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|1960 Turkish coup d'etat|
|National Unity Committee||24th government of Turkey|
|Commanders and leaders|
| Gen. Cemal Gürsel |
Lt. Gen. Cemal Madanoğlu
Col. Alparslan Türkeş
| Celâl Bayar |
Fatin Rüştü Zorlu
|38 Committee members||-|
|Casualties and losses|
|2 soldiers, 1 civilian||7 Democrat Party Members|
The 1960 Turkish coup d'état (Turkish : 27 Mayıs Darbesi) was the first coup d'état in the Republic of Turkey. It took place on May 27, 1960. The coup was staged by a group of 38 young Turkish military officers, acting outside the military chain of command. The officers were de facto led by Cemal Madanoğlu until the actual coup date. After a threat by Ragıp Gümüşpala that he would move to quell the coup unless it is led by someone with a higher military rank than himself, the officers brought in General Cemal Gürsel as their leader. The coup was carried out against the democratically elected government of the Democrat Party, and ultimately resulted in the execution of its prime minister, Adnan Menderes, alongside two of his ministers, Fatin Rüştü Zorlu and Hasan Polatkan.
The incident took place at a time of both socio-political turmoil and economic hardship, as US aid from the Truman doctrine and the Marshall Plan was running out and so Prime Minister Adnan Menderes planned to visit Moscow in the hope of establishing alternative lines of credit.
Colonel Alparslan Türkeş was among the officers who led the coup.He was a member of the junta (National Unity Committee) and had been among the first 16 officers trained by the United States in 1948 to form a stay-behind counter-guerrilla. As such, he explicitly stated his anticommunism and his faith and allegiance to NATO and CENTO in his short address to nation, but he remained vague on the reasons of the coup. On the morning of May 27, Türkeş declared the coup over radio, which ultimately announced "the end of one period in Turkish history, and usher in a new one":
The Great Turkish Nation: Starting at 3:00 am on the 27th of May, the Turkish armed forces have taken over administration throughout the entire country. This operation, thanks to the close cooperation of all our citizens and security forces, has succeeded without loss of life. Until further notice, a curfew has been imposed, exempt only to members of the armed forces. We request our citizens to facilitate the duty of our armed forces, and assist in reestablishing the nationally desired democratic regime.
In a press conference on the following day, Cemal Gürsel emphasized that the "purpose and the aim of the coup is to bring the country with all speed to a fair, clean and solid democracy.... I want to transfer power and the administration of the nation to the free choice of the people"However, a younger group within the junta around Türkeş supported a steadfast military leadership, an authoritarian rule similar as it was in Ottoman times or during Mustafa Kemal Atatürks Government. This group then attempted to discharge from their offices 147 University teachers. This then led to a reaction from the officers within the junta who demanded a return to democracy and a multiparty system, following which Türkeş and his group were sent abroad.
The junta forced 235 generals and more than 3,000 other commissioned officers into retirement; purged more than 500 judges and public prosecutors and 1400 university faculty members and put the chief of the General Staff, the president, the prime minister and other members of the administration under arrest.It followed by the appointment of the commander of the army General Cemal Gürsel, as the provisional head of state, prime minister and the minister of defense.
The minister of the interior, Namık Gedik, committed suicide while he was detained in the Turkish Military Academy. President Celal Bayar, prime minister Adnan Menderes and several other members of the administration were put on trial before a court appointed by the junta on the island Yassıada in the Sea of Marmara. The politicians were charged with high treason, misuse of public funds and abrogation of the constitution.
The tribunals ended with the execution of Adnan Menderes, Minister of Foreign Affairs Fatin Rüştü Zorlu and Minister of Finance Hasan Polatkan on İmralı island on 16 September 1961. Celal Bayar was not hanged, but imprisoned on İmralı prison.
Constitutional referendum was held on 9 July 1961. A new constitution was drawn up to replace the one from 1924. It was approved by 61.7% of voters, with an 81.0% turnout.
A month after the execution of Menderes and other members of the Turkish government, general elections were held on 15 October 1961. The administrative authority was returned to civilians, but the military continued to dominate the political scene until October 1965.İsmet İnönü held the office of Prime Minister for the third time from 1961 to 1965. Turkish Army Colonel Talat Aydemir organised two failed coups d'état in February 1962 and May 1963. In the first free elections after the coup, in 1965, Süleyman Demirel was elected and held the office until 1971, when he was removed by another coup.
Cemal Gürsel was a Turkish army general who became the fourth President of Turkey after a coup.
Mahmut Celâl Bayar was a Turkish economist and politician who was the third President of Turkey from 1950 to 1960; previously he was Prime Minister of Turkey from 1937 to 1939.
Adnan Menderes was a Turkish politician. He was the Turkish prime minister between 1950 and 1960. He was one of the founders of the Democrat Party (DP) in 1946, the fourth legal opposition party of Turkey. He was tried and hanged under the military junta after the 1960 coup d'état, along with two other cabinet members, Fatin Rüştü Zorlu and Hasan Polatkan. One of the accusations brought against him was of him ordering the Istanbul pogrom against citizens of Greek ethnicity. He was the last Turkish political leader to be executed after a military coup and is also one of the four political leaders of the Turkish Republic to have had a mausoleum built in his honour.
Democracy and Freedom Island, also known as Yassıada is one of the Princes' Islands in the Sea of Marmara, to the southeast of Istanbul. The island was named Yassıada until 2013, when it was renamed “Democracy and Freedom Island” in order to remember the 1960 military coup, the first in the history of the republic. In the past, the island was named Plati . The island, which has an area of 183000 m², is officially a neighbourhood in the Adalar district of Istanbul Province, Turkey.
The multi-party period of the Republic of Turkey started with the establishment of the opposition Liberal Republican Party by Ali Fethi Okyar in 1930 after President Mustafa Kemal Atatürk asked Okyar to establish the party as part of an attempted transition to multi-party democracy in Turkey. It was soon closed by the Republican People's Party government, however, when Atatürk found the party to be too influenced by Islamist-rooted reactionary elements.
Dündar Taşer was a Turkish soldier and politician who was a leading figure in Turkish nationalism.
Fatin Rüştü Zorlu was a Turkish diplomat and politician. He was executed by hanging after the coup d'état in 1960 along with two other politicians.
Hasan Polatkan was a Turkish politician and Minister of Labor and Finance, who was executed by hanging after the coup d'état in 1960 along with two other cabinet members.
Hatırla Sevgili was a popular but controversial Turkish TV series. The series started on October 27, 2006 on the Turkish TV channel ATV, aired on Friday evenings at 22:15 hrs local time. After 68 episodes, the final one was aired on June 6, 2008.
Capital punishment was abolished in Turkey in 2004, and no prisoners have been executed since October 1984.
Emin Fahrettin Özdilek was a military officer and politician. He served as acting Prime Minister of Turkey in 1961.
Events in the year 1960 in Turkey.
Events in the year 1961 in Turkey.
The National Unity Committee was a military committee formed following the 1960 Turkish coup d'état. It dissolved with the 1961 general election.
İmralı prison is an F-Type high security prison on the island of İmralı in the Sea of Marmara in Turkey. It is currently used as a prison for a few prisoners from the Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK) and one prisoner of the Communist Party of Turkey/Marxist–Leninist (CKP/ML). The prison facility is guarded by the military and is also monitored over satellite imagery from space.
The Yassıada Trials were a series of criminal cases in Turkey brought by the military regime against politicians of the formerly ruling Democrat Party. Following the coup which removed the Democrats from power on May 27, 1960, the military junta known as the National Unity Committee (MBK) established a special court to try the politicians who had been removed. These trials were held in the prison on the Island of Democracy and Freedom. The trials began on 14 October 1960 and ended on 15 September 1961. They resulted in the execution of the former prime minister Adnan Menderes and two of his ministers.
The so-called 555K protests were the first example of civil disobedience in the history of Turkey. They were organised by students for 5pm on 5 May 1960 in Kızılay, Ankara to protest against the ruling Democrat Party.
The 1962 attempted coup in Turkey was led by the Commander of the Turkish Military Academy, Staff Colonel tr:Talat Aydemir and his associates, who were opposed to the democratically elected government in Turkey. Despite taking control of much of Ankara, the coup leaders quickly realised they could not prevail and surrendered without any loss of life occurring. Talat Aydemir went on to lead a further coup attempt in 1963.
The Republican People's Party was founded in 1919 during the Sivas Congress.
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