The 1979 student protests in Nepal (Nepali: 2036 Saal ko Aandolan (२०३६ सालको आन्दोलन)) were a series of protests amongst the student community in Nepal during the months of April and May 1979 (2036 B.S.). The clashes that occurred had a significant historical impact, as they forced the monarchy to concede to holding a referendum on the possibility of a multiparty system in the country. Official figures stated that 11 persons were killed during the agitation, and 164 wounded.
Nepali, known by the endonym Khas Kura also known as Gorkhali or Parbatiya, is an Indo-Aryan language of the sub-branch of Eastern Pahari. It is the official language of Nepal and one of the 22 official languages of India. It is spoken mainly in Nepal and by about a quarter of the population in Bhutan. In India, Nepali is listed in the Eighth Schedule to the Constitution as a language of India, with official status in the state of Sikkim, and spoken in Northeast Indian states such as Assam and in West Bengal's Darjeeling district. It is also spoken in Burma and by the Nepali diaspora worldwide. Nepali developed in proximity to a number of Indo-Aryan languages, most notably the other Pahari languages and Maithili, and shows Sanskrit influence. However, owing to Nepal's location, it has also been influenced by Tibeto-Burman languages. Nepali is mainly differentiated from Central Pahari, both in grammar and vocabulary, by Tibeto-Burman idioms owing to close contact with this language group.
A protest is an expression of bearing witness on behalf of an express cause by words or actions with regard to particular events, policies or situations. Protests can take many different forms, from individual statements to mass demonstrations. Protesters may organize a protest as a way of publicly making their opinions heard in an attempt to influence public opinion or government policy, or they may undertake direct action in an attempt to directly enact desired changes themselves. Where protests are part of a systematic and peaceful nonviolent campaign to achieve a particular objective, and involve the use of pressure as well as persuasion, they go beyond mere protest and may be better described as cases of civil resistance or nonviolent resistance.
A referendum is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is invited to vote on a particular proposal. This may result in the adoption of a new law. In some countries, it is synonymous with a plebiscite or a vote on a ballot question.
On April 6 a group of students demonstrated in the capital Kathmandu, protesting against the execution of Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, former Prime Minister of Pakistan. As the manifestation came nearer the Pakistani embassy, the student procession was stopped by police at Lainchour.Reportedly, the police blocked the students as King Birendra's vehicle was travelling nearby. Clashes between students and riot police occurred.
Kathmandu is the capital city and largest city of Nepal with a population of 1.5 million in the city proper, and 5 million in its wider urban agglomeration across the Kathmandu Valley, which includes the towns of Lalitpur, Kirtipur, Madhyapur Thimi, Bhaktapur making the total population roughly 2.5 million people and the municipalities across Kathmandu valley. Kathmandu is also the largest metropolis in the Himalayan hill region. Nepali is the most spoken language in the city, while English is widely understood.
Zulfikar Ali Bhutto was a Pakistani politician who served as the 9th Prime Minister of Pakistan from 1973 to 1977, and prior to that as the 4th President of Pakistan from 1971 to 1973. He was also the founder of the Pakistan People's Party (PPP) and served as its chairman until his execution in 1979.
Pakistan, officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country in South Asia. It is the world’s sixth-most populous country with a population exceeding 212,742,631 people. In area, it is the 33rd-largest country, spanning 881,913 square kilometres. Pakistan has a 1,046-kilometre (650-mile) coastline along the Arabian Sea and Gulf of Oman in the south and is bordered by India to the east, Afghanistan to the west, Iran to the southwest, and China in the far northeast. It is separated narrowly from Tajikistan by Afghanistan's Wakhan Corridor in the northwest, and also shares a maritime border with Oman.
After the violent clashes of April 6, representatives of the student community composed a list of 22 demands to the authorities, urging an end to police repression against the student movement. A series of other protests were held by students in the days to come. In an effort to quell the dissent, the authorities decided to close the campuses in Kathmandu valley between April 13 and April 21.[ citation needed ]
On April 9 (B.S 2035 Chaitra), a nine-member central Action Committee of students was formed in order to write the 25-point chart of demands. The members of the Action Committee were as follows:[ citation needed ]
The All Nepal National Free Students' Union is the politically based student organization in Nepal. The ANNFSU was founded in 1965. The original ANNFSU was later divided along ideological lines, and there are several organizations that emerged from it. The main ANNFSU grouping today is politically tied to the Communist Party of Nepal. But the abbreviation can be used to denote as a whole communist students organization in Nepal. The letter or word at the end defines particular communist group. For example: ANNFSU-R for Maoists, ANNFSU(Fifth) for Marxist-Leninists. As well as declaring itself a legitimate and independent students' organization of all progressive, democratic and patriotic students of Nepal, the mainstream ANNFSU is currently a member of the World Federation of Democratic Youth.
Among them, 'chief action committees' consisting of three members were also formed, of Bal Bahadur K.C. of Nepal Students Union (connected to Nepali Congress), Kailash Karki of the Nepal National Students Federation (connected to the pro-Soviet Communist Party) and Sharan Bikram Malla of the All Nepal National Free Students Union (connected to the pro-Chinese communist, Pushpa lal group).
The Nepali Congress is a social-democratic political party in Nepal. It is the largest opposition party in the House of Representatives and the National Assembly.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 30 December 1922 to 26 December 1991. Nominally a union of multiple national Soviet republics, its government and economy were highly centralized. The country was a one-party state, governed by the Communist Party with Moscow as its capital in its largest republic, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. Other major urban centres were Leningrad, Kiev, Minsk, Alma-Ata, and Novosibirsk.
On April 23 students of the Amrit Science College (Ascol) held a public manifestation, protesting against violence committed by the pro-government outfit Rashtravadi Swatantra Vidhyarthi Mandal (nicknamed mandales). At that manifestation, the police not only decided to break up the demonstration in the open areas of the campus, but surrounded the entire area and began violently assaulting the students. Sources from the student community claimed that two or three students were killed by the police. Police sources, on their hand, claimed that 64 amongst their ranks had been injured in the clashes.[ citation needed ]
Following the Amrit Science College clashes, the authorities took a decision that would essentially turn local student unrest in the capital into a national rebellion. They decided to close the campuses and student hostels; students were given 24 hours to clear their rooms. Students from remote areas left the capital to return to their family residences. To their villages and hometowns they brought news about the brutality of the state forces, and soon protests began to appear around the country.
On April 27 a visit by a minister to Hetauda sparked protests by the local population. Demonstrators held the minister incommunicado for ten hours. The crowd was broken up by police firing. Official records say that three demonstrators were killed, but opposition sources claimed that the death toll could have reached 17. The morning after, the state forces clamped down on known opposition leaders in the capital, arresting several prominent figures. Former Prime Minister B.P. Koirala was placed under house arrest.[ citation needed ]
The unrest then gained momentum and spread throughout the country. Protests occurred in Bhaktapur, Patan, Bharatpur, Birganj, Kalaiya, Janakpur, Biratnagar, Rajbiraj, Siraha, Sarlahi, Pokhara and Syangja. In total, clashes occurred in 37 out of 75 districts of Nepal. The education minister, Pashupati Shamsher Rana, resigned.
On May 2 King Birendra, in response to the protests, formed a five-member commission headed by Dhanendra Bahadur Singh, Chief Justice of Supreme Court, present a report on how to deal with student movement. On May 2–3, 160 students arrested during the protests were released. The royal commission suggested giving in to the students' demands concerning academic issues, and on May 9 the 64 remaining arrested students were released alongside political opposition leaders.
The Central Student Action Committee, Bal Bahadur K.C.-Nepal Biddhyarthi Sangh, Sharan Bikram Malla- All Nepal Free Student Union, Kailash Karki- National Student Federation were the three members of central action committee of the students movement of 1979 was able to reach an agreement with the royal commission including abolishing the 1972 new education policy, scrapping entrance exams for universities, giving the right to form independent unions and abolishing the Mandales. The Student Action Committee on their behalf urged fellow students to return to the campuses.
On May 23 King Birendra made a public declaration that a referendum with universal adult suffrage with secret vote would be held in which the people of Nepal would be able to choose between introducing a multiparty system or retain the non-party panchayat regime. The referendum was held on May 2, 1980.
The history of Nepal is intertwined with the history of the broader Indian subcontinent and the surrounding regions, comprising the areas of South Asia and East Asia.
The Kingdom of Nepal, also known as the Kingdom of Gorkha or Asal Hindustan, was a Hindu kingdom on the Indian subcontinent, formed in 1768, by the unification of Nepal. Founded by King Prithvi Narayan Shah, a Gorkhali monarch of Rajput origin from medieval India, it existed for 240 years until the abolition of the Nepalese monarchy in 2008. During this period, Nepal was formally under the rule of the Shah dynasty, which exercised varying degrees of power during the kingdom's existence.
Birendra Bir Bikram Shah was the King of Nepal from 1972 until 2001. The eldest son of King Mahendra, he reigned until his death in the 2001 Nepalese royal massacre.
Communist Party of Nepal (Burma), initially known simply as Communist Party of Nepal or Communist Party of Nepal , was a communist party in Nepal. The party emerged from a split in the original Communist Party of Nepal in 1962, representing the pro-Soviet sector of the party. Its main leader until 1983 was Keshar Jung Rayamajhi, who had been the general secretary of the original CPN.
Jumla District, a part of Karnali province, is one out of ten districts of Karnali. The district, with Jumla as its district headquarters, covers an area of 2,531 square kilometres (977 sq mi) and had a population of 89,427 in 2001 Nepal census and 108,921 in 2011 Nepal census. Jumla is situated in Longitude between 81⁰ 28' E to 82⁰ 18'East and Latitude between 28⁰ 58'N to 29⁰ 30'North.
Jaya Prakash Malla was the last king of Yen (यें) or Kantipur (कान्तिपुर) which corresponds to present-day Kathmandu. He ruled from 1736 to 1746, and then from 1750 until his death in 1768.
A referendum on the system of government was held in Nepal on 2 May 1980. Voters were offered the choice between a non-partisan panchayat system and a multi-party system. The panchayat system received a slim majority of 54.8%. Voter turnout was 66.9%.
Elections were held to the Rastriya Panchayat in Nepal on 9 May 1981. 80% of the seats were elected through adult universal suffrage; this was the first election through universal suffrage held in Nepal in 22 years. However, political parties were banned at the time, and the main underground opposition forces called for a boycott of the election.
Arjun Narasingha K.C. is a Nepalese politician, belonging to the Nepali Congress. He was the Joint General Secretary of the Nepali Congress (NC) and the spokesperson of the party.
The Nepalese Ministry of Foreign Affairs abbreviated as MoFA is responsible for conducting external affairs of the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal. Ministry of Foreign Affairs represents other line ministries and the Government of Nepal while dealing with other states. Currently Minister for Foreign Affairs of Nepal, the Rt. Hon. Pradeep Gyawali, is leading the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Shankar Das Bairagi is serving as Foreign Secretary of Nepal.
Rastriya Panchayat was the official legislature (parliament) (parliament) during the Panchayat regime of Nepal that effectively functioned from 1960 to 1990. Its head office was at the "Gallery Baithak" in Singha Durbar, Kathmandu. In the 1980s, it consisted of more than 120 members among which 105 members were directly elected by the people, while the king was to nominate 20 percent of its members, i.e. 19 members were nominated by the monarch.
The Jayatu Sanskritam movement was begun in 1947 by students of the Tin Dhara Pakshala Sanskrit School in Nepal. They demanded democracy, basic welfare, and the inclusion of modern subjects in their curriculum. It was the first student uprising in Nepal's history, and led to the Revolution of 1951 and the fall of the Rana dynasty.
Nain Singh Thapa or Nayan Singh Thapa was a Nepalese Kaji (minister) and a military general. He died in the offensive campaign of Kangra from bullet injury. He was the owner of Thapathali Durbar.
Vamsharaj Pande was a Nepalese politician, military officer and minister of state. He was a significant army commander of Kingdom of Nepal in the second half of 18th century. He was a follower of Bahadur Shah of Nepal and had a significant rivalry with Swaroop Singh Karki.
Kirtiman Singh Basnyat was Mul Kaji of the Royal Court of Nepal between 1794 and his death on 28 September 1801. He was a military commander of the Nepalese Army.
Thapa or Thapa noble family is a Kshatriya (Rajput-Chhetri) political family that handled Nepali administration affairs between 1806 and 1837 A.D. and 1843 to 1845 A.D. as Mukhtiyar. This was one of the four noble families to be involved in the active politics of the Kingdom of Nepal, along with the Shah dynasty, Basnyat family, and the Pande dynasty before the rise of the Rana dynasty. At the end of 18th century, Thapas had extreme dominance over Nepalese Darbar politics alternatively contesting for central power against the Pandes. The dynasty was established by leading patron Bhimsen Thapa of the Bagale Thapa clan. The Thapa family gave rise to the Rana of Jung Bahadur Kunwar Rana whose father Bal Narsingh Kunwar was the son-in-law of Thapa Kaji Nain Singh Thapa. Similarly, this dynasty was connected to the Pande aristocratic family through Nain Singh Thapa who was the son-in-law of once Mulkaji Ranajit Pande
Mulkaji was the position of head of executive of Kingdom of Nepal in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. It was equivalent to Prime Minister of Nepal. There were 5 Mulkajis appointed between 1785 and 1804.
Swarup Singh Karki or Swaroop Singh Karki, was a Nepalese politician, courtier, military commander and minister. He was popular for his singing prowess and court conspiracies. He was selected as Dewan in the reign of King Pratap Singh Shah and a significant politician in the regent rule of Queen Rajendra of Nepal. He was one of the most influential court politician in the rule of King Pratap Singh and Queen Rajendralaxmi others being his rival Bahadur Shah of Nepal and Vamsharaj Pande. Vamsharaj was his perceived career rival. His life and career ended when Prince Bahadur Shah was appointed as regent in 1785.
Sarbajit Rana Magar or simply Sarbajit Rana was a Nepalese politician, minister and courtier in the Kingdom of Nepal. He became a prominent minister during the regency of Queen Rajendra Laxmi and was a significant personality in central politics in the Kingdom of Nepal. He was assassinated by opponents of Rajendra Laxmi on the charges of having illicit relationship with the Queen.