), including $250,000 in lost apple crop.In Cuba, people boarded up numerous buildings, and emergency workers assisted authorities in spreading the word about the impending storm; residents in vulnerable areas evacuated to shelters on higher ground. The hurricane's powerful winds destroyed several houses in Camagüey, and heavy rainfall overflowed numerous rivers in low-lying districts. The winds damaged and disrupted telephone and telegraph lines and injured a few people in Havana. Despite government orders for police to kill any looters, large-scale looting occurred in Havana after the storm. Two looters were shot to death, and a third was injured. Two civilians were also wounded by snipers who fired to disperse thieves. Residents in southeast Florida boarded up for the storm while the National Weather Bureau issued storm warnings for portions of the coastline. The hurricane produced strong winds and rain in the Florida Keys and extreme southern Florida, but damage was minimal. In northwest Miami, the hurricane spawned a tornado that damaged three houses and injured two. In Nova Scotia, the former hurricane left heavy damage to crops due to strong winds and heavy rain. Sunken boats killed nine people, and damage was estimated at around $1
|Category 1 hurricane (SSHWS)|
|Duration||October 25 – November 7|
|Peak intensity||90 mph (150 km/h) (1-min) 982 mbar (hPa)|
After a two-week period of inactivity, a tropical depression was detected in the western Caribbean Sea on October 25. It moved to the east-northeast then curved to the northwest while slowly intensifying. On October 29, it strengthened into a hurricane near Jamaica and reached peak winds of 90 mph (150 km/h) before striking the western portion of the island. The hurricane turned to the northeast and weakened. It made landfall on southeastern Cuba as a strong tropical storm on October 31. The weakening storm changed its course to the north-northwest, as it drifted through Cuba and the Bahamas. On November 4, the storm turned once more to the northeast, accelerated, and was absorbed by an approaching cold front on November 7 near Bermuda.
While moving near western Jamaica, the hurricane produced strong winds of about 80 mph (130 km/h), which wrecked about 90% of the banana crop. One plantation lost 500 banana trees, and there was also damage to corn, coffee, and yams. Many houses were wrecked or washed away, leaving hundreds homeless. The storm cut power and telegraph lines and blocked roads, limiting communication. Rail lines were cut, and small bridges were washed away. Damage was estimated at $3 million, and there were 23 deaths. The storm also produced strong winds and rainfall in Cuba.
|Tropical storm (SSHWS)|
|Duration||October 26 – October 29|
|Peak intensity||70 mph (110 km/h) (1-min) 990 mbar (hPa)|
Almost simultaneous to Hurricane 19, a tropical storm developed a short distance east of the central Bahamas on October 26. It moved north-northeastward, then northeastward, steadily strengthening along its path. On October 27, a barometric pressure of 993 mbar (29.32 inHg) was recorded within the storm, and on October 28 the storm reached a peak intensity of 70 mph (110 km/h). On October 29, the storm became extratropical and turned north to hit Nova Scotia. Wedged between two high pressure systems, it continued northward until dissipating over extreme eastern portions of Quebec on October 30.
In Atlantic Canada, the former tropical storm produced winds of 52 mph (83 km/h) in Nova Scotia, along with heavy rainfall of 2.3 in (58 mm) in Amherst. The storm sank one boat and washed another ashore. Winds were strong enough to knock down telephone and telegraph lines, mainly due to fallen trees which also covered roads and damaged houses. Flooding washed out several bridges and roads, covering one highway with 6 ft (1.8 m) of water, and entered the basements of houses. In New Brunswick, the storm damaged or destroyed 72 bridges. One man was struck by a car due to poor visibility from the storm.
|Tropical storm (SSHWS)|
|Duration||November 15 – November 17|
|Peak intensity||60 mph (95 km/h) (1-min) 996 mbar (hPa)|
After another calm period, the final tropical storm of the season was first observed on November 15 in the southwestern Caribbean Sea. It moved slowly westward, never strengthening beyond a minimal tropical storm in its short lifetime. On November 16, it struck the southeastern coast of Nicaragua, and it dissipated soon after on November 17.
This is a table of the storms in 1933 and their landfall(s) in bold, if any. The minimum pressures, in most cases, are based on limited observations and may not have occurred at their peak intensity.
|Dates active||Storm category |
at peak intensity
|One||May 14–19||Tropical storm||50 (85)||1001||Central America, Mexico ( Tabasco )||None||0|
|Two||June 24 July 7||Category 2 hurricane||110 (175)||965||Trinidad , Venezuela , Jamaica, Western Cuba , Tamaulipas||7.2||35|
|Three||July 14 –24||Tropical storm||50 (85)||999||Lesser Antilles, Jamaica, Belize , Yucatan Peninsula, Texas||2||0|
|Four||July 24 – 27||Tropical storm||60 (95)||1008||None||None||0|
|Five||July 24 – August 5||Category 1 hurricane||90 (150)||975||Lesser Antilles , Bahamas, Florida, Texas||.5||0|
|Six||August 13 -25||Category 4 hurricane||140 (220)||940||Bermuda, Eastern United States ( North Carolina )||27||31|
|Seven||August 14 – August 21||Tropical storm||45 (75)||1007||Jamaica, Cuba||2.5||83|
|Eight||August 22 – September 5||Category 5 hurricane||160 (260)||930||Turks and Caicos, Cuba , Florida Keys, Texas||27.9||179|
|Nine||August 23 – 30||Tropical storm||50 (85)||999||None||None||0|
|Ten||August 26 – 30||Tropical storm||40 (65)||1002||Tamaulipas||None||0|
|Eleven||August 31 – September 7||Category 4 hurricane||140 (220)||945||Bahamas, Florida , Southeast United States||2||2|
|Twelve||September 8 –18||Category 4 hurricane||140 (220)||947||North Carolina , Atlantic Canada||4.5||21|
|Thirteen||September 10 – 16||Category 2 hurricane||110 (175)||960||Tamaulipas||Unknown||67|
|Fourteen||September 16 – 25||Category 5 hurricane||160 (260)||929||Yucatan Peninsula, Tamaulipas||10||184|
|Fifteen||September 24 – 27||Category 1 hurricane||75 (120)||991||None||None||0|
|Sixteen||October 1 -4||Tropical storm||45 (75)||1012||Bahamas||None||0|
|Seventeen||October 1–7||Category 3 hurricane||125 (205)||940||Cuba, Florida, Bahamas||1.1||10|
|Eighteen||October 25–November 7||Category 1 hurricane||90 (150)||982||Jamaica, Cuba||3||23|
|Nineteen||October 26–28||Tropical storm||70 (110)||990||Atlantic Canada||Unknown||0|
|Twenty||November 15–17||Tropical storm||60 (95)||996||Nicaragua||Unknown||0|
|20 systems||May 14 – November 17||160 (260)||929||~86.6||651|
The 1959 Atlantic hurricane season had a then record-tying number of tropical cyclones – five – develop before August 1. The season was officially to begin on June 15, 1959 and last until November 15, 1959, the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the Atlantic basin, however in actuality the season began early when Tropical Storm Arlene formed on May 28. Tropical Storm Arlene struck Louisiana and brought minor flooding to the Gulf Coast of the United States. The next storm, Beulah, formed in the western Gulf of Mexico and brought negligible impact to Mexico and Texas. Later in June, an unnamed hurricane, nicknamed the Escuminac disaster, caused minor damage in Florida and devastated coastal Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, after becoming extratropical. Hurricane Cindy brought minor impact to The Carolinas. In late July, Hurricane Debra produced flooding in the state of Texas. Tropical Storm Edith in August and Hurricane Flora in September caused negligible impact on land.
The 1966 Atlantic hurricane season featured the tropical cyclone with the longest track in the Atlantic basin – Hurricane Faith. Also during the year, the Miami, Florida Weather Office was re-designated the National Hurricane Center. The season officially began on June 1, and lasted until November 30. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the Atlantic basin. It was a near average season in terms of tropical storms, with a total of 11 named storms. The first system, Hurricane Alma, developed over eastern Nicaragua on June 4. Alma brought severe flooding to Honduras and later to Cuba, after crossing the western Caribbean Sea. The storm also brought relatively minor impact to the Southeastern United States. Alma caused 91 deaths and about $210.1 million (1966 USD) in damage.
The 1975 Atlantic hurricane season featured the first tropical storm to be upgraded to a hurricane based solely on satellite imagery – Hurricane Doris. The season officially began on June 1 and lasted until November 30. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the Atlantic basin. The season was near average, with nine tropical storms forming, of which six became hurricanes. Three of those six became major hurricanes, which are Category 3 or higher on the Saffir–Simpson scale. The first system, Tropical Depression One, developed on June 24. Tropical Storm Amy in July caused minor beach erosion and coastal flooding from North Carolina to New Jersey, and killed one person when a ship capsized offshore North Carolina. Hurricane Blanche brought strong winds to portions of Atlantic Canada, leaving about $6.2 million (1975 USD) in damage. Hurricane Caroline brought high tides and flooding to northeastern Mexico and Texas, with two drownings in the latter.
The 1951 Atlantic hurricane season was the first hurricane season in which tropical cyclones were officially named by the United States Weather Bureau. The season officially started on June 15, when the United States Weather Bureau began its daily monitoring for tropical cyclone activity; the season officially ended on November 15. It was the first year since 1937 in which no hurricanes made landfall on the United States; as Hurricane How was the only tropical storm to hit the nation, the season had the least tropical cyclone damage in the United States since the 1939 season. As in the 1950 season, names from the Joint Army/Navy Phonetic Alphabet were used to name storms this season.
The 1953 Atlantic hurricane season was the first time an organized list of female names was used to name Atlantic storms. It officially began on June 15, and lasted until November 15, although activity occurred both before and after the season's limits. The season was active with fourteen total storms, six of which developed into hurricanes; four of the hurricanes attained major hurricane status, or a Category 3 or greater on the Saffir-Simpson scale.
The 1949 Atlantic hurricane season was the last season that tropical cyclones were not publicly labeled by the United States Weather Bureau. It officially began on June 15, and lasted until November 15. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the Atlantic basin. The first storm, Hurricane One, developed north of the Lesser Antilles on August 21. The final system, Tropical Storm Sixteen, dissipated in the southwestern Caribbean Sea on November 5. It was a fairly active season, featuring 16 tropical storms and seven hurricanes. Two of these strengthened into major hurricanes, which are Category 3 or higher on the Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale.
The 1942 Atlantic hurricane season was one of seven seasons to feature multiple hurricane landfalls in Texas. The season officially lasted from June 16, 1942, to October 31, 1942. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the Atlantic basin. A total of 11 tropical storms from 1943 are listed in the Atlantic hurricane database, with two additional tropical depressions. The first system of the year, a tropical depression, developed over the central Gulf of Mexico on June 3, while the last system, the Belize hurricane, dissipated over the Yucatán Peninsula on November 11. After the depression dissipated on June 3, the season remained dormant until the next system developed two months later. In mid-August, a hurricane struck Texas, causing about $790,000 (1942 USD) in damage.
The 1938 Atlantic hurricane season began earlier than any Atlantic hurricane season on record lasting from January 3 through October 31. The season was generally quiet with 9 tropical cyclones and 4 becoming hurricane strength, 2 of which became major hurricane equivalent.
The 1937 Atlantic hurricane season officially began on June 16, 1937, and lasted until October 31, 1937. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the Atlantic basin.
The 1936 Atlantic hurricane season officially began on June 1, 1936, and lasted until November 30, 1936. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the Atlantic basin.
The 1922 Atlantic hurricane season ran through the summer and the first half of fall in 1922. The season was a quiet one, with only five tropical cyclones forming during the course of the season. The first was a tropical storm that passed over the Yucatán Peninsula and later made another landfall in rural northeast Mexico. The second was a hurricane, the strongest one of the season. It formed near Cape Verde and curved out into the Atlantic. It grazed the Leeward Islands and battered Bermuda, passing just offshore as a Category 3. The hurricane became extratropical soon after it passed Bermuda. The third was a tropical storm that passed over Cuba and made landfall near Pensacola, Florida. The last storm of the season was a Category 2 hurricane that made landfall near Cancún, Mexico. The hurricane weakened in the Bay of Campeche and dissipated just offshore. A fifth storm was found in reanalysis in 2009.
The 1921 Atlantic hurricane season featured the Tampa Bay hurricane, the most recent major hurricane to strike the Tampa Bay Area in Florida. Although no "hurricane season" was defined at the time, the present-day delineation of such is June 1 to November 30. The first system, a tropical depression, developed on June 1, while the last, a tropical storm, dissipated on November 25. Of note, three of the twelve cyclones co-existed with another tropical cyclone during the season.
The 1920 Atlantic hurricane season featured tropical storms and hurricanes only in the month of September. Although no "hurricane season" was defined at the time, the present-day delineation of such is June 1 to November 30. The first system, a hurricane, developed on September 7 while the last, a tropical depression, transitioned into an extratropical cyclone on October 27. Of note, four of the six cyclones co-existed with another tropical cyclone during the season.
The 1919 Atlantic hurricane season was among the least active hurricane seasons in the Atlantic on record, featuring only five tropical storms. Of those five tropical cyclones, two of them intensified into a hurricane, with one strengthening into a major hurricane Two tropical depressions developed in the month of June, both of which caused negligible damage. A tropical storm in July brought minor damage to Pensacola, Florida, but devastated a fleet of ships. Another two tropical depressions formed in August, the first of which brought rainfall to the Lesser Antilles.
The 1913 Atlantic hurricane season was the third consecutive year with a tropical cyclone developing before June. Although no "hurricane season" was defined at the time, the present-day delineation of such is June 1 to November 30. The first system, a tropical depression, developed on May 5 while the last transitioned into an extratropical cyclone on October 30. Of note, the seventh and eighth cyclones existed simultaneously from August 30 to September 4.
The 1905 Atlantic hurricane season featured five known tropical cyclones, two of which made landfall in the United States. The first system was initially observed near the Windward Islands on September 6. The last system to dissipate, the fourth storm, transitioned into an extratropical cyclone on October 11, while located well southeast of Newfoundland. These dates fall within the period with the most tropical cyclone activity in the Atlantic. Between October 5 and October 10, the fourth and fifth system existed simultaneously.
The 1901 Atlantic hurricane season was the most active season without a major hurricane – tropical cyclones that reach at least Category 3 on the Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale – until 2013. The first system was initially observed in the northeastern Caribbean Sea on June 11. The fourteen and final system transitioned into an extratropical cyclone near Bermuda on November 5. These dates fall within the period with the most tropical cyclone activity in the Atlantic. Eight of the fourteen tropical cyclones existed simultaneously.
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