1962 Pacific hurricane season

Last updated

1962 Pacific hurricane season
1962 Pacific hurricane season summary map.png
Season summary map
Seasonal boundaries
First system formedJune 24, 1962
Last system dissipatedOctober 5, 1962
Strongest storm
NameDoreen
  Maximum winds85 mph (140 km/h)
(1-minute sustained)
Seasonal statistics
Total depressions18
Total storms16
Hurricanes2
Total fatalitiesUnknown
Total damage$11 million (1962 USD)
Related articles
Pacific hurricane seasons
1960, 1961, 1962, 1963, 1964

The 1962 Pacific hurricane season was a moderately active Pacific hurricane season that included two hurricane landfalls. The 1962 Pacific hurricane season officially started on May 15, 1962 in the eastern Pacific and June 1, 1962 in the Central Pacific Hurricane Center's area of responsibility and lasted until November 30, 1962 in both regions. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the northeastern Pacific Ocean. [1]

Contents

The first of two hurricane landfalls, Hurricane Valerie, struck northwestern Mexico in June. The other, Hurricane Doreen, hit further to the north of Valerie in October. The most impacting storm of the season was Tropical Storm Claudia, after its remnants dropped heavy rainfall in portions of Arizona. The rainfall left damaging flooding across rivers and towns. No people were killed, but damage totaled to $11 million (1962 USD). Moreover, Tropical Storm Bernie also made landfall along the Baja California peninsula, later providing rain to Arizona. An unusually high number of storms threatened the Palmyra Atoll, where only 1% of known Pacific tropical cyclones have threatened. In all, a total of 16 storms were observed, which was above average though only two (Valerie and Doreen) reached hurricane intensity.

Seasonal summary

Saffir–Simpson Hurricane Scale1962 Pacific hurricane season

With 16 named storms, the season was above the 1949-2006 average of 13 named storms and was the most active season ever recorded at that time; however, this record was broken in the 1968 Pacific hurricane season, which saw 18 storms. [2] [3] [4] Despite the activity, only two hurricane were observed and no major hurricanes (Category 3 or higher on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Wind Scale) were noted. These totals are well below their long-term averages of seven and three respectively. This season was part of a decade-long absence of major hurricanes; during the 1960s, only one major hurricane was observed and none were noted from 1960-66. However, it is possible that some storms were missed due to the lack of satellite coverage in the region; at that time, satellite data was still scarce, and 1962 is still four years shy of the start of the geostationary satellite era, which began in 1966. [2] Moreover, the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) was in the midst of a cold phase during this time period, which has a tendency to suppress Pacific hurricane activity. [3] [5] [6] During the season, tropical cyclone advisories were issued by the Naval Fleet Warning Central (NFWC) in Alameda, which held responsibility for the basin until 1970. [2]

Systems

Hurricane Valerie

Category 1 hurricane (SSHWS)
Valerie 1962 track.png  
DurationJune 24 – June 25
Peak intensity85 mph (140 km/h) (1-min)  1003  mbar  (hPa)

The first tropical cyclone of the season Hurricane Valerie was first observed on June 24, about 245 mi (400 km) west of Acapulco, Guerrero. [3] It moved northwestward along the coast, producing high seas and strong winds in southwestern Mexico. [7] Valerie was estimated to have attained peak winds of 85 mph (140 km/h). It turned to the northeast and struck near Mazatlán on June 25, dissipating early the next day. [3]

Tropical Storm Willa

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
WillaJul919621800UTCTIROS5.gif   Willa 1962 track.png
DurationJuly 8 – July 10
Peak intensity50 mph (85 km/h) (1-min)  1008  mbar  (hPa)

On July 8, Tropical Storm Willa developed south of the Baja California peninsula. It maintained a west-northwestward track throughout its duration, remaining a minimal tropical storm. On July 10, the storm dissipated. [3]

Tropical Storm Ava

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Ava 1962 track.png  
DurationAugust 16 – August 20
Peak intensity50 mph (85 km/h) (1-min)  1002  mbar  (hPa)

In the middle of August, a tropical storm formed off the southwest coast of Mexico. Given the name Ava, it tracked to the northwest before turning more to the north. It dissipated on August 20. [3]

Unnamed August tropical storm

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Sat196208212033zTIROSVUnnamedTS.png   04E 1962 track.png
DurationAugust 20 – August 22
Peak intensity50 mph (85 km/h) (1-min)  1002  mbar  (hPa)

As the previous storm was dissipating, another tropical storm developed to its west. Lasting only two days, it dissipated on August 22 about halfway between Hawaii and the west coast of Mexico. [3]

Hurricane "C"

Sat196208311820zHuC.png  
DurationAugust 24 – September 2
Peak intensityWinds not specified 

On August 24, satellite imagery indicated a hurricane with a defined eye was located over the central Pacific Ocean. It slowly weakened as it moved over lukewarm waters, and deteriorated more rapidly after wind shear increased. By August 28, the system consisted of a circulation with only weak associated convection. It weakened to a tropical depression on August 30, although it remained a tropical cyclone until September 2. At that time it was last observed about 200 mi (320 km) south of Hilo, Hawaii. [4] [3]

Tropical Storm Bernice

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Sat196209061500zBernice.png   Bernice 1962 track.png
DurationSeptember 2 – September 6
Peak intensity50 mph (85 km/h) (1-min)  986  mbar  (hPa)

A tropical storm named Bernice developed on September 2 west of Jalisco. After moving northwestward for two days, the storm turned to the north, striking Baja California on September 6 before dissipating. [3] The remnants of the storm later brought moderate rain to Arizona. [8]

Tropical Storm Claudia

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Sat1962092220zClaudia.png   Claudia 1962 track.png
DurationSeptember 20 – September 24
Peak intensity50 mph (85 km/h) (1-min)  990  mbar  (hPa)

Later in the month, another storm similar to Bernice existed. Tropical Storm Claudia formed on September 20 to the southwest of Acapulco. It maintained a general northwest movement for its duration. On September 23, Claudia crossed over the western portion of the Baja California peninsula, moved over water, and again struck the peninsula before dissipating. [3]

The remnant moisture caused severe flash floods in the vicinity of Tucson, with 5 to 7 inches (130 to 180 mm) of precipitation falling over the headwaters of the washes of Santa Rosa, Jackrabbit, and Brawley during a 14- to 15-hour period. [9] Over 7 inches (180 mm) of rainfall also fell near the Arizona-Sonora Desert Museum. [10] The ensuing flood of the Santa Cruz River and its tributaries produced a path of destruction about 100 miles (160 km) long and up to 8 miles (13 km) wide. Santa Rosa Wash conveyed 53,100 cubic feet per second (1,500  m3/s ) at its peak; Los Robles Wash carried up to 32,600 cu ft/s (920 m3/s), while the Santa Cruz River proper peaked at 9,200 cu ft/s (260 m3/s). The washes and rivers reached depths of up to 20 feet (6.1 m), and overflowed its banks in places by 1 to 6 feet (0.30 to 1.83 m). [9] Flooding from the storm inundated the towns of Marana and Sells, both in Pima County. [10] Helicopters rescued 27 families from Fort Huachuca. There was one indirect death related to the flooding, due to an ambulance not being able to reach an elderly woman. The flooding also killed many cattle, [11] and damage in Pima and Pinal counties exceeded $11 million (1962 USD), [9] much of it from crop damage. [12] The flooding prompted a disaster declaration by former governor Paul Fannin, which provided funds for the affected people. [13]

Unnamed September tropical storm

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Sep261962TSErnPac.gif   08E 1962 track.png
DurationSeptember 25 – September 30
Peak intensity50 mph (85 km/h) (1-min)  1001  mbar  (hPa)

On September 26, a tropical storm developed off the southwest coast of Mexico. The storm moved to the west-northwest for several days, dissipating on September 30. [3]

September and October Central Pacific tropical cyclones

In September and October, satellite imagery indicated that there were five tropical storms in the central Pacific Ocean. The first, designated Tropical Storm "R", passed about 200 mi (320 km) north of Palmyra Island on September 28. It represented about 1% of storms in the basin to directly affect the island, after it produced westerly winds there. Tropical Storm "T" existed on September 29 without affecting land. Similarly, Tropical Storm "X" existed on October 2 over open Pacific waters. The next day, Tropical Storm "Z" passed near Johnston Island during the Operation Dominic I and II nuclear tests, although no impact was reported. Lastly, satellite imagery indicated Tropical Storm "A" on October 27 to the northeast of Palmyra Island. [4]

Hurricane Doreen

Category 1 hurricane (SSHWS)
Doreen 1962 track.png  
DurationOctober 1 – October 5
Peak intensity85 mph (140 km/h) (1-min)  980  mbar  (hPa)

The last storm of the season was Hurricane Doreen, which formed on October 1 off the southwest Mexican coast. It moved northwestward before curving to the north, although later it turned again to the northwest. Doreen was estimated to have attained peak winds of 85 mph (140 km/h). On October 4, Doreen made its closest approach to the southern tip of the Baja California peninsula as it began a motion to the northeast. Later that day, the hurricane moved over southern Sonora before dissipating on October 5. [3] Hurricane Doreen was responsible for light rainfall in the U.S. states of Arizona, New Mexico, and West Texas. [8]

Tropical depressions

There were two non-developing tropical depressions during the season.

Surface observations and satellite imagery indicated the formation of a tropical depression about 275 mi (443 km) north of Palmyra Island on July 29. It moved west-northwestward without developing further, and eventually dissipated on August 2 over the central Pacific. [4]

On August 31, the Joint Hurricane Warning Center named a tropical depression in the Central Pacific basin as Tropical Depression 63, following the West Pacific's numbering. The advisories were discontinued 275 nautical miles (509 km) from the South Point of Big Island, where it was no longer considered a threat to shipping lanes or any land masses. [4]

Storm names

The following names were used for named storms that formed in the eastern Pacific in 1962. No names were retired from this list. This is a part of list 1 and list 2, which was used from 1960-1965. [14] [15] Names that were not assigned are marked in gray.

List 1

  • Annette (unused)
  • Bonny (unused)
  • Celeste (unused)
  • Diana (unused)
  • Estelle (unused)
  • Fernanda (unused)
  • Gwen (unused)
  • Hyacinth (unused)
  • Iva (unused)
  • Joanne (unused)
  • Kate (unused)
  • Liza (unused)
  • Madeline (unused)
  • Naomi (unused)
  • Orla (unused)
  • Pauline (unused)
  • Rebecca (unused)
  • Simone (unused)
  • Tara (unused)
  • Valerie
  • Willa

List 2

  • Ava
  • Bernice
  • Claudia
  • Doreen
  • Emily (unused)
  • Florence (unused)
  • Glenda (unused)
  • Hazel (unused)
  • Irah (unused)
  • Jennifer (unused)
  • Katherine (unused)
  • Lillian (unused)
  • Mona (unused)
  • Natalie (unused)
  • Odessa (unused)
  • Prudence (unused)
  • Roslyn (unused)
  • Silvia (unused)
  • Tillie (unused)
  • Victoria (unused)
  • Wallie (unused)

See also

Related Research Articles

2004 Pacific hurricane season Period of formation of tropical cyclones in the Eastern Pacific Ocean in 2004

The 2004 Pacific hurricane season was notable in that no tropical cyclone of at least tropical storm intensity moved ashore, an unusual occurrence. The season officially began on May 15 in the eastern Pacific, and on June 1 in the central Pacific; it officially ended in both basins on November 30. These dates conventionally delimit the period during each year when a majority of tropical cyclones form. Activity throughout the year fell slightly below the long-term average, with 12 named storms, 6 hurricanes, and 3 major hurricanes. The season was reflected by an Accumulated Cyclone Energy (ACE) index of 71 units.

2003 Pacific hurricane season Summary of the relevant tropical storms

The 2003 Pacific hurricane season was the first season to feature no major hurricanes – storms of Category 3 intensity or higher – since 1977. It produced an unusually large number of tropical cyclones which affected Mexico. The most notable cyclones during the year were Hurricanes Ignacio and Marty, which killed 2 and 12 people in Mexico, respectively, and were collectively responsible for about US$1 billion in damage. Three other Pacific storms, two of which were hurricanes, and three Atlantic storms also had a direct impact on Mexico. The only other significant storm of the season was Hurricane Jimena, which passed just to the south of Hawaii, the first storm to directly threaten Hawaii for several years.

1999 Pacific hurricane season Period of formation of tropical cyclones in the Eastern Pacific Ocean in 1999

The 1999 Pacific hurricane season was one of the least active Pacific hurricane seasons on record. The season officially began on May 15 in the Eastern Pacific, and on June 1 in the Central Pacific; in both basins, it ended on November 30. These dates conventionally delimit the period during which most tropical cyclones form in the northeastern Pacific Ocean. The first tropical cyclone of the season, Hurricane Adrian, developed on June 18, while the final storm of the season, Tropical Storm Irwin, dissipated on October 11. No storms developed in the Central Pacific during the season. However, two storms from the Eastern Pacific, Dora and Eugene, entered the basin, with the former entering as a hurricane.

1998 Pacific hurricane season Summary of the relevant tropical storms

The 1998 Pacific hurricane season was a below average Pacific hurricane season. It had six major hurricanes, which was well above average. The season officially started on May 15 in the eastern Pacific and on June 1 in the central Pacific, and ended on November 30; these dates conventionally delimit the period during which most tropical cyclones form in that region. The first tropical cyclone developed on June 11, about ten days later than the normal start of the season. The final storm of the year, Hurricane Madeline, dissipated on October 20. Storm activity in the Central Pacific Hurricane Center's warning zone was low, with just one tropical depression observed in the region. Two tropical cyclones from the eastern Pacific also entered the central Pacific; the former did so as a hurricane.

1995 Pacific hurricane season Summary of the relevant tropical storms

The 1995 Pacific hurricane season was the least active Pacific hurricane season since 1979. Of the eleven tropical cyclones that formed during the season, four affected land, with the most notable storm of the season being Hurricane Ismael, which killed at least 116 people in Mexico. The strongest hurricane in the season was Hurricane Juliette, which reached peak winds of 150 mph (240 km/h), but did not significantly affect land. Hurricane Adolph was an early-season Category 4 hurricane. Hurricane Henriette brushed the Baja California Peninsula in early September.

1990 Pacific hurricane season Period of formation of tropical cyclones in the Eastern Pacific Ocean in 1990

The 1990 Pacific hurricane season was a very active season which observed 21 named storms within the basin. The season also produced the fourth highest ACE index value on record. The season was officially started on May 15 in the eastern Pacific, and on June 1 in the central Pacific, and lasted until November 30. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the northeastern Pacific Ocean. However, these bounds were slightly exceeded when Hurricane Alma formed on May 12.

1989 Pacific hurricane season Period of formation of tropical cyclones in the Eastern Pacific Ocean in 1989

The 1989 Pacific hurricane season officially started on May 15, 1989, in the eastern Pacific, and June 1, 1989, in the central Pacific, and lasted until November 30, 1989. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the northeastern Pacific Ocean. A total of 17 storms and 9 hurricanes formed, which was near long-term averages. Four hurricanes reached major hurricane status on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale.

1988 Pacific hurricane season Period of formation of tropical cyclones in the Eastern Pacific Ocean in 1988

The 1988 Pacific hurricane season was a Pacific hurricane season that saw a below-average amount of tropical cyclones form, the first time since 1981. It officially began May 15, in the eastern Pacific, and June 1, in the central Pacific and lasted until November 30. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the northeastern Pacific Ocean. The first named storm, Tropical Storm Aletta, formed on June 16, and the last-named storm, Tropical Storm Miriam, was previously named Hurricane Joan in the Atlantic Ocean before crossing Central America and re-emerging in the eastern Pacific; Miriam continued westward and dissipated on November 2.

1986 Pacific hurricane season Period of formation of tropical cyclones in the Eastern Pacific Ocean in 1986

The 1986 Pacific hurricane season saw several tropical cyclones contribute to significant flooding to the Central United States. The hurricane season officially started May 15, 1986, in the eastern Pacific, and June 1, 1986 in the central Pacific, and lasted until November 30, 1986 in both regions. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the northeastern Pacific Ocean. A total of 17 named storms and 9 hurricanes developed during the season; this is slightly above the averages of 15 named storms and 8 hurricanes, respectively. In addition, 26 tropical depressions formed in the eastern Pacific during 1986, which, at the time, was the second most ever recorded; only the 1982 Pacific hurricane season saw a higher total.

1984 Pacific hurricane season hurricane season in the Pacific Ocean

The 1984 Pacific hurricane season was a very active season, producing 21 named storms. When Fausto became a tropical storm on July 3, it was the earliest the sixth named storm was named. This record would be tied in 1985 and broken 34 years later. The season produced 26 tropical cyclones, of which 21 developed into named storms; 13 cyclones attained hurricane status, of which three reached major hurricane status. The season officially started on May 15, 1984, in the eastern Pacific, and June 1, 1984, in the central Pacific, and lasted until November 30, 1984. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when the vast majority tropical cyclones form in the northeastern Pacific Ocean. The strongest hurricane of the season was Hurricane Douglas, which attained Category 4 status on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale in the open Pacific.

1973 Pacific hurricane season hurricane season in the Pacific ocean

The 1973 Pacific hurricane season was an event in tropical cyclone meteorology. The most important system this year was Hurricane Ava, which was the most intense Pacific hurricane known at the time. Several other much weaker tropical cyclones came close to, or made landfall on, the Pacific coast of Mexico. The most serious of these was Hurricane Irah, which downed power and communication lines in parts of the Baja California Peninsula; the other landfalling storms caused rain and some flooding. No tropical cyclone this season caused any deaths.

1977 Pacific hurricane season hurricane season in the Pacific Ocean

The 1977 Pacific hurricane season stands alongside 2010 as the least active Pacific hurricane season since reliable records began in 1971. Only eight tropical storms formed throughout the year; four further intensified into hurricanes, yet none strengthened into major hurricanes—a Category 3 or stronger on the Saffir–Simpson scale—an occurrence not seen again until 2003. Most tropical cyclones remained over the open eastern Pacific; however, the remnants of hurricanes Doreen and Heather led to heavy rainfall which damaged or destroyed structures and flooded roadways throughout the Southwest United States. Notably, Hurricane Anita which originally formed in the Gulf of Mexico made the rare trek across Mexico into the eastern Pacific, briefly existing as a tropical depression. Eight deaths were recorded while damage reached $39.6 million.

1979 Pacific hurricane season hurricane season in the Pacific Ocean

The 1979 Pacific hurricane season was an inactive Pacific hurricane season. It officially started on May 15, 1979, in the eastern Pacific, and June 1, 1979, in the central Pacific, and lasted until November 30, 1979. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the northeast Pacific Ocean.

1970 Pacific hurricane season hurricane season in the Pacific Ocean

The 1970 Pacific hurricane season began on May 15, 1970 in the east Pacific, and on June 1, 1970 in the central Pacific. It ended on November 30, 1970. These dates conventionally delimit the period of time when tropical cyclones form in the eastern Pacific Ocean.

Tropical Storm Norma (1970) Pacific tropical storm in 1970

Tropical Storm Norma was the fourteenth named tropical cyclone of the 1970 Pacific hurricane season. The storm formed off the coast of Mexico and intensified rapidly, peaking as a strong tropical storm on September 3 before starting a weakening trend which saw it dissipate before making landfall on Baja California.

1969 Pacific hurricane season hurricane season in the Pacific Ocean

The 1969 Pacific hurricane season was an event in meteorology. It officially started on May 15, 1969, in the eastern Pacific and lasted until November 30, 1969. However, the first named storm, Ava, did not form until July 1, the latest date that the first named storm of a season formed. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the northeastern Pacific Ocean.

Hurricane Lester (1992) Category 1 Pacific hurricane in 1992

Hurricane Lester was the first Pacific tropical cyclone to enter the United States as a tropical storm since 1967. The twelfth named storm and seventh hurricane of the 1992 Pacific hurricane season, Lester formed on August 20 from a tropical wave southwest of Mexico. The tropical storm moved generally northwestward while steadily intensifying. After turning to the north, approaching the Mexican coast, Lester attained hurricane status. The hurricane reached peak winds of 85 mph (140 km/h) before making landfall on west-central Baja California. The system weakened while moving across the peninsula and then over northwestern Mexico. Not long after entering Arizona, Lester weakened to a tropical depression, and degenerated into an extratropical low on August 24, 1992, over New Mexico. The storm's remnants later merged with the remnants of Hurricane Andrew and another frontal system on August 29.

2006 Pacific hurricane season Summary of the relevant tropical storms

The 2006 Pacific hurricane season was the most active since 2000, producing 19 tropical storms or hurricanes. Eighteen developed within the National Hurricane Center (NHC) area of warning responsibility, which is east of 140°W, and one storm formed between 140°W and the International Date Line, which is under the jurisdiction of the Central Pacific Hurricane Center (CPHC). Of the 19 total storms, eleven became hurricanes, of which six attained major hurricane status. Within the NHC portion of the basin, the season officially began on May 15, and in the CPHC portion, it started on June 1; the season officially ended on November 30. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the eastern Pacific basin.

Hurricane Irene–Olivia Category 3 Atlantic and Pacific hurricane in 1971

Hurricane Irene–Olivia was the first actively tracked tropical cyclone to move into the eastern Pacific Ocean from the Atlantic basin. It originated as a tropical depression on September 11, 1971, in the tropical Atlantic. The cyclone tracked nearly due westward at a low latitude, passing through the southern Windward Islands and later over northern South America. In the southwest Caribbean Sea, it intensified to a tropical storm and later a hurricane. Irene made landfall on southeastern Nicaragua on September 19, and maintained its circulation as it crossed the low-lying terrain of the country. Restrengthening after reaching the Pacific, Irene was renamed Hurricane Olivia, which ultimately attained peak winds of 115 mph (185 km/h). Olivia weakened significantly before moving ashore on the Baja California Peninsula on September 30; the next day it dissipated.

Hurricane Doreen (1977) Category 1 Pacific hurricane in 1977

Hurricane Doreen was considered the worst tropical cyclone to affect California in 32 years. The tenth tropical cyclone, fourth named storm, and second hurricane of the otherwise inactive 1977 Pacific hurricane season, it developed on August 13. The depression tracked northwestward, intensifying into Tropical Storm Doreen later that day. Further strengthening occurred over the subsequent days, and Doreen attained its peak as a minimal hurricane early on August 15. Executing a turn towards the north-northwest, Doreen made its first landfall as a Category 1 hurricane on the Saffir–Simpson Hurricane Wind Scale near Puerto San Carlos. Drifting offshore, Doreen made a second and final landfall near the northern portion of the Baja California as a tropical storm before rapidly weakening to a tropical depression. The tropical depression dissipated south of southern California on August 18.

References

  1. Neal, Dorst. "When is hurricane season?". Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory. Archived from the original on December 6, 2010. Retrieved November 25, 2010.
  2. 1 2 3 Blake, Eric S; Gibney, Ethan J; Brown, Daniel P; Mainelli, Michelle; Franklin, James L; Kimberlain, Todd B; Hammer, Gregory R (2009). Tropical Cyclones of the Eastern North Pacific Basin, 1949-2006 (PDF). Archived from the original on July 28, 2013. Retrieved June 14, 2013.
  3. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 National Hurricane Center; Hurricane Research Division; Central Pacific Hurricane Center. "The Northeast and North Central Pacific hurricane database 1949–2018". United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service. A guide on how to read the database is available here.
  4. 1 2 3 4 5 Central Pacific Hurricane Center (2007-05-04). "The 1962 Central Pacific Tropical Cyclone Season" . Retrieved 2011-09-26.
  5. "Variability of rainfall from tropical cyclones in Northwestern Mexico" (PDF). Atmosfera. 2008. p. 8. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 16, 2015. Retrieved October 30, 2011.
  6. Franco Biondi; Alexander Gershunov; Daniel R. Cayan (2001). "North Pacific Decadal Climate Variability since 1661". Journal of Climate. 14 (1): 5–10. Bibcode:2001JCli...14....5B. doi: 10.1175/1520-0442(2001)014<0005:NPDCVS>2.0.CO;2 . Retrieved January 27, 2013.
  7. Staff writer (1962-06-27). "First Hurricane". Lodi News-Sentinel. United Press International. Retrieved 2011-09-26.
  8. 1 2 "The Effects of Tropical Cyclones on the Southwestern United States" (PDF). NOAA Technical Memorandum. National Weather Service Western Region. 1980. Retrieved June 4, 2013.
  9. 1 2 3 U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. "Santa Cruz River, Paseo de las Iglesias (Pima County, Arizona) Final Feasibility Report and Environmental Impact Statement" (PDF). USACE. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-09-29. Retrieved 2011-07-21.
  10. 1 2 National Weather Service, Phoenix Regional Office. "Top Arizona Hurricane/Tropical Storm Events" . Retrieved 2006-03-19.
  11. Staff writer (1962-09-25). "Flood Threatens Arizona Indians". Lodi News-Sentinel. United Press International. Retrieved 2011-09-27.
  12. Staff Writer (1962-09-28). "Crop Flood Damage High in Arizona". The Spokesman-Review. Associated Press. Retrieved 2011-09-27.
  13. Staff writer (1962-09-28). "Emergency Disaster Declared in Arizona". Schenectady Gazette. United Press International. Retrieved 2011-09-27.
  14. Unattributed (1970). "National Hurricane Operations Plan 1970 – Tropical Cyclone Names" (PDF). Environmental Science Services Administration, Office of the Federal Coordinator for Meteorological Services and Supporting Research. US Department of Commerce. pp. 96–98. Retrieved August 7, 2011.
  15. Padgett, Gary (July 11, 2008). "Monthly Global Tropical Cyclone Summary: November 2007 First Installment". Australian Severe Weather. Retrieved February 10, 2010.