1980 Summer Olympics

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Games of the XXII Olympiad
Emblem of the 1980 Summer Olympics.svg
Emblem of the 1980 Summer Olympics
Host city Moscow, Russian SFSR, Soviet Union
Nations80
Athletes5,179 (4,064 men, 1,115 women)
Events203 in 21 sports (27 disciplines)
Opening 19 July
Closing 3 August
Opened by
Cauldron
Stadium Grand Arena of the Central Lenin Stadium
Summer

The 1980 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XXII Olympiad (Russian:И́гры XXII Олимпиа́ды, tr. Igry XXII Olimpiady) and commonly known as Moscow 1980 (Russian:Москва 1980, tr. Moskva 1980), were an international multi-sport event held from 19 July to 3 August 1980 in Moscow, Soviet Union, in present-day Russia. [2] [3] The Games were the first to be staged in Eastern Europe, and remain the only Summer Olympics held there, as well as the first Olympic Games and only Summer Olympics [lower-alpha 2] to be held in a Slavic language-speaking country. They were also the only Summer Olympic Games to be held in a communist country until 2008 Summer Olympics held in China. These were the final Olympic Games under the IOC Presidency of Michael Morris, 3rd Baron Killanin. [4]

Contents

Eighty nations were represented at the Moscow Games, the smallest number since 1956. Led by the United States, 66 countries boycotted the games entirely because of the Soviet–Afghan War. Several alternative events were held outside of Russia. Some athletes from some of the boycotting countries (not included in the list of 66 countries that boycotted the games entirely) participated in the games under the Olympic Flag. [5] The Soviet Union would later boycott the 1984 Summer Olympics. The Soviet Union won the most gold and overall medals, with the USSR and East Germany winning 127 out of 203 available golds.

Host city selection

A Soviet stamp sheet showing the logo of the games and its mascot Misha holding the 1980 Olympic light. The map shows the torch relay route from Olympia, Greece, the site of the ancient Olympic Games, to Moscow, Russian SFSR. It also depicts the number of gold, silver and bronze medals (80, 69, 46) won by the Soviet athletes at the Games. Igry XXII Olimpiady v Moskve, Estafeta Olimpiiskogo Ognia.jpg
A Soviet stamp sheet showing the logo of the games and its mascot Misha holding the 1980 Olympic light. The map shows the torch relay route from Olympia, Greece, the site of the ancient Olympic Games, to Moscow, Russian SFSR. It also depicts the number of gold, silver and bronze medals (80, 69, 46) won by the Soviet athletes at the Games.

The only two cities to bid for the 1980 Summer Olympics were Moscow and Los Angeles. The choice between them was made at the 75th IOC Session in Vienna, Austria, on 23 October 1974, which also gave the Winter Olympics to Lake Placid, New York. [6] [7] Los Angeles hosted the next edition (1984), awarded in May 1978. [8] [9] [10]

1980 Summer Olympics bidding result
CityCountryVotes
Moscow Flag of the Soviet Union.svg  Soviet Union 39
Los Angeles Flag of the United States.svg  United States 20
Abstentions2

Participation overview and boycott

Participating nations 1980 Summer Olympic games countries.png
Participating nations
Countries boycotting the 1980 Games are shaded blue 1980 Summer Olympics (Moscow) boycotting countries (blue).svg
Countries boycotting the 1980 Games are shaded blue
Olympic Village in February 2004 Moscow Olymp vil winter.JPG
Olympic Village in February 2004

Eighty nations were represented at the Moscow Olympics, the smallest number since 1956. Of the eighty participating nations, [11] seven nations made their first appearance at these Games: Angola, Botswana, Cyprus, Jordan, Laos, Mozambique and Seychelles. [12] None of these nations won a medal.

Although approximately half of the 24 countries that boycotted the 1976 Summer Olympics (in protest against the IOC not expelling New Zealand who sanctioned a rugby tour of apartheid South Africa) participated in the Moscow Games, the 1980 Summer Olympics were disrupted by another, even larger, boycott led by the United States in protest of the 1979 Soviet–Afghan War. The Soviet invasion spurred President Jimmy Carter to issue an ultimatum on 20 January 1980, which stated that the U.S. would boycott the Moscow Olympics if Soviet troops did not withdraw from Afghanistan within one month. [13] 65 countries and regions invited did not take part in the 1980 Olympics. Many of these followed the United States' boycott initiative, while others[ who? ] cited economic reasons for not participating. [13] [14] Iran, under Ayatollah Khomeini hostile to both superpowers, boycotted when the Islamic Conference condemned the invasion. [15]

Many of the boycotting nations participated instead in the Liberty Bell Classic, also known as the "Olympic Boycott Games", in Philadelphia. However, the nations that did compete had won 71 percent of all medals, and similarly 71 percent of the gold medals, at the 1976 Summer Olympics in Montreal. This was in part due to state-run doping programs that had been developed in the Eastern Bloc countries. [16] As a form of protest against the Soviet intervention in Afghanistan, fifteen countries marched in the Opening Ceremony with the Olympic Flag instead of their national flags, and the Olympic Flag and Olympic Hymn were used at medal ceremonies when athletes from these countries won medals. Competitors from New Zealand, [17] Portugal, and Spain competed under the flags of their respective National Olympic Committees. Some of these teams that marched under flags other than their national flags were depleted by boycotts by individual athletes, while some athletes did not participate in the march.[ citation needed ]

The impact of the boycott was mixed, as some events such as swimming, track and field, boxing, basketball, diving, field hockey and equestrian sports were hit hard. Whilst competitors from 36 countries became Olympic medalists, the great majority of the medals were taken by the Soviet Union and East Germany in what was the most skewed medal tally since 1904. [18]

Events, records and drug tests overview

There were 203 events – more than at any previous Olympics. 36 world records, 39 European records and 74 Olympic records were set at the games. In total, this was more records than were set at Montreal. New Olympic records were set 241 times over the course of the competitions and world records were beaten 97 times.

A 1989 report by a committee of the Australian Senate claimed that "there is hardly a medal winner at the Moscow Games, certainly not a gold medal winner...who is not on one sort of drug or another: usually several kinds. The Moscow Games might well have been called the Chemists' Games". [19]

Manfred Donike, a member of the IOC Medical Commission, privately ran additional tests with a new technique for identifying abnormal levels of testosterone by measuring its ratio to epitestosterone in urine. Twenty percent of the specimens he tested, including those from sixteen gold medalists, would have resulted in disciplinary proceedings had the tests been official. The results of Donike's unofficial tests later convinced the IOC to add his new technique to their testing protocols. [20] The first documented case of "blood doping" occurred at the 1980 Summer Olympics as a runner was transfused with two pints of blood before winning medals in the 5000 m and 10,000 m. [21]

Media and broadcasting

Major broadcasters of the 1980 Games were USSR State TV and Radio (1,370 accreditation cards), Eurovision (31 countries, 818 cards) and Intervision (11 countries, 342 cards). [22] TV Asahi with 68 cards provided coverage for Japan, while OTI, representing Latin America, received 59 cards, and the Seven Network provided coverage for Australia (48 cards). [22] NBC, which had intended to be another major broadcaster, canceled its coverage in response to the U.S. boycott of the 1980 Games, and became a minor broadcaster with 56 accreditation cards, [22] although they did air highlights and recaps of the Games on a regular basis. ABC aired scenes of the opening ceremony during its Nightline program, and promised highlights each night, but later announced that they could not air any highlights as NBC still had exclusive broadcast rights in the US. The Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC) almost canceled their plans for coverage after Canada took part in the boycott, and was represented by nine cards. [22] The television center used 20 television channels, compared to 16 for the Montreal Games, 12 for the Munich Games, and seven for the Mexico City Games. This was also the first time North Korea was watching, as KCTV (Korea Central Television) broadcast it as their first satellite program.

During the opening ceremony, Salyut 6 crew Leonid Popov and Valery Ryumin sent their greetings to the Olympians and wished them happy starts in the live communication between the station and the Central Lenin Stadium.. [23]

Spectators and commemoration

150-rubles platinum coin (reverse) RR3318-0003R.jpg
150-rubles platinum coin (reverse)

The Games attracted five million spectators, an increase of 1.5 million from the Montreal Games. There were 1,245 referees from 78 countries.[ citation needed ] A series of commemorative coins was released in the USSR in 1977–1980 to commemorate the event. It consisted of five platinum coins, six gold coins, 28 silver coins and six copper-nickel coins.[ citation needed ]

Budget

According to the Official Report, submitted to the IOC by the NOC of the USSR, total expenditures for the preparations for and staging of the 1980 Games were US$1,350,000,000, [24] total revenues being US$231,000,000. [24]

Cost

The Oxford Olympics Study established the outturn cost of the Moscow 1980 Summer Olympics at US$6.3 billion in 2015 dollars. [25] This includes sports-related costs only, that is, (i) operational costs incurred by the organizing committee for the purpose of staging the Games, e.g., expenditures for technology, transportation, workforce, administration, security, catering, ceremonies, and medical services, and (ii) direct capital costs incurred by the host city and country or private investors to build, e.g., the competition venues, the Olympic village, international broadcast center, and media and press center, which are required to host the Games. Indirect capital costs are not included, such as for road, rail, or airport infrastructure, or for hotel upgrades or other business investment incurred in preparation for the Games but not directly related to staging the Games. The cost for Moscow 1980 compares with costs of US$4.6 billion for Rio 2016 (projected), US$40–44 billion for Beijing 2008 and US$51 billion for Sochi 2014, the most expensive Olympics in history. Average cost for the Summer Games since 1960 is US$5.2 billion.

Opening ceremony

Highlights of the different events

Archery

Athletics

Marathon in front of Saint Basil's Cathedral Bundesarchiv Bild 183-W0801-0120, Moskau, XXII. Olympiade, Marathon, Cierpinski, Chun Son Kon,.jpg
Marathon in front of Saint Basil's Cathedral

Basketball

Boxing

Canoeing

All events in canoeing and rowing took place at the Moscow Canoeing and Rowing Basin in Krylatskoye Krylaskoe.JPG
All events in canoeing and rowing took place at the Moscow Canoeing and Rowing Basin in Krylatskoye

Cycling

Olympic Velodrome in Krylatskoye Krylatsky Olympic Velodrome.jpg
Olympic Velodrome in Krylatskoye

Diving

Equestrian

Fencing

Football

Pins released by the USSR for the football event of the Olympics (with a British 50 pence coin for size comparison) Misha1980.JPG
Pins released by the USSR for the football event of the Olympics (with a British 50 pence coin for size comparison)

Gymnastics

Handball

The USSR men's handball team celebrating their victory over Yugoslavia RIAN archive 567780 USSR vs. Yugoslavia.jpg
The USSR men's handball team celebrating their victory over Yugoslavia

Field hockey

Judo

Modern Pentathlon

Rowing

Sailing

Shooting

Swimming

Rica Reinisch with her gold medal in 200 m swimming. Bundesarchiv Bild 183-W0727-138, Moskau, Olympiade, Siegerinnen uber 200 m Rucken.jpg
Rica Reinisch with her gold medal in 200 m swimming.

Volleyball

Water polo

Weightlifting

Wrestling

Closing ceremony

Misha, the mascot, formed in a mosaic as a tear runs down his face during the closing ceremony RIAN archive 488322 Flag-bearers of states-participants of the XXII Summer Olympic Games cropped.jpg
Misha, the mascot, formed in a mosaic as a tear runs down his face during the closing ceremony
Misha carried by balloons into the sky, commemorated by a 2000 postage stamp issued by Russia Russia stamp 2000 No.  572.jpg
Misha carried by balloons into the sky, commemorated by a 2000 postage stamp issued by Russia

Because of the U.S. boycott, changes were made to the traditional elements of the closing ceremony that represent the handover to the host city of the next Summer Olympics in Los Angeles. Among them, the flag of the city of Los Angeles instead of the United States flag was raised, and the Olympic Anthem instead of the national anthem of the United States was played. There was also no "Antwerp Ceremony", where the ceremonial Olympic flag was transferred from the Mayor of Moscow to the Mayor of Los Angeles; instead the flag was kept by the Moscow city authorities until 1984. Furthermore, there was no next host city presentation.

Both the opening and closing ceremonies were shown in Yuri Ozerov's 1981 film Oh, Sport – You Are The World! (Russian : О спорт, ты – мир!).

Venues

¹ New facilities constructed in preparation for the Olympic Games. ² Existing facilities modified or refurbished in preparation for the Olympic Games.

Medals awarded

The 1980 Summer Olympic programme featured 203 events in the following 21 sports:

Calendar

All times are in Moscow Time (UTC+3)
  Opening ceremony  Event competitions  Event finals  Closing ceremony
DateJulyAugust
19th
Sat
20th
Sun
21st
Mon
22nd
Tue
23rd
Wed
24th
Thu
25th
Fri
26th
Sat
27th
Sun
28th
Mon
29th
Tue
30th
Wed
31st
Thu
1st
Fri
2nd
Sat
3rd
Sun
Archery
Athletics








Basketball
Boxing

Canoeing

Cycling
Diving
Equestrian
Fencing
Field hockey
Football (soccer)
Gymnastics

Handball
Judo
Modern pentathlon
Rowing

Sailing
Shooting
Swimming





Volleyball
Water polo
Weightlifting
Wrestling





Total gold medals571012191522221016141119201
Ceremonies
Date19th
Sat
20th
Sun
21st
Mon
22nd
Tue
23rd
Wed
24th
Thu
25th
Fri
26th
Sat
27th
Sun
28th
Mon
29th
Tue
30th
Wed
31st
Thu
1st
Fri
2nd
Sat
3rd
Sun
JulyAugust

Medal count

This is a list of all nations that won medals at the 1980 Games.

A "bronze" medal - actually tombac - from the 1980 Summer Olympics 1980 Summer Olympics bronze medal.JPG
A "bronze" medal – actually tombac – from the 1980 Summer Olympics

  *   Host nation (Soviet Union)

RankNationGoldSilverBronzeTotal
1Flag of the Soviet Union.svg  Soviet Union  (URS)*806946195
2Flag of East Germany.svg  East Germany  (GDR)473742126
3Flag of Bulgaria (1971-1990).svg  Bulgaria  (BUL)8161741
4Flag of Cuba.svg  Cuba  (CUB)87520
5Olympic flag.svg  Italy  (ITA)83415
6Flag of Hungary.svg  Hungary  (HUN)7101532
7Flag of Romania (1965-1989).svg  Romania  (ROU)661325
8Olympic flag.svg  France  (FRA)65314
9Olympic flag.svg  Great Britain  (GBR)57921
10Flag of Poland.svg  Poland  (POL)3141532
11Flag of Sweden.svg  Sweden  (SWE)33612
12Flag of Finland.svg  Finland  (FIN)3148
13Flag of Czechoslovakia.svg  Czechoslovakia  (TCH)23914
14Flag of SFR Yugoslavia.svg  Yugoslavia  (YUG)2349
15Olympic flag.svg  Australia  (AUS)2259
16Olympic flag.svg  Denmark  (DEN)2125
17Flag of Brazil (1968-1992).svg  Brazil  (BRA)2024
Flag of Ethiopia (1975-1987).svg  Ethiopia  (ETH)2024
19Olympic flag.svg  Switzerland  (SUI)2002
20Spain Olympic Flag 1980.svg  Spain  (ESP)1326
21Flag of Austria.svg  Austria  (AUT)1214
22Flag of Greece.svg  Greece  (GRE)1023
23Olympic flag.svg  Belgium  (BEL)1001
Flag of India.svg  India  (IND)1001
Flag of Zimbabwe.svg  Zimbabwe  (ZIM)1001
26Flag of North Korea (1948-1992).svg  North Korea  (PRK)0325
27Flag of the People's Republic of Mongolia (1940-1992).svg  Mongolia  (MGL)0224
28Flag of Tanzania.svg  Tanzania  (TAN)0202
29Flag of Mexico.svg  Mexico  (MEX)0134
30Olympic flag.svg  Netherlands  (NED)0123
31Olympic flag.svg  Ireland  (IRL)0112
32Flag of Uganda.svg  Uganda  (UGA)0101
Flag of Venezuela (1954-2006).png  Venezuela  (VEN)0101
34Flag of Jamaica.svg  Jamaica  (JAM)0033
35Flag of Guyana.svg  Guyana  (GUY)0011
Flag of Lebanon.svg  Lebanon  (LIB)0011
Totals (36 nations)204204223631

List of participating countries and regions

In the following list, the number in parentheses indicates the number of athletes from each nation that competed in Moscow. Nations in italics competed under the Olympic flag (or, in the cases of New Zealand, Portugal and Spain, under the flags of their respective National Olympic Committees):

Number of athletes sent per nation 1980 Summer olympics team numbers.gif
Number of athletes sent per nation
Participating National Olympic Committees

^  Note:  Liberia with seven athletes, withdrew after marching in the Opening Ceremony and took part in the boycott.

See also

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Athletics at the 1980 Summer Olympics – Mens high jump

The men's high jump event at the 1980 Summer Olympics in Moscow, Soviet Union had an entry list of 30 competitors from 19 nations. The maximum number of athletes per nation had been set at 3 since the 1930 Olympic Congress. The final was held on Friday 1 August 1980. The event was won by Gerd Wessig of East Germany, the first gold medal by a German athlete in the men's high jump. It was also the first time a world record in the high jump had been set at the Olympics. Jörg Freimuth took bronze, making East Germany the third nation to have two medalists in the event in the same Games. Defending champion Jacek Wszoła of Poland took silver, becoming the fourth man to win two high jump medals and matching Valeriy Brumel for best results at one gold and one silver. Through the 2016 Games, Wszoła, Brumel, and Javier Sotomayor remain the most successful Olympic men's high jumpers; no high jumper has won two gold medals, or one gold and two silvers. Due at least in part to the American-led boycott, the United States' streak of making the podium in every Olympic men's high jump event to date ended, though a strong field may have kept them out of the medals even if they had competed.

The men's shot put event at the 1980 Summer Olympics in Moscow, Soviet Union had an entry list of 16 competitors from 11 nations. The maximum number of athletes per nation had been set at 3 since the 1930 Olympic Congress. The final was held on Wednesday 30 July 1980, with the qualifying round staged two days earlier in the Lenin Stadium. The top twelve and ties, and all those reaching 19.60 metres advanced to the final. The event was won by Vladimir Kiselyov of the Soviet Union, the nation's first victory in the men's shot put. The Soviet Union became only the third nation to reach the podium in consecutive Games in the event, as East Germany became the second to reach a three-Games streak on the podium as Udo Beyer took bronze. Beyer and Aleksandr Baryshnikov became the ninth and tenth men to win multiple medals in the shot put.

Athletics at the 1980 Summer Olympics – Mens long jump

The men's long jump at the 1980 Summer Olympics in Moscow, Soviet Union had an start list of 32 competitors from 23, with two qualifying groups before the final (12) took place on Monday July 28, 1980. The maximum number of athletes per nation had been set at 3 since the 1930 Olympic Congress. The top twelve and ties and all those reaching 7.90 metres advanced to the final. The event was won by Lutz Dombrowski of East Germany, the first gold medal in the men's long jump by any German jumper. Frank Paschek made East Germany the only nation other than the United States to have two men on the podium in the same Games in the event. Valeriy Podluzhniy won the Soviet Union's first men's long jump medal since 1964. The American-led boycott ended the United States' three-Games gold medal streak and 18-Games streak of winning at least a silver medal in the event.

Athletics at the 1980 Summer Olympics – Mens marathon

The men's marathon at the 1980 Summer Olympics in Moscow, USSR had an entry list of 76 competitors, with 74 athletes from 40 nations starting and 53 runners finishing the race held on Friday 1 August 1980. The maximum number of athletes per nation had been set at 3 since the 1930 Olympic Congress. The event was won by Waldemar Cierpinski of East Germany, the second man to successfully defend Olympic gold in the marathon. Both the Netherlands and the Soviet Union won their first men's Olympic marathon medals.

Shooting at the 1980 Summer Olympics – Mixed 50 metre pistol Sports shooting at the Olympics

The mixed ISSF 50 meter pistol was one of the seven sport shooting events at the 1980 Summer Olympics. There were 33 competitors from 19 nations. Nations had been limited to two shooters each since the 1952 Games. The gold medal was won by Aleksandr Melentyev of the Soviet Union who broke the world record with 581 points. It was the Soviet Union's third victory in the event, second-most behind the United States at four. Melentyev defeated Harald Vollmar of East Germany by 13 points. For Vollmar this was his third Olympic medal in the same event, having won silver at 1976 Montreal and bronze at 1968 Mexico City. Vollmar was the first man to win at least three medals in the free pistol. Lyubcho Dyakov's bronze was Bulgaria's first medal in the event.

Rowing at the 1980 Summer Olympics – Mens coxed four Olympic rowing event

The men's coxed four rowing competition at the 1980 Summer Olympics took place at Krylatskoye Sports Complex Canoeing and Rowing Basin, Moscow, Soviet Union. The event was held from 20 to 27 July. There were 12 boats from 12 nations, with each nation limited to a single boat in the event. The event was won by East Germany, the nation's first victory after three consecutive silver medals since it began competing separately in 1968. Defending champions the Soviet Union finished second, while Poland's bronze medal was the first medal in the men's coxed four for that nation since 1932. Twin brothers Ullrich and Walter Dießner became the sixth and seventh men to earn two medals in the event, as they had also competed on the 1976 East German silver medal team.

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  25. Flyvbjerg, Bent; Stewart, Allison; Budzier, Alexander (2016). The Oxford Olympics Study 2016: Cost and Cost Overrun at the Games. Oxford: Saïd Business School Working Papers (Oxford: University of Oxford). pp. 9–13. SSRN   2804554 .
  26. Siukonen, Markku; et al. (1980). Urheilutieto 5 (in Finnish). Oy Scandia Kirjat Ab. pp. 363–364. ISBN   951-9466-20-7.
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  28. "The forgotten story of Ian Campbell". The Guardian . 7 August 2013.
  29. "Kozakiewicz Sets World Pole Vault Record". Star-Banner . Ocala, Florida. 31 July 1980.
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  1. IOC records state Brezhnev opened the Moscow Games as "President", a title used at that time by the Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet, or de jure head of state. (The office of President of the Soviet Union was not created until 1990, a year before the nation broke up.) Though Brezhnev was also de facto ruler as General Secretary of the Communist Party, that title is not reflected in IOC records.
  2. Since 1980, the 1984 Winter Olympics and 2014 Winter Olympics were also held in Slavic-speaking nations.

Further reading

Boycott

Preceded by
Montreal
Summer Olympic Games
Host City

XXII Olympiad (1980)
Succeeded by
Los Angeles