Part of a series on the
|History of Uruguay|
The 1973 Uruguayan coup d'état took place in Uruguay on 27 June 1973 and marked the beginning of the civic-military dictatorship which lasted until 1985.
Uruguay, officially the Oriental Republic of Uruguay, is a country in the southeastern region of South America. It borders Argentina to its west and Brazil to its north and east, with the Río de la Plata to the south and the Atlantic Ocean to the southeast. Uruguay is home to an estimated 3.44 million people, of whom 1.8 million live in the metropolitan area of its capital and largest city, Montevideo. With an area of approximately 176,000 square kilometres (68,000 sq mi), Uruguay is geographically the second-smallest nation in South America, after Suriname.
President Juan María Bordaberry closed parliament, and ruled with the assistance of a junta of military generals. The official reason was to crush the Tupamaros, a Marxist urban guerrilla movement. The leftist trade union federations called a general strike and occupation of factories. The strike lasted just over two weeks. It was ended with most of the trade union leaders in jail, dead, or exiled to Argentina. As part of the coup all associations including trade unions were declared illegal and banned; the Constitution of Uruguay of 1967 was practically suppressed.
The President of Uruguay, officially known as the President of the Oriental Republic of Uruguay is the head of state and head of government of Uruguay. His or her rights are determined in the Constitution of Uruguay. Conforms with the Secretariat of the Presidency, the Council of Ministers and the director of the Office of Planning and Budget, the executive branch. In case of absence, his office is exercised by the vice president. In turn, the president of the republic is the commander in chief of the armed forces.
Juan María Bordaberry Arocena was a Uruguayan civilian dictator, politician and cattle rancher, who first served as a constitutional President from 1972 until 1973, and then ruled as the head of a civilian-military dictatorship up to 1976.
A military junta is a government led by a committee of military leaders. The term junta comes from Spanish and Portuguese and means committee, specifically a board of directors. Sometimes it becomes a military dictatorship, though the terms are not synonymous.
Unions and political parties remained illegal until a general strike in 1984 forced the military to accept civilian rule and the restoration of democracy in 1985.
On September 9, 1971, President Jorge Pacheco Areco instructed the armed forces to conduct anti-guerrilla operations against the Movimiento de Liberación Nacional-Tupamaros. On December 16th, a Junta of Commanders in Chief and of the Estado Mayor Conjunto (Esmaco) (Joint Chiefs) of the Armed Forces was created. Following the presidential elections of November 1971 a new government took office on 1 March 1972 led by Juan Maria Bordaberry. The role of the Armed Forces in political life continued to increase. On October 31, 1972, Defense Minister Augusto Legnani, had to resign for failing to remove a chief in charge of a mission of great importance for the ministry. Subsequently, military commanders made public statements indicting the President of the Republic.
Jorge Pacheco Areco was a Uruguayan politician and member of the Colorado Party. He served as President of Uruguay from December 6, 1967 to March 1, 1972.
On February 8, 1973, in order to control the buildup of military pressure, President Bordaberry substituted the Minister of National Defence, Armando Malet, by the retired general Antonio Francese. In the following day, the new minister met with the commanders of the three forces and only found support in the Navy.
At eight o'clock of the same evening, the commanders of the Army and the Air Forces announced from state television they would disavow any orders by Francese and demanded that Bordaberry sack him. At 10:30 pm Bordaberry announced from the (private) Canal 4 that he would keep Francese in the Ministry and called on the citizens to gather in Plaza Independencia, in front of Government House (Casa de Gobierno).
Televisión Nacional Uruguay or TNU is an Uruguayan national television network owned by the Ministry of Education and Culture of Uruguay. The channel began broadcasting on June 19, 1963.
Monte Carlo TV is a television channel of Uruguay, the second oldest in the country.
Plaza Independencia is the name of Montevideo's most important plaza. It separates Ciudad Vieja from downtown Montevideo, with the Gateway of The Citadel on one side and the beginning of 18 de Julio avenue on the other.
In the early hours of the morning of February 9, Navy Infantry (Marines?) barricaded the entrance towards the Ciudad Vieja of Montevideo. In response, the Army pulled its tanks into the streets and occupied various radio stations, from which they exhorted the members of the Navy to join their initiatives (or propositions).
Ciudad Vieja is the name of the oldest part of the city of Montevideo, capital city of Uruguay. Nowadays, Ciudad Vieja is a barrio of this city. In the last couple of years it has gone through a major transformation that has made it the main nightlife centre in town. It is in this area where most of the nightclubs are, and also it hosts the 'Mercado del Puerto' a traditional venue for Uruguayan food and beverages. The main port of Uruguay is located in Ciudad Vieja.
Montevideo is the capital and largest city of Uruguay. According to the 2011 census, the city proper has a population of 1,319,108 in an area of 201 square kilometres (78 sq mi). The southernmost capital city in the Americas, Montevideo is situated on the southern coast of the country, on the northeastern bank of the Río de la Plata.
Decree (Comunicado) No. 4 was issued, signed only by the commanders of the Army and Air Force, in which they posed in achieving or promoting socio-economic objectives, such as to encourage exports, reorganize the foreign service (the matters of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs), eliminate the oppressive foreign debt, eradicate unemployment, attack illicit economics and corruption, reorganize public administration and the tax system and redistribute the land.
On Saturday 10 February, three ministers sought a rapprochement with the positions of the rebel commanders, so that the president would retain his position. At night, the commanders of the Army and Air Force issued a new Decree N° 7, that somehow relativized the previous statement. Several officers of the Navy ignored the command of Vice Admiral Juan José Zorrilla and supported the statements of the Army and Air Force. The next day, February 11, Zorrilla resigned from the Navy Command, while Captain Conrad Olazaba assumed this position, so that this force also abandoned its constitutional position.
On Monday February 12, Bordaberry went to the Base Aérea "Cap. Juan Manuel Boiso Lanza" and accepted all the demands of the military commanders and negotiated his continuation in the presidency, in what became known as the Pacto de Boiso Lanza. This "agreement" entrusted to the Armed Forces the mission of providing security for national development and established forms of military involvement in the political-administrative matters. this agreement resulted in the creation of the National Security Council (Consejo de Seguridad Nacional) (COSENA), advisory body to the Executive Power, subsequently established by Decree No. 163/973 of February 23 of 1973.
The day after the "agreement", Néstor Bolentini was appointed as Minister of Interior and Walter Ravenna as Minister of National Defense. This completed the slide into a civil-military government, which formally ruled civilians but in fact the center of power had moved into the orbit of the military. It is considered that this episode amounted to a coup in fact.
On 27 June 1973, arguing that "the criminal act of conspiracy against the country, in tune with the complacency of politicians with no national sentiment, is inserted into the institutions, so as to present formally disguised as a legal activity", Bordaberry dissolved the legislature with the support of the Armed Forces, created a State Council with legislative, constitutional and administrative functions, restricted freedom of thought and empowered the armed forces and the police to ensure the uninterrupted provision of public services.
In a speech broadcast on radio and television on the same day of the coup, Bordaberry said:
"I affirm today, once again, in circumstances of extreme importance to national life, our deep commitment to democracy and our unreserved commitment to a system of political and social organization governing the coexistence of Uruguayans. And together with this, the rejection of any ideology of Marxist origin attempting to exploit the generosity of our democracy, to appear as a doctrine of salvation and end as a tool of totalitarian oppression.
This step that we had to take, does not lead (?) and will not limit the freedoms and rights of the human person.
We ourselves are here for this and for its surveillance; for this, furthermore, we have committed these functions to the State Council and beyond, and still above all, are the Uruguayan people who have never permitted their freedoms to be trampled (...)."
In response to the coup d'etat, in the same morning that the coup was brewing, the secretary of the CNT (National Confederation of Workers) began the longest strike in the history of the country, which lasted 15 days.
Decree N° 464/973 of June 27, 1973, bears the signature of Bordaberry and his ministers Néstor Bolentini and Walter Ravenna. It expressed the following:
The President of the Republic decrees:
1° The Chambers of Senators and of Representatives are hereby declared dissolved.
2° Hereby is established a Council of State consisting of members that may be designated, with the following powers:
3° It is prohibited to disclose by the press orally, written or televised, any kind of information, comments or recording, which directly or indirectly, indicate or refer to the provisions of this Decree, attributing dictatorial intentions to the Executive Power.
4° The armed forces and police are empowered to take the necessary measures to ensure the continued provision of essential public services.
Also, by Decree No. 465/973 of the same date, it is considered included within the text of Article 1 of Decree 464/973 to all the Departmental Boards of the Country (art. 1º), the formation in each Departamento of a Board of Neighbours (Junta de Vecinos), that, where relevant, and at the Departmental level, will have powers similar to those granted to the State Council created by the art. 2 of the decree today (art. 2º).
Juan Carlos Onganía Carballo was de facto President of Argentina from 29 June 1966 to 8 June 1970. He rose to power as military dictator after toppling the president Arturo Illia in a coup d'état self-named Revolución Argentina.
The 1973 Chilean coup d'état was a watershed moment in both the history of Chile and the Cold War. Following an extended period of social unrest and political tension between the opposition-controlled Congress of Chile and the socialist President Salvador Allende, as well as economic warfare ordered by US President Richard Nixon, Allende was overthrown by the armed forces and national police.
Tupamaros, also known as the MLN-T, was a left-wing urban guerrilla group in Uruguay in the 1960s and 1970s. The MLN-T is inextricably linked to its most important leader, Raúl Sendic, and his brand of social politics. José Mujica, who later became president of Uruguay, was also a member.
Gregorio Conrado Álvarez Armelino, also known as El Goyo, was an Uruguayan army general who served as the de facto president of Uruguay from 1981 until 1985 and was the last surviving President of the civic-military dictatorship of Uruguay.
Odysseas Angelis was a Greek military officer, who served as head of the Greek military during the Greek military junta of 1967–1974, and was selected by junta principal Georgios Papadopoulos as vice president of the junta-proclaimed republic in 1973. He was deposed along with Papadopoulos by junta hardliners in November 1973, and sentenced to 20 years imprisonment for high treason in the Greek Junta Trials in 1975.
Ricardo Pío Pérez Godoy was a general of the Peruvian army who launched a coup d'état in July 1962, headed a military junta until March 1963 and served as the 55th President of Peru.
In 1973 a coup was declared in Uruguay by the president, Juan María Bordaberry, who closed parliament and imposed direct rule from a junta of military generals. The official reason was to crush the Tupamaros, a Marxist urban guerrilla movement. The leftist trade union federations called a general strike and for factory occupations. The strike lasted just over two weeks. It was ended with most of the trade union leaders in jail, dead, or exiled to Argentina. As part of the coup all associations including trade unions were declared illegal and banned.
Alberto Pedro Demicheli Lizaso was a Uruguayan political figure. Demicheli was a de facto President of Uruguay in 1976 as a non-democratically elected authority of the Civic-military dictatorship (1973–1985).
Raúl Sendic Antonaccio was a prominent Uruguayan Marxist lawyer, trade unionist and founder of the Tupamaros National Liberation Movement (MLN-T).
Rafael Addiego Bruno was a Uruguayan jurist and political figure.
The Government Junta of Chile was the military junta established to rule Chile during the military dictatorship that followed the overthrow of President Salvador Allende in the 1973 Chilean coup d'état backed by the United States. It was the executive and legislative branch of government until December 17, 1974. After that date, it functioned strictly as a legislative body until the return to democracy in 1990.
Jorge Sapelli was an Uruguayan political figure. He was the Vice President of Uruguay from 1972 until his resignation in 1973.
The Ministry of National Defense is the cabinet-level administrative office in charge of "maintaining the independence and sovereignty" of Chile. It is also charged with planning, directing, coordinating, executing, controlling and informing the defense policies formulated by the President of Chile. The minister supervises all the Chilean armed forces.
Argentine Revolution was the name given by its leaders to a military coup d'état which overthrew the government of Argentina in June 1966 and began a period of military dictatorship by a junta from then until 1973.
The 2008 Guinean coup d'état was a Guinean military coup d'état that occurred in Guinea on 23 December 2008, shortly after the death of long-time President Lansana Conté. A junta called the National Council for Democracy and Development, headed by Captain Moussa Dadis Camara, seized power and announced that it planned to rule the country for two years prior to a new presidential election. Camara did indeed step down after Alpha Condé was elected in the 2010 election.
The civic-military dictatorship of Uruguay (1973–85), also known as the Uruguayan Dictatorship, was an authoritarian military dictatorship that ruled Uruguay for 12 years, from June 27, 1973 until February 28, 1985. The dictatorship has been the subject of much controversy due to its violations of human rights, use of torture, and the unexplained disappearances of many Uruguayans. The term "civic-military" refers to the military regime's initial use of a relatively powerless civilian president as the head of state, which distinguished it from dictatorships in other South American countries in which senior military officers immediately seized power and directly served as head of state.
The Supreme Council of the Armed Forces is a statutory body of between 20 and 25 senior Egyptian military officers and is headed by Field Marshal Abdul Fatah al-Sisi and Lieutenant General Sedki Sobhi. The council is convened only in cases of war or great internal emergencies. As a consequence of the Egyptian Revolution of 2011, SCAF assumed power to govern Egypt from departing President Hosni Mubarak on 11 February 2011, and relinquished power on 30 June 2012 upon the start of Mohamed Morsi's term as president.
A constitutional referendum was held in Uruguay on 30 November 1980. Although the new constitution drafted by the military regime was rejected by voters, some of its proposals were implemented anyway.
The Armed Forces General Staff, or EMGFA, is the supreme military body of Portugal. It is responsible for the planning, command and control of the Portuguese Armed Forces.