1964 Atlantic hurricane season

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1964 Atlantic hurricane season
1964 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png
Season summary map
Seasonal boundaries
First system formedJune 2, 1964
Last system dissipatedNovember 10, 1964
Strongest storm
Name Cleo
  Maximum winds150 mph (240 km/h)
(1-minute sustained)
  Lowest pressure938 mbar (hPa; 27.7 inHg)
Seasonal statistics
Total depressions13
Total storms13
Hurricanes7
Major hurricanes
(Cat. 3+)
5
Total fatalities271
Total damage~ $640.63 million (1964 USD)
Related articles
Atlantic hurricane seasons
1962, 1963, 1964, 1965, 1966

The 1964 Atlantic hurricane season featured the highest number of U.S.-landfalling hurricanes since 1933. [1] The season officially began on June 15, and lasted until November 30. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the Atlantic basin. The season was above average, with thirteen named storms, seven hurricanes, and five major hurricanes. The first system, an unnamed tropical storm, developed on June 2, almost two weeks before the official start of the season. Striking Florida on June 6, the storm brought localized flooding to portions of Cuba and the Southeastern United States, leaving about $1 million in damage. The next storm, also unnamed, developed near the end of July; it did not impact land.

Contents

The effects of Hurricanes Cleo, Dora, and Isbell combined were devastating to Florida. Cleo also brought destruction to portions of the Caribbean, especially Guadeloupe and Haiti. After moving inland, Cleo brought flooding to states such as Virginia. Overall, the storm caused 220 deaths and about $198.5 million in damage. [nb 1] Dora lashed much of North Florida and southeastern Georgia with hurricane-force winds, leaving five fatalities and around $280 million in damage. In October, Isbell brought strong winds and several tornadoes to Florida, as well as flooding to Cuba and The Carolinas. Isbell killed seven people and left approximately $30 million in damage.

The strongest tropical cyclone of the season was Hurricane Cleo, a powerful Category 4 hurricane that severely affected areas in the Caribbean, including the Leeward Islands, Haiti, and Cuba. Cleo went on to hit the United States, in the eastern Florida peninsula as a minimal Category 2 hurricane, particularly in Miami, Florida, where the storm brought severe damage to the state alone, and bringing heavy rain, and severe flooding to the Carolinas in the United States East Coast as a tropical storm. The names Cleo, Dora, and Hilda were retired following the season. Collectively, the tropical cyclones resulted in 271 fatalities and approximately $640.63 million in damage.

Season summary

Hurricane IsbellHurricane HildaHurricane Gladys (1964)Hurricane DoraHurricane CleoTropical Storm Abby (1964)Saffir–Simpson scale1964 Atlantic hurricane season
Track of Hurricane Dora as it approached North Florida Hurricane Dora 1964 Florida track.png
Track of Hurricane Dora as it approached North Florida

The Atlantic hurricane season officially began on June 15, 1964. [2] It was a slightly above average season in which thirteen tropical storms formed, [3] compared with the 1950–2000 average of 9.6 named storms. [4] Seven of these reached hurricane status, [3] which is slightly higher than the 1950–2000 average of 5.9. [4] Five of the seven hurricanes reached major hurricane status Category 3 or higher on the Saffir–Simpson scale above the 1950–2000 mean of 2.3 per season. [3] [4] Prior to the season, National Hurricane Center director Gordon Dunn noted that the probability of a hurricane striking the United States was "astronomical." [5] The tropical cyclones of the 1964 Atlantic hurricane season collectively caused at least 271 deaths and about $640.63 million in damage. [6] The season officially ended on November 30, 1964. [2]

The first system, an unnamed tropical storm, developed on June 2. [3] It struck Florida as a tropical depression and then strengthened into a tropical storm while out at sea. The storm ceased to exist on June 11. Thereafter, the season went dormant for nearly seven weeks, as the next cyclone, another unnamed storm, did not form until July 23. This would be followed by the development of a third unnamed system on July 28. Tropical cyclogenesis increased in August, which had four tropical cyclones, Abby, Brenda, Cleo, and Dora. The strongest storm of the season, Cleo, peaked with maximum sustained winds of 150 mph (240 km/h) and a minimum barometric pressure of 938  mbar (27.7  inHg ). Four additional storms originated in September, including Ethel, Florence, Gladys, and Hilda. Hurricane Isbell was the sole tropical cyclone to form in the month of October. The final system, another unnamed storm, existed developed on November 5 and dissipated on November 10. [3]

The season's activity was reflected with an accumulated cyclone energy (ACE) rating of 153. [1] ACE is, broadly speaking, a measure of the power of the hurricane multiplied by the length of time it existed, so storms that last a long time, as well as particularly strong hurricanes, have high ACEs. It is only calculated for full advisories on tropical systems at or exceeding 39 mph (63 km/h), which is tropical storm strength. [7]

Systems

Tropical Storm One

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Temporary cyclone north.svg   1964 Atlantic tropical storm 1 track.png
DurationJune 2 – June 11
Peak intensity70 mph (110 km/h) (1-min)  989  mbar  (hPa)

A disturbance that moved out of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) developed into a tropical depression to the east of British Honduras (modern day Belize) on June 2. [3] [8] :177 Moving slowly northward to north-northeastward across the Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico, the depression failed to intensify significantly. Shortly after 12:00  UTC on June 6, it made landfall just south of Cedar Key, Florida, with winds of 30 mph (45 km/h). Early the following day, the depression emerged into the Atlantic Ocean near Jacksonville and began to strengthen and move northeastward. While located offshore South Carolina on June 7, the system became a tropical storm. Further deepening occurred slowly, with the storm peaking with winds of 70 mph (110 km/h) late on June 9. [3] By June 11, it was absorbed by an extratropical low while located about 350 mi (560 km) south-southeast of Sable Island in Nova Scotia. [8] :177

The storm brought local flooding to portions of western Cuba and the Southeastern United States. Some areas in North Florida experienced considerable damage from strong winds and hail associated with thunderstorm, particularly in Cross City. Damage in the Jacksonville area alone was over $300,000. [8] :177 A few gale warnings were issued between Myrtle Beach, South Carolina, and Nags Head, North Carolina. More than 8 in (200 mm) of rain in the former resulted in inundated streets and overflowing streams. Additionally, about 20 in (510 mm) of water covered streets in downtown Conway, South Carolina. [9] Overall, the storm caused about $1 million in damage. [8] :177

Tropical Storm Two

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Temporary cyclone north.svg   1964 Atlantic tropical storm 2 track.png
DurationJuly 23 – July 26
Peak intensity60 mph (95 km/h) (1-min)  1001  mbar  (hPa)

A low-pressure area formed near Columbia, South Carolina, early on July 23 and became a tropical depression. Due to its association with a mid to upper-level trough through July 25, the depression may have been a subtropical cyclone, though such a classification could not be confirmed prior to when satellite imagery became routine. [10] :387 The depression moved east-northeastward and emerged into the Atlantic near Kitty Hawk, North Carolina, early on July 24. Several hours later, the depression intensified into a tropical storm. [3] Based on ship data and baroclinic intensification, the storm likely peaked with maximum sustained winds of 60 mph (95 km/h) just before becoming extratropical about 205 mi (330 km) of Nantucket, Massachusetts, around 12:00 UTC on July 26. [10] :389 The extratropical remnants moved northeastward towards Atlantic Canada, [3] until another extratropical cyclone absorbed it near the south coast of Newfoundland late on July 27. [10] :389

Hurricane Three

Category 1 hurricane (SSHWS)
Temporary cyclone north.svg   1964 Atlantic hurricane 3 track.png
DurationJuly 28 – August 2
Peak intensity85 mph (140 km/h) (1-min)  990  mbar  (hPa)

Television Infrared Observation Satellite (TIROS) indicated an area of disturbed weather with a weak surface circulation in the vicinity of Cape Verde on July 25. [11] Reports from a reconnaissance aircraft indicate that a tropical depression developed at 06:00 UTC on July 28, while located about halfway between the Leeward Islands and the northernmost islands of Cape Verde. [11] [3] Initially the depression moved rapidly west-northwestward, which likely caused the minimal intensification. By July 30, a north-northwest to south-southeast oriented trough forced the depression to re-curve north-northwestward. [11]

While situated about 300 mi (485 km) east of Bermuda on July 31, it began heading northeastward. Later that day, the depression finally organized further and developed a well-defined rainband. The Atlantic hurricane database indicates that the depression strengthened into a tropical storm at 18:00 UTC on July 31, due to ships reports of winds reaching 46 mph (74 km/h). [11] [3] On August 1, it intensified further into a hurricane. Around that time, maximum sustained winds peaked at 85 mph (137 km/h). [3] The storm continued moving rapidly northeastward and began to interact with a cold front. [11] It transitioned into an extratropical cyclone on August 2, while located about 525 mi (845 km) east of Cape Race, Newfoundland. [3]

Tropical Storm Abby

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Tropical Storm Abby 1964 radar.png   Abby 1964 track.png
DurationAugust 5 – August 8
Peak intensity70 mph (110 km/h) (1-min)  1000  mbar  (hPa)

A weak trough developed into a tropical depression late on August 5 while located about 225 mi (360 km) south of Dauphin Island, Alabama. [12] [3] The depression moved westward and initially remained disorganized. [12] [3] At 12:00 UTC on August 7, the depression strengthened into Tropical Storm Abby. [3] It was a small tropical cyclone, spanning a diameter of less than 100 mi (160 km). [12] The storm quickly intensified further late on August 7. A few hours later, Abby made landfall near Matagorda, Texas, at just below hurricane intensity. [3] Abby may have reached hurricane status, but the lack of definitive observations prevented an upgrade. [8] :178 It weakened to a tropical depression early on August 8, before dissipating later that day. [3]

Overall, impact from this system was minor. In Texas, precipitation peaked at 6.14 in (156 mm) at the Victoria Regional Airport. [13] However, only localized flooding occurred and rainfall was mostly beneficial. In the city of Victoria, several streets were temporarily inundated with water. [14] A fishing company in Matagorda lost a portion of its roof. [15] Abby resulted in an estimated $750,000 in losses, [8] :177 with $150,000 in damage to property and $600,000 to crops. The impacts from the storm were most severe in Jackson and Victoria counties, where damage to crops were estimated at $275,000 and $250,000, respectively. [16]

Tropical Storm Brenda

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Temporary cyclone north.svg   Brenda 1964 track.png
DurationAugust 8 – August 10
Peak intensity50 mph (85 km/h) (1-min)  1006  mbar  (hPa)

A minor trough of low pressure was situated west of Bermuda in early August. An airline crew member observed a low-level circular cloud forming at 32.0°N, 69.0°W at 18:00 UTC on August 7. [17] Early on August 8, a tropical depression developed about 135 mi (215 km) northwest of Bermuda. It moved east-southeastward and strengthened into Tropical Storm Brenda six hours later. At 13:00 UTC on August 8, the cyclone struck Bermuda with winds of 50 mph (85 km/h). [3] The island experienced sustained winds up to 45 mph (72 km/h) and gusts up to 65 mph (105 km/h). A tornado damaged several aircraft, most of which were privately owned. [17] Damage reached approximately $275,000. [8] :177

Shortly after moving across Bermuda on August 8, spiral bands appeared on the island's radar. [17] Advisories on Brenda were not initiated until 18:00 UTC on August 8, due to sparsity of data, making it difficult to confirm the existence of a tropical cyclone. [18] A cold front caused the storm to re-curve northeastward on August 9. [17] Brenda then began weakening and dissipated late on the following day, while located about 585 mi (940 km) east-northeast of Bermuda. [3] [18]

Hurricane Cleo

Category 4 hurricane (SSHWS)
Hurricane Cleo 23 August 1964 TIROS VIII.png   Cleo 1964 track.png
DurationAugust 20 – September 5
Peak intensity150 mph (240 km/h) (1-min)  938  mbar  (hPa)

A tropical wave developed into Tropical Storm Cleo while located about 1,000 mi (1,610 km) east of Barbados late on August 20. [8] :178 [3] It continued west-northwestward, quickly intensifying into a hurricane later on August 21. Cleo rapidly deepened and reached Category 3 early on August 22. Several hours later, Cleo struck Marie-Galante and the main island of Guadeloupe with winds of 125 mph (205 km/h). The storm then intensified into a Category 4 hurricane and entered the Caribbean Sea. While located south of the Dominican Republic around 18:00 UTC on August 23, Cleo attained its peak intensity with winds of 155 mph (249 km/h). The hurricane then made landfall near Les Cayes, Haiti, on August 25 at the same intensity. [3] The storm re-emerged into the Caribbean hours later as a Category 2 hurricane but weakened to Category 1 intensity around 12:00 UTC. Cleo briefly moved ashore near Cape Cruz, Cuba, with winds of 80 mph (130 km/h). [3]

The cyclone emerged into the Gulf of Guacanayabo, before striking Sancti Spíritus Province as a minimal hurricane early on August 26. Cleo briefly weakened to a tropical storm before emerging into the Atlantic and re-strengthening, becoming a hurricane again at 18:00 UTC. Now moving north-northwestward, the system reached Category 2 intensity early on August 27, hours before striking Miami Beach, Florida, with winds of 110 mph (175 km/h). The system quickly weakened inland, falling to tropical storm intensity near Port St. Lucie later that day. Cleo briefly re-emerged into the Atlantic off the coast of North Florida, before making another landfall on St. Simons Island, Georgia, early on August 29 with winds of 60 mph (95 km/h). Cleo weakened to a tropical depression over South Carolina on August 30 but did not dissipate. Thereafter, the cyclone curved northeastward and eventually eastward while crossing the Carolinas and Virginia. Cleo re-intensified into a tropical storm while re-entering the Atlantic near Norfolk, Virginia, on September 1. It moved east-northeastward and became a hurricane again about 24 hours later. Late on September 3, Cleo became a Category 2 hurricane again. The cyclone then to the northeast and lost tropical characteristics, becoming extratropical to the southeast of Newfoundland on September 4. The remnants meandered in the Atlantic until dissipating about halfway between southern Greenland and Ireland on September 10. [3]

In Guadeloupe, the storm destroyed 1,000 homes and caused extensive damage to roofs, roads, and power lines. Additionally, the banana crop was ruined. Overall, there were 14 deaths and about $50 million in damage. Cleo caused seven fatalities and at least $2 million in damage in Dominican Republic. [19] :C–D Strong winds in Haiti caused severe damage. On Île-à-Vache, 50 houses either had the roof caved in or the walls knocked over. In Les Cayes, 70% of houses were destroyed, as was the sugar mill. In rural areas outside of the city, 90% to 95% of dwellings were demolished. [20] About half of the houses in Camp-Perrin were leveled. Near Saint-Louis-du-Sud, many sugarcane crops, particularly on the west side of the city, were ruined. [21] The storm left 192 fatalities and $5 million in damage in Haiti. [8] :179 [19] :D Impact in Cuba was minor, with one death and $2 million in damage. [19] :D In Florida, Cleo left damage along much of the east coast. Winds left about 620,000 people without electricity in South Florida alone. [22] Throughout the state, the storm damaged almost 19,000 homes and destroyed 4 others, while 2,187 mobile homes were flattened or suffered severe impact. Additionally, 605 small businesses were damaged or destroyed. There were three deaths in Broward County and about $125 million in damage, including agriculture. [23] Cleo brought flooding to a few other states, especially Virginia. In the Hampton Roads area, many streets were inundated and blocked. Hundreds of dwellings were flooded, forcing several areas to evacuate. Three deaths and about $3 million in damage occurred in Virginia. [8] :180 Overall, the storm caused 220 fatalities and about $198.5 million in damage. [8] :180 [23]

Hurricane Dora

Category 4 hurricane (SSHWS)
Sat19640904Dora.png   Dora 1964 track.png
DurationAugust 28 – September 13
Peak intensity130 mph (215 km/h) (1-min)  942  mbar  (hPa)

A tropical depression developed from a low-pressure area on August 28, shortly after moving offshore the west coast of Africa near Dakar, Senegal. [10] :317 The depression was upgraded to Tropical Storm Dora at 18:00 UTC on August 31. It then curved northeastward and continued to strengthen, reaching hurricane status about 48 hours later. Intensification slowed somewhat, though Dora became a Category 3 major hurricane on September 5. Deepening further, the storm became a Category 4 for six hours early on September 6 and peaked with maximum sustained winds of 130 mph (215 km/h) and a minimum barometric pressure of 942 mbar (27.8 inHg) early the following day. Dora then remained a Category 3 hurricane until early the next day, when it weekend to Category 2 hurricane while curving westward. [3]

Approaching the east coast of Florida, Dora briefly weakened to a Category 1 hurricane early on September 9, before reaching Category 2 status several hours later. [3] Dora's motion then became erratic, making a few very small cyclonic loops. [24] :4 Around 04:00 UTC on September 10, the hurricane made landfall near St. Augustine, Florida, with winds of 110 mph (175 km/h). Dora initially weakened quickly after moving inland, falling to tropical storm status within 14 hours of landfall. Dora then briefly drifted over southwestern Georgia, until turning east-northeastward late on September 11. The system transitioned into an extratropical cyclone over South Carolina around 12:00 UTC on September 13. The remnants emerged into the Atlantic near Cape Hatteras, North Carolina, and continued northeastward, striking Newfoundland on September 15, [3] shortly before being absorbed by a larger extratropical cyclone. [10] :330

Dora was the only hurricane in the twentieth century to make landfall in the First Coast region of Florida. [25] Along the coast, tides reached up to 10 ft (3.0 m) above mean sea level. Sustained hurricane-force winds were reported from Flagler County to far southeastern Georgia. [8] :182 In Jacksonville, Florida, approximately 156,000 customers were left without electricity, while about 19% of phones in Duval County were out of service. [26] :9 Much of the damage in the Jacksonville area occurred to older buildings and those located in coastal areas. Additionally, sections of the city experienced wind-induced river flooding in the vicinity of the St. Johns River. [8] :183 Three homes were destroyed and 3,992 suffered damage, while 5 mobile homes were demolished and 25 experienced impact, overall in Duval County. [27] Heavy rainfall damaged many unharvested crops and inundated numerous of roads and bridges, isolated some communities for several days. [8] :183 Throughout Florida, 74 dwellings were flattened and 9,374 received damage, while 14 mobile homes were destroyed and 218 others suffered severe impact. About 50 farm buildings and 423 small businesses were severely damaged or demolished. [28] Three deaths and at least $230 million in damage occurred. [8] :183 In Georgia, the storm damaged about 1,135 homes and obliterated five others. Additionally, 18 trailers suffered major impact, while 43 small businesses were destroyed or experienced severe damage. [28] There was one death in the state and at least $9 million in damage. A few other states were affected by the storm, though impact there was much lesser. [8] :183 One death occurred in Virginia. [8] Overall, Dora caused $280 million in damage and five deaths. [8] :183 [25]

Hurricane Ethel

Category 2 hurricane (SSHWS)
Hurricane Ethel 11 Sep 1964.png   Ethel 1964 track.png
DurationSeptember 4 – September 14
Peak intensity105 mph (165 km/h) (1-min)  974  mbar  (hPa)

TIROS observed a large cloud mass near 18°N, 37°W on September 4. [29] It developed into a tropical depression early that day while located about 665 mi (1,070 km) east of Cape Verde. The depression moved west-northwestward and intensified into Tropical Storm Ethel at 18:00 UTC on September 4. [3] Initially, it was suggested that Hurricane Dora could absorb Ethel, as the storms were located 690 mi (1,110 km) apart. [29] On September 7, Ethel strengthened into a hurricane. By early on the following day, it curved westward and continued to slowly deepen, before turning to the north-northwestward on September 11. [3]

By late on September 12, the storm curved northeastward and passed to the northeast of Bermuda early the next day, [3] bringing 4.05 in (103 mm) of precipitation and wind gusts up to 70 mph (110 km/h). [29] [30] Throughout the island, low-lying areas were flooded and trees were felled. At St. George's Island, residents were briefly left without electricity and telephones and the causeway linking St. George's Island to the main island was inundated. [31] Early on September 13, Ethel intensified into a Category 2 hurricane and soon peaked with winds of 105 mph (165 km/h). The system became extratropical late on September 14, while located about 255 mi (410 km) southeast of Cape Race. Newfoundland. The extratropical remnants slowly weakened while meandering around the Atlantic, until dissipating just north of the Azores on September 17. [3]

Tropical Storm Florence

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Temporary cyclone north.svg   Florence 1964 track.png
DurationSeptember 5 – September 10
Peak intensity45 mph (75 km/h) (1-min)  1002  mbar  (hPa)

A tropical wave emerged into the Atlantic Ocean from the west coast of Africa on September 5. [8] :183 The wave quickly developed into a tropical depression at 06:00 UTC on September 5, while located about 40 mi (64 km) west of Dakar, Senegal. [3] Shortly later, the depression produced squally weather in Cape Verde. [8] :183 The depression then re-curved northwestward and began to intensify. At 00:00 UTC on September 7, the depression strengthened into Tropical Storm Florence. About twenty four hours later, the storm attained its maximum sustained wind speed of 45 mph (72 km/h). Florence then curved north-northeastward later that day and slowly weakened. [3] A reconnaissance aircraft reported that Florence degenerated into an area of squalls to the south of the Azores at 06:00 UTC on September 10. [3] [8] :183

Hurricane Gladys

Category 4 hurricane (SSHWS)
Hurricane Gladys of 1964.JPG   Gladys 1964 track.png
DurationSeptember 13 – September 24
Peak intensity130 mph (215 km/h) (1-min)  945  mbar  (hPa)

A tropical wave emerged into the Atlantic from the west coast of Africa on September 8. [32] Tracking westward, it developed into Tropical Storm Gladys while centered about midway between the Lesser Antilles and Cape Verde early on September 13. The storm moved northwestward and intensified into a hurricane on September 14, before weakened back to a tropical storm early the next day. Gladys re-strengthened into a hurricane on September 16. By the next day, the cyclone quickly intensified, briefly peaking as a Category 4 hurricane with maximum sustained winds of 130 mph (215 km/h) around 18:00 UTC. Gladys weakened to a Category 3 early on September 18. Gladys weakened to a Category 2 as it re-curved northward on September 20. [3]

The storm weakened to a Category 1 as it turned northwestward on September 22 and briefly threatened the East Coast of the United States. However, it veered northeastward on September 23 and moved rapidly toward Atlantic Canada. By 00:00 UTC on September 25, Gladys became extratropical just offshore Newfoundland and promptly dissipated. [3] Along the East Coast of the United States, Gladys produced light rainfall, gusty winds, and storm surge. Coastal flooding was reported in North Carolina and Virginia. [33] [34] In the former, high tides inundated homes and buildings with 2 ft (0.61 m) of water in two small villages on the Outer Banks and flooded a highway to Manteo. [33] [35] In the state of Virginia, one death occurred when a man was fatally struck in the throat by debris. [36] Abnormally high tides also affected the Mid-Atlantic, New England, [37] [38] and Atlantic Canada, [39] with tides ranging from 2.2–6.1 ft (0.67–1.86 m) higher than average in Virginia. [34]

Hurricane Hilda

Category 4 hurricane (SSHWS)
Hurricane Hilda.JPG   Hilda 1964 track.png
DurationSeptember 28 – October 4
Peak intensity140 mph (220 km/h) (1-min)  941  mbar  (hPa)

A tropical wave developed into a tropical depression at 12:00 UTC on September 28, while located about 40 mi (64 km) south of Trinidad, Cuba. [40] [3] The depression tracked west-northwestward and struck Isla de la Juventud, Cuba, early on September 29. After briefly re-emerging into the northwestern Caribbean Sea later that day, the depression strengthened into Tropical Storm Hilda at 11:00 UTC on September 29 while making landfall near Sandino, Cuba. By late on September 29, it emerged into the Gulf of Mexico near Cape San Antonio. The storm continued to intensify, reaching hurricane status on September 30. During the following 30 hours, Hilda strengthened significantly and peaked as a Category 4 hurricane with winds of 140 mph (230 km/h) late on October 1. It re-curved northward and began weakening due to unfavorable conditions. Around 23:00 UTC on October 3, the storm made landfall near Franklin, Louisiana, as a Category 2 with winds of 105 mph (165 km/h). It rapidly weakened inland and became extratropical over southern Mississippi by 12:00 UTC that day. The remnant extratropical low continued eastward and emerged into the Atlantic late on October 5, before dissipating well north of the Bahamas on October 7. [3]

In Cuba, the storm caused minor impact, with damage totaling about $1 million. [8] :177 Offshore the United States in the Gulf of Mexico, 13 oil platforms were destroyed and 5 others were damaged beyond repair. Losses to the oil industry reached $100 million. [41] :20 In Louisiana, sustained winds of 90 to 105 mph to (150 to 165 km/h) lashed the Abbeville-Morgan City-New Iberia area. Additionally, several tornadoes in the New Orleans area resulted in significant damage. One tornado near Larose killed 22 people despite being on the ground for only 1–1.5 mi (1.6–2.4 km). There were 37 fatalities and an estimated 5,000 injuries. Approximately 19,000 homes were damaged in the state, 2,600 of which were severely impacted. [42] :107 Outside of Louisiana, damage was primarily caused by flooding in the Southeastern United States. Impacted worst by flooding was North Carolina, where 2,000 homes and buildings suffered water damage and one death was reported. [8] :185 Throughout the United States, the storm caused 38 fatalities and $125 million in losses. [8] :177

Hurricane Isbell

Category 3 hurricane (SSHWS)
Hurricane Isbell analysis 15 Oct 1964.png   Isbell 1964 track.png
DurationOctober 8 – October 16
Peak intensity115 mph (185 km/h) (1-min)  964  mbar  (hPa)

A diffused frontal trough developed into a tropical depression in the western Caribbean on October 9. [3] [8] :185 The depression initially remained disorganized as it track northwestward, but strengthened into Tropical Storm Isbell at 12:00 UTC on October 11. Re-curving northeastward, Isbell quickly strengthened further and reached hurricane status about 24 hour alter. The storm briefly became a Category 2 just before making landfall in Sandino, Cuba, with winds of 100 mph (155 km/h) at 19:00 UTC on October 13. Hilda briefly weakened to a Category 1, but strengthened into a Category 3 and peaked with maximum sustained winds of 115 mph (185 km/h) at 12:00 UTC on October 14. The cyclone weakened to a Category 2 prior to making landfall near Everglades City, Florida, with winds of 105 mph (165 km/h). Early on October 15, Isbell weakened to a Category 1 hurricane and then emerged into the Atlantic near Jupiter, Florida. Isbell curved northwestward on October 16, weakening to a tropical storm just before making landfall in Atlantic Beach, North Carolina, with winds of 70 mph (110 km/h). The storm quickly became extratropical and was soon absorbed by another extratropical cyclone over North Carolina late on October 16. [3]

The storm produced strong winds throughout western Cuba. Hundreds of homes were destroyed, as were several tobacco warehouses. There were four deaths in Cuba, [43] [44] three of them caused by collapsing houses in the Guane area. [44] Isbell was responsible for three deaths and approximately $10 million in damage in Cuba. [8] :177 Several tornadoes in Florida caused significant damage overall. [45] Throughout the state, 1 house was destroyed, 33 others were severely damage, and 631 others suffered minor impact. Additionally, 66 trailers were destroyed and 88 were inflicted with major damage. [46] Three deaths occurred in the state, one due to a heart attack and two from drowning in Florida Keys when their shrimp boat sank. [45] Because the storm weakened considerably, impact in North Carolina was generally minor. The storm also spawned at least six tornadoes in the state, which demolished trailers and unroofed homes and other buildings in several communities. [43] Damage throughout the United States totaled $10 million. [8] :177

Tropical Storm Thirteen

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Temporary cyclone north.svg   1964 Atlantic tropical storm 13 track.png
DurationNovember 5 – November 10
Peak intensity70 mph (110 km/h) (1-min)  997  mbar  (hPa)

An area of disturbed weather within the ITCZ developed into a tropical depression early on November 5, while located about 135 mi (215 km) north-northwest of Colón, Panama. [3] [8] :187 The depression strengthened slowly, reaching tropical storm status on November 6. Thereafter, it curved westward towards Central America. Early on November 7, the storm made landfall near Puerto Cabezas, Nicaragua, with winds of 70 mph (110 km/h). Several hours later, it weakened to a tropical depression along the north coast of Honduras early on November 8, shortly before re-emerging into the Caribbean. The storm did not re-intensify and made landfall in Belize on November 9. It dissipated early on the following day. [3]

In Nicaragua, winds and heavy rainfall caused significant crop damage, especially to bananas. Many residents living near the Caratasca Lagoon evacuated. The entire town of Caukira was flooded, with five small houses completely destroyed. Tides were as high as 18 ft (5.5 m) above-normal. In Puerto Castilla, large amounts of precipitation caused flooding and destroyed a bridge, leaving part of the population out of communication. Another bridge collapsed in the town of Rus-Rus. Strong winds and heavy rainfall also resulted in "considerable damage" on the Bay Islands. [8] :187 Overall, the storm resulted in about $5 million in damage. [8] :177

Other systems

In addition to the thirteen tropical storms, TIROS VII monitored two systems operationally considered tropical depressions one on July 15 at 21°N41°W / 21°N 41°W / 21; -41 and another on September 19 at 16°N27°W / 16°N 27°W / 16; -27 . However, a re-examination of the satellite imagery as part of the Atlantic hurricane reanalysis project did not depict tropical depressions, while ship data was unavailable for either potential cyclone. Thus, it could not be confirmed that either system became a tropical cyclone. [10] :391

Storm names

The following names were used for named storms that formed in the North Atlantic in 1964. This is the same list used in the 1960 season with the exception of Dora, which replaced Donna. [47] A storm was named Isbell for the first time in 1964. The names Cleo, Dora, and Hilda were later retired and replaced with Candy, Dolly, and Hannah, respectively, in the 1968 season. [48] [49] Names that were not assigned are marked in gray.

  • Hilda
  • Isbell
  • Janet (unused)
  • Katy (unused)
  • Lila (unused)
  • Molly (unused)
  • Nita (unused)
  • Odette (unused)
  • Paula (unused)
  • Roxie (unused)
  • Stella (unused)
  • Trudy (unused)
  • Vesta (unused)
  • Winny (unused)

Season effects

The following table lists all of the storms that have formed in the 1964 Atlantic hurricane season. It includes their duration, names, landfall(s) (in parentheses), damages, and death totals. Deaths in parentheses are additional and indirect (an example of an indirect death would be a traffic accident), but were still related to that storm. Damage and deaths include totals while the storm was extratropical, a wave, or a low, and all of the damage figures are in 1964 USD.

Saffir–Simpson scale
TDTSC1C2C3C4C5
1964 Atlantic hurricane season statistics
Storm
name
Dates activeStorm category

at peak intensity

Max 1-min
wind
mph (km/h)
Min.
press.
(mbar)
Areas affectedDamage
(USD)
DeathsRef(s)
OneJune 2 – 11Tropical storm70 (110)989 Yucatán Peninsula, Cuba, Southeastern United States $1 millionNone
TwoJuly 23 – 26Tropical storm60 (95)1001 East Coast of the United States, Atlantic Canada UnknownNone
ThreeJuly 28 – August 2Category 1 hurricane85 (140)990 British Isles NoneNone
Abby August 5 – 8Tropical storm65 (100)1000 United States Gulf Coast $750,000None
BrendaAugust 8 – 10Tropical storm50 (85)1006 Bermuda $275,000None
Cleo August 20 – September 5Category 4 hurricane150 (240)938 Lesser Antilles, Greater Antilles, The Bahamas, Southeastern United States, Newfoundland $187.5 million220
Dora August 28 – September 13Category 4 hurricane130 (215)942 Bahamas, East Coast of the United States, Atlantic Canada $280 million5
EthelSeptember 4 – 14Category 2 hurricane105 (165)974 Bermuda MinimalNone
FlorenceSeptember 5 – 10Tropical storm45 (75)1002 West Africa, Cape Verde NoneNone
Gladys September 13 – 24Category 4 hurricane130 (215)945 East Coast of the United States, Atlantic Canada $100,0001
Hilda September 28 – October 4Category 4 hurricane140 (220)941 Cuba, Yucatán Peninsula. East Coast of the United States, United States Gulf Coast $125 million38
Isbell October 8 – 16Category 3 hurricane115 (185)964 Cuba, East Coast of the United States $30 million7
ThirteenNovember 5 – 10Tropical storm70 (110)997 Central America $5 millionNone
Season aggregates
13 systemsJune 2 – November 10 150 (240)938~$640.63 million271 

See also

Notes

  1. All damage figures are in 1966 USD, unless otherwise noted

Related Research Articles

1960 Atlantic hurricane season Hurricane season in the Atlantic Ocean

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1961 Atlantic hurricane season Hurricane season in the Atlantic Ocean

The 1961 Atlantic hurricane season was an extremely active Atlantic hurricane season, with an accumulated cyclone energy (ACE) total of 189. The season, however, was only a moderately above average one in terms of named storms. The season featured eight hurricanes and a well above average number of five major hurricanes. It was previously thought that the season had a record-tying seven major hurricanes, before the Atlantic hurricane reanalysis project downgraded two storms in 2019. Two Category 5 hurricanes were seen in 1961, making it one of only seven Atlantic hurricane seasons to feature multiple Category 5 hurricanes in one season. The season started on June 15, and ended on November 15. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the Atlantic basin. The first system, Hurricane Anna, developed in the eastern Caribbean Sea near the Windward Islands on July 20. It brought minor damage to the islands, as well as wind and flood impacts to Central America after striking Belize as a hurricane. Anna caused one death and about $300,000 (1961 USD) in damage. Activity went dormant for nearly a month and a half, until Hurricane Betsy developed on September 2. Betsy peaked as a Category 4 hurricane, but remained at sea and caused no impact.

1963 Atlantic hurricane season Hurricane season in the Atlantic Ocean

The 1963 Atlantic hurricane season featured one of the deadliest tropical cyclones on record in the Atlantic basin: Hurricane Flora. The season officially began on June 15, and lasted until November 15. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the Atlantic basin. It was an season in terms of tropical storms, with a total of ten nameable storms. The first system, an unnamed tropical storm, developed over the Bahamas on June 1. In late July, Hurricane Arlene, developed between Cape Verde and the Lesser Antilles. The storm later impacted Bermuda, where strong winds resulted in about $300,000 (1963 USD) in damage. Other storms such as hurricanes Beulah and Debra, as well as an unnamed tropical storm, did not impact land. During the month of September, Tropical Storm Cindy caused wind damage and flooding in Texas, leaving three deaths and approximately $12.5 million in damage. Hurricane Edith passed through the Lesser Antilles and the eastern Greater Antilles, causing 10 deaths and about $43 million in damage, most of which occurred on Martinique.

1966 Atlantic hurricane season Hurricane season in the Atlantic Ocean

The 1966 Atlantic hurricane season saw the Weather Bureau office in Miami, Florida, be designated as the National Hurricane Center (NHC) and assume responsibility of tropical cyclone forecasting in the basin. The season officially began on June 1, and lasted until November 30. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the Atlantic basin. It an above-average season in terms of tropical storms, with a total of 15. The first system, Hurricane Alma, developed over eastern Nicaragua on June 4 and became the most recent major hurricane in the month of June. Alma brought severe flooding to Honduras and later to Cuba, but caused relatively minor impact in the Southeastern United States. Alma resulted in 91 deaths and about $210.1 million (1966 USD) in damage.

1968 Atlantic hurricane season Hurricane season in the Atlantic Ocean

The 1968 Atlantic hurricane season was one of five Atlantic hurricane seasons during the satellite era not to feature a major hurricane, the others being 1972, 1986, 1994, and 2013. The season officially began on June 1 and lasted until November 30, dates which conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the Atlantic basin. It was a below average season in terms of tropical storms, with a total of eight nameable storms. The first system, Hurricane Abby, developed in the northwestern Caribbean on June 1. Abby moved northward and struck Cuba, bringing heavy rainfall and flooding to western portions of the island. Making landfall in Florida on June 4, Abby caused flooding and spawned four tornadoes, but left behind little damage. Overall, the hurricane resulted in six deaths and about $450,000 (1968 USD) in damage. In late June, Tropical Storm Candy brought minor flooding and spawned several tornadoes across portions of the Southern United States. Overall damage from the cyclone reached approximately $2.7 million.

1969 Atlantic hurricane season Hurricane season in the Atlantic Ocean

The 1969 Atlantic hurricane season was the most active Atlantic hurricane season since the 1933 season, and was the final year of the most recent positive ("high-quality") Atlantic multidecadal oscillation (AMO) era. The hurricane season officially began on June 1, and lasted until November 30. The season had the highest number of systems reach hurricane status – twelve – in a single season, until that record was surpassed in 2005. The season was above-average despite an El Niño, which typically suppresses activity in the Atlantic Ocean, while increasing tropical cyclone activity in the Pacific Ocean. Activity began with a tropical depression that caused extensive flooding in Cuba and Jamaica in early June. On July 25, Tropical Storm Anna developed, the first named storm of the season. Later in the season, Tropical Depression Twenty-Nine caused severe local flooding in the Florida Panhandle and southwestern Georgia in September.

1946 Atlantic hurricane season Hurricane season in the Atlantic Ocean

The 1946 Atlantic hurricane season resulted in no fatalities in the United States. The season officially began on June 15, 1946, and lasted until November 15, 1946. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the Atlantic basin. However, the first storm, developed in the Gulf of Mexico on June 13, while the final system dissipated just offshore Florida on November 3. There were seven tropical storm; three of them attained hurricane status, while none intensified into major hurricanes, which are Category 3 or higher on the modern-day Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale. This had not occurred since 1940 and would not again until 1968. Operationally, the fifth tropical storm, which existed near the Azores in early October, was not considered a tropical cyclone, but was added to HURDAT in 2014.

1942 Atlantic hurricane season Hurricane season in the Atlantic Ocean

The 1942 Atlantic hurricane season was one of seven seasons to feature multiple hurricane landfalls in Texas. The season officially lasted from June 16, 1942, to October 31, 1942. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the Atlantic basin. A total of 11 tropical storms from 1943 are listed in the Atlantic hurricane database, with two additional tropical depressions. The first system of the year, a tropical depression, developed over the central Gulf of Mexico on June 3, while the last system, the Belize hurricane, dissipated over the Yucatán Peninsula on November 11. After the depression dissipated on June 3, the season remained dormant until the next system developed two months later. In mid-August, a hurricane struck Texas, causing about $790,000 (1942 USD) in damage.

1929 Atlantic hurricane season Hurricane season in the Atlantic Ocean

The 1929 Atlantic hurricane season was among the least active hurricane seasons in the Atlantic on record – featuring only five tropical cyclones. Of these five tropical systems, three of them intensified into a hurricane, with one strengthening further into a major hurricane. The first tropical cyclone of the season developed in the Gulf of Mexico on June 27. Becoming a hurricane on June 28, the storm struck Texas, bringing strong winds to a large area. Three fatalities were reported, while damage was conservatively estimated at $675,000 (1929 USD).

1921 Atlantic hurricane season Hurricane season in the Atlantic Ocean

The 1921 Atlantic hurricane season featured the most recent major hurricane to strike the Tampa Bay area in Florida. Although no "hurricane season" was defined at the time, the present-day delineation of such is June 1 to November 30. The first system, a tropical depression, developed on June 1, while the last, a tropical storm, dissipated on November 25. Of note, three of the twelve cyclones co-existed with another tropical cyclone during the season.

1919 Atlantic hurricane season Hurricane season in the Atlantic Ocean

The 1919 Atlantic hurricane season was among the least active hurricane seasons in the Atlantic on record, featuring only five tropical storms. Of those five tropical cyclones, two of them intensified into a hurricane, with one strengthening into a major hurricane Two tropical depressions developed in the month of June, both of which caused negligible damage. A tropical storm in July brought minor damage to Pensacola, Florida, but devastated a fleet of ships. Another two tropical depressions formed in August, the first of which brought rainfall to the Lesser Antilles.

1917 Atlantic hurricane season Hurricane season in the Atlantic Ocean

The 1917 Atlantic hurricane season featured nine known tropical cyclones, four of which became tropical storms. The first system appeared on July 6 east of the Windward Islands. After crossing the islands and traversing the Caribbean Sea, the storm struck Honduras, Belize, and Mexico, before dissipating on July 14. After more than three weeks without tropical cyclogenesis, another tropical storm developed west of Bermuda. As the storm brushed eastern New England, four ships sank near Nantucket, causing 41 fatalities. The same cyclone brought damaging winds to Nova Scotia before transitioning into an extratropical cyclone on August 10.

1913 Atlantic hurricane season Hurricane season in the Atlantic Ocean

The 1913 Atlantic hurricane season was the third consecutive year with a tropical cyclone developing before June. Although no "hurricane season" was defined at the time, the present-day delineation of such is June 1 to November 30. The first system, a tropical depression, developed on May 5 while the last transitioned into an extratropical cyclone on October 30. Of note, the seventh and eighth cyclones existed simultaneously from August 30 to September 4.

Hurricane Isbell Category 3 Atlantic hurricane in 1964

Hurricane Isbell was the final hurricane to affect the United States during the 1964 season. The eleventh tropical storm and sixth hurricane of the season, Isbell developed from a dissipating cold front in the southwestern Caribbean on October 8. The depression initially remained disorganized as it track northwestward, but strengthened into Tropical Storm Isbell on October 13. Re-curving northeastward, Isbell quickly strengthened further and reached hurricane status by later that day. Late on October 13, Isbell made landfall in the Pinar del Río Province of Cuba. The storm continued strengthening and peaked as a Category 3 hurricane on the following day. Isbell moved northeastward and made landfall near Everglades, Florida, late on October 14. After reaching the Atlantic on the following day, the storm began to weaken. Isbell turned northward and continued weakening, before transitioning to an extratropical cyclone while located just offshore eastern North Carolina on October 16.

1912 Atlantic hurricane season Hurricane season in the Atlantic Ocean

The 1912 Atlantic hurricane season featured the first recorded major hurricane – Category 3 or higher on the modern day Saffir–Simpson scale – in the month of November. There were eleven tropical cyclones, seven of which became tropical storms; four of those strengthened into hurricanes, and one reached major hurricane intensity. The season's first cyclone developed on April 4, while the final dissipated on November 21. The season's most intense and most devastating tropical cyclone was the final storm, known as the Jamaica hurricane. It produced heavy rainfall on Jamaica, leading to at least 100 fatalities and about $1.5 million (1912 USD) in damage. The storm was also blamed for five deaths in Cuba.

1908 Atlantic hurricane season Hurricane season in the Atlantic Ocean

The 1908 Atlantic hurricane season remains the only season on record to feature two hurricanes prior to the month of June. The season produced thirteen tropical cyclones, of which ten became tropical storms; six became hurricanes, and one of those strengthened into a major hurricane – tropical cyclones that reach at least Category 3 on the modern day Saffir–Simpson scale. The season's first system developed on March 6, which was the only known tropical cyclone to have developed in the month of March since official records began in 1851. The last storm transitioned into an extratropical cyclone on October 23.

1905 Atlantic hurricane season Hurricane season in the Atlantic Ocean

The 1905 Atlantic hurricane season featured five known tropical cyclones, two of which made landfall in the United States. The first system was initially observed near the Windward Islands on September 6. The last system to dissipate, the fourth storm, transitioned into an extratropical cyclone on October 11, while located well southeast of Newfoundland. These dates fall within the period with the most tropical cyclone activity in the Atlantic. Between October 5 and October 10, the fourth and fifth system existed simultaneously.

1902 Atlantic hurricane season Hurricane season in the Atlantic Ocean

The 1902 Atlantic hurricane season featured five known tropical cyclones, three of which made landfall in the United States. The first system was initially observed in the northwestern Caribbean on June 12. The last system dissipated on November 6 while located well southeast of Newfoundland. These dates fall within the period with the most tropical cyclone activity in the Atlantic. None of the systems existed simultaneously.

1901 Atlantic hurricane season Hurricane season in the Atlantic Ocean

The 1901 Atlantic hurricane season was the most active season without a major hurricane – tropical cyclones that reach at least Category 3 on the Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale – until 2013. The first system was initially observed in the northeastern Caribbean on June 11. The fourteenth and final system transitioned into an extratropical cyclone near Bermuda on November 5. These dates fall within the period with the most tropical cyclone activity in the Atlantic. Eight of the fourteen tropical cyclones existed simultaneously.

1884 Atlantic hurricane season Hurricane season in the Atlantic Ocean

The 1884 Atlantic hurricane season was one of only three Atlantic hurricane seasons, along with 1852 and 1858, in which every known tropical cyclone attained hurricane status. Overall, four tropical cyclones developed, three of which made landfall. The first system was initially observed over the northwestern Atlantic Ocean on September 1. It struck Newfoundland the following day, but impact there is unknown. On September 3, the next hurricane developed, though it did not affect land in its duration. The third hurricane struck Georgia, accompanied by damaging waves in north Florida.

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