1978 Pacific hurricane season

Last updated
1978 Pacific hurricane season
1978 Pacific hurricane season summary map.png
Season summary map
Seasonal boundaries
First system formedMay 30, 1978
Last system dissipatedOctober 21, 1978
Strongest storm
Name Fico, Hector, and Norman
  Maximum winds140 mph (220 km/h)
(1-minute sustained)
  Lowest pressure955 mbar (hPa; 28.2 inHg)
Seasonal statistics
Total depressions23 official, 2 unofficial
Total storms19
Hurricanes14
Major hurricanes
(Cat. 3+)
7
Total fatalities4
Total damage$301 million (1978 USD)
Related articles
Pacific hurricane seasons
1976, 1977, 1978, 1979, 1980

The 1978 Pacific hurricane season officially began May 15, 1978, in the eastern Pacific, June 1, 1978, in the central Pacific, and officially ended on November 30, 1978. These dates conventionally delimit the period of time when tropical cyclones form in the eastern north Pacific Ocean.

Pacific Ocean Ocean between Asia and Australia in the west, the Americas in the east and Antarctica or the Southern Ocean in the south.

The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of Earth's oceanic divisions. It extends from the Arctic Ocean in the north to the Southern Ocean in the south and is bounded by Asia and Australia in the west and the Americas in the east.

Contents

Activity this year was slightly above-average, with eighteen named storms forming. Five of those were tropical storms, thirteen were hurricanes, and six were major hurricanes that reached Category 3 or higher on the Saffir–Simpson scale. In the Central Pacific, a tropical depression and a major hurricane formed. Also, this season is the fourth-most active season within the basin when calculating by ACE Index, as the season had an index of 207. Atlantic Hurricane Greta crossed into the basin and was renamed Olivia. The 1978 Pacific Hurricane Season was the first season on record to have an ACE total at least 200; it rests at 207 units.

The Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale (SSHWS), formerly the Saffir–Simpson hurricane scale (SSHS), classifies hurricanes – Western Hemisphere tropical cyclones that exceed the intensities of tropical depressions and tropical storms – into five categories distinguished by the intensities of their sustained winds.

Hurricane Greta–Olivia Category 4 Atlantic and Pacific hurricane in 1978

Hurricane Greta–Olivia was one of ten named Atlantic hurricanes to cross over Central America into the eastern Pacific while remaining a tropical cyclone. The seventh named storm of the 1978 Atlantic hurricane season, Greta formed from a tropical wave just northwest of Trinidad on September 13, and despite being in a climatologically unfavorable area, gradually intensified while moving west-northwestward. On September 16, it became a hurricane south of Jamaica. Two days later, the well-defined eye approached northeastern Honduras but veered to the northwest. After reaching peak winds of 130 mph (215 km/h) that day, Greta weakened while paralleling the northern Honduras coast just offshore. On September 19, it made landfall on Belize near Dangriga and quickly weakened into a tropical depression while crossing Guatemala and southeastern Mexico. After entering the eastern Pacific, the system re-intensified into a hurricane and was renamed Olivia, which weakened before dissipating over Chiapas on September 23.

Systems

Hurricane Greta-OliviaHurricane Norman (1978)Hurricane FicoSaffir–Simpson scale1978 Pacific hurricane season

Hurricane Aletta

Category 1 hurricane (SSHWS)
Aletta May 31 1978 0000Z.png   Aletta 1978 track.png
DurationMay 30 – May 31
Peak intensity75 mph (120 km/h) (1-min) 

A small tropical disturbance formed in the Gulf of Tehuantepec on May 27. It quickly accelerated southwest, before turning north late the following day. At this time, thunderstorm activity increased in coverage, aided by an outflow channel to the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) the disturbance. Early on May 30, the disturbance's center become better defined, resulting in an upgraded into a tropical storm by 1200 UTC. After curving northwest, Aletta rapidly intensified, and at 0000 UTC on May 31, Aletta was declared a minimal hurricane. However, hours later, Aletta degenerated into a tropical storm. On the afternoon of May 31, Aletta turned north-northwest due to a trough over northwestern Mexico and a ridge over southern Mexico. At 1730 UTC, Aletta moved ashore just west-northwest of Zihuatanejo. After moving inland, Aletta rapidly dissipated. [1]

Gulf of Tehuantepec

Gulf of Tehuantepec is a large body of water on the Pacific coast of the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, southeastern Mexico, at 16°N95°W. Many Pacific hurricanes form in or near this body of water. A strong, gale-force wind called the Tehuano periodically blows out over the waters of the Gulf of Tehuantepec, inducing strong upwelling of nutrient-rich waters which support abundant sea life.

Intertropical Convergence Zone

The Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), known by sailors as the doldrums or the calms, is the area encircling Earth near the Equator, where the northeast and southeast trade winds converge.

Zihuatanejo Town in Guerrero, Mexico

Zihuatanejo, or Ixtapa-Zihuatanejo, is the fourth-largest city in the Mexican state of Guerrero. Politically the city belongs to the municipality of Zihuatanejo de Azueta in the western part of Guerrero, but both are commonly referred to as Zihuatanejo. It is on the Pacific Coast, about 240 km northwest of Acapulco, and belongs to a section of the Mexican Pacific Coast known as the Costa Grande. This town has been developed as a tourist attraction along with the modern tourist resort of Ixtapa, 5 km (3.1 mi) away. However, Zihuatanejo has kept its traditional town feel. The town is located on a well-protected bay which is popular with private boat owners during the winter months.

Tropical Storm Bud

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Bud June 18 1978 1800Z.png   Bud 1978 track.png
DurationJune 17 – June 20
Peak intensity60 mph (95 km/h) (1-min) 

A tropical disturbance developed on June 15 around 800 mi (1,285 km) west-southwest of Acapulco. After moving west-southwest, the disturbance became more defined until June 17, when it was upgraded into a tropical depression. At noon, te depression was elevated to Tropical Storm Bud. Late on June 18, Bud reached its peak intensity of 60 mph (95 km/h), only to start weakening the following day as it moved west-northwest over cooler water. Early on June 20, Bud weakened to a tropical depression. Shortly thereafter, Bud ceased to exist as a tropical cyclone. [1]

Acapulco City and municipality in Guerrero, Mexico

Acapulco de Juárez, commonly called Acapulco, is a city, municipality and major seaport in the state of Guerrero on the Pacific coast of Mexico, 380 kilometres (240 mi) south of Mexico City. Acapulco is located on a deep, semicircular bay and has been a port since the early colonial period of Mexico's history. It is a port of call for shipping and cruise lines running between Panama and San Francisco, California, United States. The city of Acapulco is the largest in the state, far larger than the state capital Chilpancingo. Acapulco is also Mexico's largest beach and balneario resort city.

Hurricane Carlotta

Category 4 hurricane (SSHWS)
Carlotta1978jun2114z.png   Carlotta 1978 track.png
DurationJune 17 – June 25
Peak intensity130 mph (215 km/h) (1-min) 

Around the time Bud was developing, another tropical disturbance was developed 800 mi (1,285 km) to the east of Bud, but around 250 mi (400 km) west of Acapulco. Veering west-northwest, the small disturbance slowly organized and was designated as a tropical depression at 0600 UTC June 17. Eighteen hours later, the depression strengthened into Tropical Storm Carlotta. Thereafter, the system turned west-southwest south of a subtropical ridge in Bud's footsteps. Several hours after the formation of an eye early on June 19, Carlotta intensified into a hurricane. After becoming a hurricane, Carlotta tracked west-northwest, [1] and rapidly intensified. At 0000 UTC June 20, Hurricane Carlotta abruptly intensified into a major hurricane (Category 3 or higher on the Saffir–Simpson scale). [2] Around 36 hours later, Carlotta peaked as a low-end Category 4 hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson scale. On June 22, Carlotta started a gradual weakening trend as it turned northwest over cooler waters on June 22. Two days later, Carlotta weakened to a tropical storm. on 0600 UTC June 25, Carlotta degenerated into a tropical depression. Twelve hours later, Carlotta dissipated. [1]

Eye (cyclone) region of mostly calm weather at the center of strong tropical cyclones

The eye is a region of mostly calm weather at the center of strong tropical cyclones. The eye of a storm is a roughly circular area, typically 30–65 km (20–40 miles) in diameter. It is surrounded by the eyewall, a ring of towering thunderstorms where the most severe weather and highest winds occur. The cyclone's lowest barometric pressure occurs in the eye and can be as much as 15 percent lower than the pressure outside the storm.

Hurricane Daniel

Category 3 hurricane (SSHWS)
DanielJune2919781600UTC.gif   Daniel 1978 track.png
DurationJune 26 – July 3
Peak intensity115 mph (185 km/h) (1-min) 

The fourth tropical disturbance of the season developed on June 24 roughly 200 mi (320 km) southwest of Nicaragua. Tracking west-northwest, the disturbance was upgraded into a tropical depression on June 26. The next day, the depression became a tropical storm, before weakening back to a tropical depression late on June 27. At 1500 UTC June 28, Daniel regained tropical storm intensity. While accelerating westward, Daniel intensified into a hurricane late on June 29. Midday on June 30, Daniel suddenly intensified into a major hurricane, peaking with winds of 115 mph (185 km/h). After maintaining its intensity for 24 hours, Daniel slowly began to weaken. Late on July 2, Daniel was downgraded into a tropical storm. By midday on July 3, Daniel fell to a tropical depression. Several hours later, the EPHC stopped tracking the cyclone. [1]

Nicaragua Country in Central America

Nicaragua, officially the Republic of Nicaragua, is the largest country in the Central American isthmus, bordered by Honduras to the northwest, the Caribbean to the east, Costa Rica to the south, and the Pacific Ocean to the southwest. Managua is the country's capital and largest city and is also the third-largest city in Central America, behind Tegucigalpa and Guatemala City. The multi-ethnic population of six million includes people of indigenous, European, African, and Asian heritage. The main language is Spanish. Indigenous tribes on the Mosquito Coast speak their own languages and English.

Tropical Depression Five

Tropical depression (SSHWS)
Td5june301978.gif  
DurationJune 30 – July 2
Peak intensity30 mph (45 km/h) (1-min) 

This storm began as a weak tropical disturbance on June 28.

Tropical Storm Emilia

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Emilialatejuly81978.gif   Emilia 1978 track.png
DurationJuly 6 – July 10
Peak intensity65 mph (100 km/h) (1-min) 

A tropical disturbance developed just to the east of Acapulco on July 3. The disturbance then turned west, moving at 16kt began to intensify over 85.F water. With satellite imagery showing a cyclonic circulation about in the center, the disturbance was upgraded to a tropical depression on July 6 about 750 n mi west of Acapulco. The depression intensified into a tropical storm and was named Emilia. Emilia then turned to the north-west and continued to intensify. Winds near the center of the storm increased to 60 mph (95 km/h) by July 8 and reached their peak intensity of 65 mph (100 km/h) by July 9. As Emilia continued to move north-west, the cargo ship Marcona Exporter was helpful in locating the center of the storm. By July 10, Emilia was downgraded to a tropical depression with 35 mph (55 km/h) winds. Emilia was then over cooler water and rapidly dissipated. [1]

Hurricane Fico

Category 4 hurricane (SSHWS)
Fico 1978-07-12 1800Z.png   Fico 1978 track.png
DurationJuly 9 – July 28
Peak intensity140 mph (220 km/h) (1-min) ≤ 955  mbar  (hPa)

Hurricane Fico was the longest-lived hurricane of the season and at the time was the longest-lasting Pacific hurricane on record. It developed from a tropical disturbance off the coast of Mexico on July 9. It moved northwestward and then westward, quickly reaching peak winds of 140 mph (220 km/h) on July 12. Moving nearly due westward, the intensity of Fico fluctuated from Category 1 to Category 4 status on the Saffir–Simpson scale for the following days, and it passed about 170 miles (275 km) south of Hawaii on July 20 with winds of 115 mph (185 km/h). Fico slowly weakened as it turned to the northwest over cooler waters, and became an extratropical cyclone on July 28 to the northeast of Midway Island.

Swells from Fico, combined with swells from a storm in the Southern Hemisphere, produced rough surf throughout the Hawaiian islands. The surf destroyed one house and resulted in considerable damage along the southern coast of the island of Hawaii. No deaths were reported, and damage totaled $200,000 (1978 USD, $619,000 2006 USD). [3]

Hurricane Gilma

Category 3 hurricane (SSHWS)
Gilmajuly171978.gif   Gilma 1978 track.png
DurationJuly 13 – July 20
Peak intensity115 mph (185 km/h) (1-min) 

Gilma was a short-lived storm which did not affect land.

Hurricane Hector

Category 4 hurricane (SSHWS)
Hectorjuly241978.gif   Hector 1978 track.png
DurationJuly 22 – July 29
Peak intensity140 mph (220 km/h) (1-min) 

Hector was the strongest storm of this year, but did not affect land.

Tropical Depression Ten

Tropical depression (SSHWS)
Temporary cyclone north.svg  
DurationAugust 6 – August 9
Peak intensity35 mph (55 km/h) (1-min) 

Existed on August 8.

Hurricane Iva

Category 1 hurricane (SSHWS)
IvaAugust131978.gif   Iva 1978 track.png
DurationAugust 11 – August 15
Peak intensity75 mph (120 km/h) (1-min) 

Iva's scattered remnants caused rain on the islands of Hawaii and Maui.

Hurricane John

Category 2 hurricane (SSHWS)
John 1978-08-22 2100Z.jpg   John 1978 track.png
DurationAugust 18 – August 31
Peak intensity105 mph (165 km/h) (1-min) 

John was a category 2 storm that did not affect land.

Hurricane Kristy

Category 2 hurricane (SSHWS)
Kristy Aug 21 1978 1800Z.png   Kristy 1978 track.png
DurationAugust 18 – August 28
Peak intensity105 mph (165 km/h) (1-min) 

Kristy was a category 2 storm that did not affect land.

Tropical Storm Lane

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Lane 1978-08-20 0900Z.png   Lane 1978 track.png
DurationAugust 19 – August 24
Peak intensity50 mph (85 km/h) (1-min) 

Lane was a storm that did not affect land.

Hurricane Miriam

Category 1 hurricane (SSHWS)
Miriam 1978-08-27 1800Z.png   Miriam 1978 track.png
DurationAugust 23 – September 2
Peak intensity90 mph (150 km/h) (1-min) 

Miriam threatened the Hawaiian Islands as a tropical storm, but veered south. Miriam had no effect on the islands. The storm dissipated September 2.

Hurricane Norman

Category 4 hurricane (SSHWS)
Norman 1978-09-02 1800Z.png   Norman 1978 track.png
DurationAugust 30 – September 7
Peak intensity140 mph (220 km/h) (1-min) 

Norman was powerful Category 4 hurricane. It had no effect on land as a hurricane, but after weakening to a tropical storm, Norman recurved and headed straight for southern California. Norman made landfall as a depression and had dissipated by September 7. Heavy rains fell across the Sierra Nevada range in California, with a maximum amount of 7.01 inches reported at Lodgepole. [4]

Tropical Depression Seventeen

Tropical depression (SSHWS)
17E Sept 8 1978 0600Z.png  
DurationSeptember 8 – September 9
Peak intensity30 mph (45 km/h) (1-min) 

Existed between September 8 and September 9.

Hurricane Olivia

Category 1 hurricane (SSHWS)
Olivia Sept 22 1978 0000Z.png   Greta-Olivia 1978 track.png
DurationSeptember 20 (Entered basin) – September 23
Peak intensity75 mph (120 km/h) (1-min) 

Hurricane Olivia was a continuation of Atlantic Hurricane Greta. The depression emerged from Central America and quickly restrengthened into Tropical Storm Olivia. The storm erratically changed course and headed straight north as a hurricane. Olivia made landfall near the Isthmus of Tehuantepec and dissipated on September 23.

Tropical Storm Paul

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Paul Sept 25 1978 1800Z.png   Paul 1978 track.png
DurationSeptember 23 – September 27
Peak intensity45 mph (75 km/h) (1-min) 

Paul brushed the southern tip of Baja California and made landfall in western Mexico.

Hurricane Rosa

Category 1 hurricane (SSHWS)
Rosa Oct 4 1978 1800Z.png   Rosa 1978 track.png
DurationOctober 2 – October 7
Peak intensity85 mph (140 km/h) (1-min) 

As a tropical storm, Rosa came close to Baja California Sur but never made landfall.

Hurricane Susan

Category 4 hurricane (SSHWS)
SusanOctober191978.gif   Susan 1978 track.png
DurationOctober 18 – October 24
Peak intensity130 mph (215 km/h) (1-min)  954  mbar  (hPa)

The only cyclone to develop in the Central Pacific did so on October 18. Susan rapidly intensified into a Category 4 hurricane and one of the three strongest storms then known in the Central Pacific. Initially heading on a course that aimed directly at the Big Island, Susan instead turned to the southwest and decayed rapidly due to wind shear.

Tropical Storm Sergio

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Sergio Oct 19 1978 1800Z.png   Sergio 1978 track.png
DurationOctober 18 – October 21
Peak intensity40 mph (65 km/h) (1-min) 

Sergio dissipated before making landfall on the Pacific coast of Baja California.

Other storms

Tropical Depression 10A

Tropical depression (SSHWS)
Temporary cyclone north.svg  
DurationAugust 7 – August 9
Peak intensity35 mph (55 km/h) (1-min) 

Existed in the Central Pacific. This system was labeled Tropical Depression 10-A by the Joint Typhoon Warning Center.

Tropical Depression Rita

Tropical depression (SSHWS)
Temporary cyclone north.svg   Rita 1978 track.png
DurationOctober 15 – October 16 (Exited basin)
Peak intensity25 mph (35 km/h) (1-min) 

According to the Joint Typhoon Warning Center, on October 15 a tropical depression formed east of the International Dateline, and soon exited CPHC's area of responsibility; [5] however, this storm wasn't included into CPHC database. As it entered into western Pacific, it strengthened as a tropical storm and received the name Rita. [5]

Storm names

These names were used for storms forming in the eastern Pacific Ocean this year. This is the first time most of these names were used, except for Aletta, Carlotta, Iva and Olivia, which were previously used in the old four-year lists. Names not retired from this list were used in the 1982 season. At this time, lists were intended to be repeated every four years instead of six.

This is the first season to use lists with male and female names on it. It is also the first year of modern naming.

  • Aletta
  • Bud
  • Carlotta
  • Daniel
  • Emilia
  • Fico
  • Gilma
  • Hector
  • Iva
  • John
  • Kristy
  • Lane
  • Miriam
  • Norman
  • Olivia
  • Paul
  • Rosa
  • Sergio
  • Tara (unused)
  • Vicente (unused)
  • Willa (unused)

The central Pacific used names and numbers from the western Pacific's typhoon list. One name Susan was used.

Retirement

The World Meteorological Organization retired the name Fico in the spring of 1979. It was replaced with Fabio.

See also

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References

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Emil B. Gunther, Eastern Pacific Hurricane Center (July 1979). "Eastern North Pacific Tropical Cyclones of 1978" (PDF). Monthly Weather Review. American Meteorological Society: 925–926. Bibcode:1979MWRv..107..911G. doi:10.1175/1520-0493(1979)107<0911:ENPTCO>2.0.CO;2 . Retrieved June 18, 2015.
  2. National Hurricane Center; Hurricane Research Division; Central Pacific Hurricane Center. "The Northeast and North Central Pacific hurricane database 1949–2017". United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service. A guide on how to read the database is available here.
  3. The State of Hawaii Data Book (2000). "Geography and Environment of Hawaii" (PDF). Retrieved 2006-12-10.
  4. Hydrometeorological Prediction Center. Hurricane Norman. Retrieved on 2007-02-28.
  5. 1 2 "bwp281978" (TXT). Joint Typhoon Warning Center. 1978. Retrieved November 29, 2015.