1988

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Millennium: 2nd millennium
Centuries:
Decades:
Years:
1988 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar 1988
MCMLXXXVIII
Ab urbe condita 2741
Armenian calendar 1437
ԹՎ ՌՆԼԷ
Assyrian calendar 6738
Bahá'í calendar 144–145
Balinese saka calendar 1909–1910
Bengali calendar 1395
Berber calendar 2938
British Regnal year 36  Eliz. 2   37  Eliz. 2
Buddhist calendar 2532
Burmese calendar 1350
Byzantine calendar 7496–7497
Chinese calendar 丁卯(Fire  Rabbit)
4684 or 4624
     to 
戊辰年 (Earth  Dragon)
4685 or 4625
Coptic calendar 1704–1705
Discordian calendar 3154
Ethiopian calendar 1980–1981
Hebrew calendar 5748–5749
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat 2044–2045
 - Shaka Samvat 1909–1910
 - Kali Yuga 5088–5089
Holocene calendar 11988
Igbo calendar 988–989
Iranian calendar 1366–1367
Islamic calendar 1408–1409
Japanese calendar Shōwa 63
(昭和63年)
Javanese calendar 1920–1921
Juche calendar 77
Julian calendar Gregorian minus 13 days
Korean calendar 4321
Minguo calendar ROC 77
民國77年
Nanakshahi calendar 520
Thai solar calendar 2531
Tibetan calendar 阴火兔年
(female Fire-Rabbit)
2114 or 1733 or 961
     to 
阳土龙年
(male Earth-Dragon)
2115 or 1734 or 962
Unix time 567993600 – 599615999

1988 ( MCMLXXXVIII ) was a leap year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar , the 1988th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 988th year of the 2nd millennium , the 88th year of the 20th century , and the 9th year of the 1980s decade.

Roman numerals Numbers in the Roman numeral system

Roman numerals are a numeric system that originated in ancient Rome and remained the usual way of writing numbers throughout Europe well into the Late Middle Ages. Numbers in this system are represented by combinations of letters from the Latin alphabet. Modern usage employs seven symbols, each with a fixed integer value:

A leap year is a calendar year containing one additional day added to keep the calendar year synchronized with the astronomical or seasonal year. Because seasons and astronomical events do not repeat in a whole number of days, calendars that have the same number of days in each year drift over time with respect to the event that the year is supposed to track. By inserting an additional day or month into the year, the drift can be corrected. A year that is not a leap year is called a common year.

A leap year starting on Friday is any year with 366 days that begins on Friday 1 January and ends on Saturday 31 December. Its dominical letters hence are CB, such as the years 1808, 1836, 1864, 1892, 1904, 1932, 1960, 1988, 2016, 2044, 2072, and 2112 in the Gregorian calendar or, likewise, 2000 and 2028 in the obsolete Julian calendar. Any leap year that starts on Tuesday, Friday or Saturday has only one Friday the 13th; The only Friday the 13th in this leap year occurs in May. Common years starting on Saturday share this characteristic.

Contents

In the 20th century, the year 1988 has the most Roman numeral digits (11).

20th century Century

The 20th (twentieth) century was a century that began on January 1, 1901 and ended on December 31, 2000. It was the tenth and final century of the 2nd millennium. It is distinct from the century known as the 1900s which began on January 1, 1900 and ended on December 31, 1999.

1988 was a crucial year in the early history of the Internet—it was the year of the first well-known computer virus, the 1988 Internet worm. The first permanent intercontinental Internet link was made between the United States (NSFNET) and Europe (Nordunet) as well as the first Internet-based chat protocol, Internet Relay Chat. [1] The concept of the World Wide Web was first discussed at CERN in 1988. [2]

Internet Global system of connected computer networks

The Internet is the global system of interconnected computer networks that use the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to link devices worldwide. It is a network of networks that consists of private, public, academic, business, and government networks of local to global scope, linked by a broad array of electronic, wireless, and optical networking technologies. The Internet carries a vast range of information resources and services, such as the inter-linked hypertext documents and applications of the World Wide Web (WWW), electronic mail, telephony, and file sharing. Some publications no longer capitalize "internet".

A computer virus is a type of malicious software that, when executed, replicates itself by modifying other computer programs and inserting its own code. When this replication succeeds, the affected areas are then said to be "infected" with a computer virus.

The Morris worm or Internet worm of November 2, 1988, was one of the first computer worms distributed via the Internet, and the first to gain significant mainstream media attention. It also resulted in the first felony conviction in the US under the 1986 Computer Fraud and Abuse Act. It was written by a graduate student at Cornell University, Robert Tappan Morris, and launched on November 2, 1988, from the computer systems of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

The Soviet Union began its major restructuring towards a mixed economy at the beginning of 1988 and began its gradual dissolution. The Iron Curtain began to disintegrate in 1988 as Hungary began allowing freer travel to the West. [3] The first extrasolar planet, Gamma Cephei Ab (confirmed in 2002) was detected this year and the World Health Organization began its mission to eradicate polio.

Soviet Union 1922–1991 country in Europe and Asia

The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991. Nominally a union of multiple national Soviet republics, its government and economy were highly centralized. The country was a one-party state, governed by the Communist Party with Moscow as its capital in its largest republic, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. Other major urban centres were Leningrad, Kiev, Minsk, Alma-Ata, and Novosibirsk. It spanned over 10,000 kilometres east to west across 11 time zones, and over 7,200 kilometres north to south. It had five climate zones: tundra, taiga, steppes, desert and mountains.

A mixed economy is variously defined as an economic system blending elements of market economies with elements of planned economies, free markets with state interventionism, or private enterprise with public enterprise. There is no single definition of a mixed economy, but rather two major definitions. The first of these definitions refers to a mixture of markets with state interventionism, referring to capitalist market economies with strong regulatory oversight, interventionist policies and governmental provision of public services. The second definition is apolitical in nature and strictly refers to an economy containing a mixture of private enterprise with public enterprise.

Dissolution of the Soviet Union Process leading to the late-1991 breakup of the USSR

The dissolution of the Soviet Union occurred on 26 December 1991, officially granting self-governing independence to the Republics of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR). It was a result of the declaration number 142-Н of the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union. The declaration acknowledged the independence of the former Soviet republics and created the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), although five of the signatories ratified it much later or did not do so at all. On the previous day, 25 December, Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev, the eighth and final leader of the USSR, resigned, declared his office extinct and handed over its powers—including control of the Soviet nuclear missile launching codes—to Russian President Boris Yeltsin. That evening at 7:32 p.m., the Soviet flag was lowered from the Kremlin for the last time and replaced with the pre-revolutionary Russian flag.

Events

January

On August 31, 1986, the cargo ship Khian Sea, registered in Liberia, was loaded with more than 14,000 tons of ash from waste incinerators in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. The city had previously sent such waste to New Jersey, but that state refused to accept any more after 1984.

Haiti country in the Caribbean

Haiti, officially the Republic of Haiti and formerly called Hayti, is a country located on the island of Hispaniola, east of Cuba in the Greater Antilles archipelago of the Caribbean Sea. It occupies the western three-eighths of the island, which it shares with the Dominican Republic. Haiti is 27,750 square kilometres (10,714 sq mi) in size and has an estimated 10.8 million people, making it the most populous country in the Caribbean Community (CARICOM) and the second-most populous country in the Caribbean as a whole.

January 2 is the second day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. 363 days remain until the end of the year.

February

February 3 is the 34th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. 331 days remain until the end of the year.

Democratic Party (United States) political party in the United States

The Democratic Party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Republican Party. Tracing its heritage back to Thomas Jefferson and James Madison's Democratic-Republican Party, the modern-day Democratic Party was founded around 1828 by supporters of Andrew Jackson, making it the world's oldest active political party.

United States House of Representatives lower house of the United States Congress

The United States House of Representatives is the lower chamber of the United States Congress, the Senate being the upper chamber. Together they compose the legislature of the United States.

March

April

The Iranian frigate, IS Alvand, attacked by US Navy forces during Operation Praying Mantis OperationPrayingMantis-IS Alvand.jpg
The Iranian frigate, IS Alvand, attacked by US Navy forces during Operation Praying Mantis

May

June

July

August

September

October

November

December

Date unknown

Births

Births
January  · February  · March  · April  · May  · June  · July  · August  · September  · October  · November  · December  · Date unknown

January

Skrillex Skrillex.jpg
Skrillex
Ashleigh Murray Ashleigh Murray by Gage Skidmore.jpg
Ashleigh Murray
Ashton Eaton Ashton Eaton 2 Daegu 2011.jpg
Ashton Eaton
Jade Ewen Jadewen2009.jpg
Jade Ewen
Alexandra Krosney Alexandra Krosney 2012.jpg
Alexandra Krosney

February

Zosia Mamet Zosia Mamet 2016.jpg
Zosia Mamet
Angel Di Maria Angel Di Maria 2018.jpg
Ángel Di María
Katie Boland Katie Boland at the 2017 CFC Annual BBQ Fundraiser (36331880624) (cropped).jpg
Katie Boland
Maiara Walsh Maiara Walsh 2010.jpg
Maiara Walsh
Rihanna Rihanna concert in Washington DC (2).jpg
Rihanna
Tracy Spiridakos Tracy Spiridakos at PaleyFest 2013.jpg
Tracy Spiridakos

March

Matthew Mitcham Matthew Mitcham.jpg
Matthew Mitcham
Josh Duggar Joshua Duggar 2007 cropped and retouched.jpg
Josh Duggar
Josh Bowman Joshua Bowman PaleyFest 12.jpg
Josh Bowman
Gal Mekel Gal mekel.JPG
Gal Mekel
Stephen Curry Stephen Curry dribbling 2016 (cropped).jpg
Stephen Curry
Sasha Grey Sasha Grey at AVN 2010 Expo.jpg
Sasha Grey
Nick Lashaway Nick Lashaway (cropped).jpg
Nick Lashaway

April

Stephanie Cayo Stephanee Cayo (16277042312).jpg
Stephanie Cayo
Haley Joel Osment Haley Joel Osment TIFF 2014.jpg
Haley Joel Osment
Allison Williams Allison Williams July 2012.jpg
Allison Williams
Chris Wood Chris Wood SDCC 2017.jpg
Chris Wood
Robbie Amell Robbie Amell November 2016.jpg
Robbie Amell
Ricky Berens Ricky Berens (4800342335) (cropped2).jpg
Ricky Berens
Sara Paxton Sara Paxton at Mother Goose Parade, 2007 (bright).jpg
Sara Paxton

May

Anushka Sharma Anushka Sharma 2015.jpg
Anushka Sharma
Nicholas Braun Nicholas Braun 2017.jpg
Nicholas Braun
Adele Adele 2016.jpg
Adele
Skye Sweetnam Sever at 2015 FoF 1.jpg
Skye Sweetnam
Taeyang Taeyang - MADE THE MOVIE Premiere (cropped).jpg
Taeyang

June

Sergio Aguero Sergio Aguero 2018.jpg
Sergio Agüero
Michael Cera Michael Cera 2012 (Cropped).jpg
Michael Cera
Mae Whitman Mae Whitman March 22, 2014 (cropped).jpg
Mae Whitman
Claire Holt Claire Holt at PaleyFest 2014.jpg
Claire Holt
Kevin McHale Kevin McHale 2012.jpg
Kevin McHale
Stephanie Rice Stephanie Rice (8284246332).jpg
Stephanie Rice
Alanna Masterson Alanna Masterson by Gage Skidmore.jpg
Alanna Masterson
Sean Marquette Sean2 edited.jpg
Sean Marquette

July

Antonio Brown Antonio Brown (wide receiver, born 1988).JPG
Antonio Brown
Colton Haynes Colton Haynes PaleyFest 2015 (cropped).jpg
Colton Haynes
Steven R. McQueen Steven R. McQueen by Gage Skidmore 2.jpg
Steven R. McQueen
Conor McGregor Conor McGregor.jpg
Conor McGregor
Aimee Carrero Aimee Carrero.jpg
Aimee Carrero
Shane Dawson Shane Dawson (14558760423) (2) (cropped).jpg
Shane Dawson
Julianne Hough Julianne Hough in Swarovski 2 (cropped).jpg
Julianne Hough
Sarah Geronimo Sarah G Dubai 2011.jpg
Sarah Geronimo
Charlie Carver Charlie Carver by Gage Skidmore 2.jpg
Charlie Carver

August

Princess Beatrice of York Prince Beatrice with Dave Clark crop.jpg
Princess Beatrice of York
Leah Pipes Leah Pipes at PaleyFest 2014.jpg
Leah Pipes
Rumer Willis Rumer Willis at 2012 MIFF (cropped).jpg
Rumer Willis
Veronica Roth Veronica Roth March 18, 2014 (cropped).jpg
Veronica Roth
Rupert Grint Rupert Grint 2012.jpg
Rupert Grint

September

Jerome Boateng Ger-Mex (6) (cropped).jpg
Jérôme Boateng
Max George Max George 2012.jpg
Max George
Chelsea Kane Chelsea Kane (Headshot).jpg
Chelsea Kane
James Blake Melt-2013-James Blake-7 (cropped) (cropped).jpg
James Blake
Kevin Durant Golden State Warriors Small Forward Kevin Durant (cropped).jpg
Kevin Durant

October

Cariba Heine Cariba Heine.jpg
Cariba Heine
Alicia Vikander Alicia Vikander 2013.jpg
Alicia Vikander
Melissa Benoist SDCC 2017 - Jeremy Jordan, Melissa Benoist and David Harewood 01 (cropped2).jpg
Melissa Benoist
Mesut Ozil 20180602 FIFA Friendly Match Austria vs. Germany Mesut Ozil 850 0704.jpg
Mesut Özil
Janel Parrish Robin Wong Photography Bratz 024.jpg
Janel Parrish

November

Emma Stone Emma Stone at the 39th Mill Valley Film Festival (cropped).jpg
Emma Stone
Jessica Lowndes Jessica Lowndes 2009.jpg
Jessica Lowndes
Nikki Blonsky Nikki Blonsky LF.JPG
Nikki Blonsky
B.o.B B.o.B UIT 2013 (cropped).jpg
B.o.B
Patrick Kane Patrick Kane - Chicago Blackhawks.jpg
Patrick Kane
Rebecca Rittenhouse Rebecca Rittenhouse 2014.jpg
Rebecca Rittenhouse

December

Zoe Kravitz Zoe Kravitz March 18, 2014 (cropped).jpg
Zoë Kravitz
Emily Browning Emily Browning HIFF crop.jpg
Emily Browning
Vanessa Hudgens Vanessa Hudgens during an interview in August 2018 04.png
Vanessa Hudgens
Anna Popplewell Anna Popplewell 2013.jpg
Anna Popplewell
Alexis Sanchez Alexis Sanchez 2017.jpg
Alexis Sánchez
Hayley Williams Hayley in 2017.jpg
Hayley Williams

Date unknown

Deaths

Deaths
January  · February  · March  · April  · May  · June  · July  · August  · September  · October  · November  · December

January

Pappy Boyington Pappy Boyington.jpg
Pappy Boyington
Chiang Ching-kuo ChiangChingkuo photo.jpg
Chiang Ching-kuo

February

Carmen Polo, 1st Lady of Meiras Carmen Polo, 1st Lady of Meiras.jpg
Carmen Polo, 1st Lady of Meirás
Richard Feynman Richard Feynman Nobel.jpg
Richard Feynman
Alexander Bashlachev Cropped Bashlachiov.jpg
Alexander Bashlachev
Kurt Mahler Kurt Mahler.jpg
Kurt Mahler

March

Kurt Georg Kiesinger Kurt Georg Kiesinger (Nurburgring, 1969).jpg
Kurt Georg Kiesinger
Andy Gibb Andy Gibb 1981.jpg
Andy Gibb
Edgar Faure Edgar Faure 1955.jpg
Edgar Faure
William McMahon William McMahon 1966.jpg
William McMahon

April

Milton Caniff Milton Caniff cropped.jpg
Milton Caniff
Alan Paton Alan Paton.jpg
Alan Paton
Michael Ramsey Michael Ramsey 1974.jpg
Michael Ramsey

May

Robert A. Heinlein Heinlein-face.jpg
Robert A. Heinlein
Willem Drees Drees, W. - SFA002019221.jpg
Willem Drees
Daws Butler Daws Butler (1976).jpg
Daws Butler
Ella Raines Promotional photograph of Ella Raines.jpg
Ella Raines

June

Giuseppe Saragat Giuseppe Saragat.jpg
Giuseppe Saragat
Hillel Slovak HillelSlovak1983.jpg
Hillel Slovak

July

Judith Barsi Judith Barsi.jpg
Judith Barsi

August

Ramon Valdes Ramon Valdes Don Ramon (cropped).jpg
Ramón Valdés
Arnulfo Arias Monumento a Arnulfo Arias Madrid..-.jpg
Arnulfo Arias
Enzo Ferrari Enzo Ferrari - Wheel of a racing car.jpg
Enzo Ferrari
Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq Muhammad-Zia-ul-Haq-01.jpg
Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq
Lazarus Salii Lazarus Eitaro Salii.jpg
Lazarus Salii
Jack Marshall Jack Marshall Bundesarchiv B 145 Bild-F011973-0020 cropped.jpg
Jack Marshall

September

Luis Walter Alvarez Luis Walter Alvarez 1961.jpg
Luis Walter Alvarez

October

Franz Josef Strauss Franz Josef Strauss 1982.jpg
Franz Josef Strauss
Son House Son House.jpg
Son House
John Houseman John Houseman - 1980.jpg
John Houseman

November

Takeo Miki Takeo Miki-2-1.jpg
Takeo Miki
Gamal Abdel-Rahim Gamal Abdel Rahim photo.jpg
Gamal Abdel-Rahim
John Carradine John Carradine in Blood and Sand trailer.jpg
John Carradine

December

Paul Paavali Gusev-Olmari.jpg
Paul
Roy Orbison Roy Orbison (1965).jpg
Roy Orbison
Stuart Symington Portrait of W. Stuart Symington 97-1844.jpg
Stuart Symington
Nikolaas Tinbergen Nikolaas Tinbergen 1978.jpg
Nikolaas Tinbergen

Nobel Prizes

Nobel medal.png

Related Research Articles

1977 (MCMLXXVII) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, the 1977th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 977th year of the 2nd millennium, the 77th year of the 20th century, and the 8th year of the 1970s decade.

1952 Year

1952 (MCMLII) was a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 1952nd year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 952nd year of the 2nd millennium, the 52nd year of the 20th century, and the 3rd year of the 1950s decade.

1984 (MCMLXXXIV) was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar, the 1984th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 984th year of the 2nd millennium, the 84th year of the 20th century, and the 5th year of the 1980s decade.

1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar, the 1993rd year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 993rd year of the 2nd millennium, the 93rd year of the 20th century, and the 4th year of the 1990s decade.

1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 1957th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 957th year of the 2nd millennium, the 57th year of the 20th century, and the 8th year of the 1950s decade.

1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 1980th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 980th year of the 2nd millennium, the 80th year of the 20th century, and the 1st year of the 1980s decade.

1976 (MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, the 1976th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 976th year of the 2nd millennium, the 76th year of the 20th century, and the 7th year of the 1970s decade.

1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 1992nd year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 992nd year of the 2nd millennium, the 92nd year of the 20th century, and the 3rd year of the 1990s decade.

1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar, the 1956th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 956th year of the 2nd millennium, the 56th year of the 20th century, and the 7th year of the 1950s decade.

1973 (MCMLXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, the 1973rd year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 973rd year of the 2nd millennium, the 73rd year of the 20th century, and the 4th year of the 1970s decade.

1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 1975th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 975th year of the 2nd millennium, the 75th year of the 20th century, and the 6th year of the 1970s decade. It was also declared the International Women's Year by the United Nations and the European Architectural Heritage Year by the Council of Europe.

1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar, the 1978th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 978th year of the 2nd millennium, the 78th year of the 20th century, and the 9th year of the 1970s decade.

1983 (MCMLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, the 1983rd year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 983rd year of the 2nd millennium, the 83rd year of the 20th century, and the 4th year of the 1980s decade.

1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar, the 1982nd year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 982nd year of the 2nd millennium, the 82nd year of the 20th century, and the 3rd year of the 1980s decade.

1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, the 1987th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 987th year of the 2nd millennium, the 87th year of the 20th century, and the 8th year of the 1980s decade.

1986 Year

1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 1986th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 986th year of the 2nd millennium, the 86th year of the 20th century, and the 7th year of the 1980s decade. The year 1986 was designated as the International Year of Peace by the United Nations.

1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, the 1981st year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 981st year of the 2nd millennium, the 81st year of the 20th century, and the 2nd year of the 1980s decade.

1985 (MCMLXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 1985th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 985th year of the 2nd millennium, the 85th year of the 20th century, and the 6th year of the 1980s decade. The year 1985 was designated as the International Youth Year by the United Nations.

1955 (MCMLV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, the 1955th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 955th year of the 2nd millennium, the 55th year of the 20th century, and the 6th year of the 1950s decade.

1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, the 1953rd year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 953rd year of the 2nd millennium, the 53rd year of the 20th century, and the 4th year of the 1950s decade.

References

  1. "History of IRC (Internet Relay Chat)".
  2. The Christian Science Monitor (March 24, 1988). "Look out, Yugoslavia, there's a Big Mac attack coming on! First McDonald's opens in a communist country, and the fans are lining up". The Christian Science Monitor.
  3. Binder, David (July 31, 1988). "THE WORLD: Visit From Grosz; Hungary and the U.S., Finally Face to Face". New York Times.
  4. "IRA gang shot dead in Gibraltar". On This Day. BBC. March 7, 1988. Archived from the original on March 7, 2008. Retrieved March 16, 2013.
  5. Morse, D. (May 1988). "Japan Tunnels Under the Ocean". Civil Engineering. 58 (5): 50–53.
  6. "Three shot dead at Milltown Cemetery". BBC News. March 16, 1988. Archived from the original on January 2, 2008. Retrieved February 2, 2008.
  7. "Judges free man jailed over IRA funeral murders". The Daily Telegraph . London. Archived from the original on September 6, 2004. Retrieved February 2, 2008.
  8. "Yugoslavs Relish Opening of McDonald's in Belgrade". Los Angeles Times. March 24, 1988.
  9. "Soviet Party Votes End to Monopoly on Power : Communist Delegates OK Gorbachev Reforms, Approve Revision of Country's Political System". latimes.
  10. "nordunet_alkusivut_nettiversio.indd" (PDF).
  11. Sylhet, Bangladesh Archived 19 June 2009 at the Wayback Machine .St.Albans District Council.
  12. "Obituary: Diplomat, author and athlete: Sir Alan Stewart Watt". The Canberra Times. September 20, 1988. p. 8. Archived from the original on February 16, 2014.