1988 Summer Olympics

Last updated

Games of the XXIV Olympiad
1988 Summer Olympics logo.svg
Emblem of the 1988 Summer Olympics
Host city Seoul, South Korea
MottoHarmony and Progress
(Korean : 화합과 전진; RR : Hwahabgwa Jeonjin)
Nations159
Athletes8,391 (6,197 men, 2,194 women)
Events237 in 23 sports (31 disciplines)
Opening 17 September 1988
Closing 2 October 1988
Opened by
Cauldron
Sohn Mi-chung
Chung Sun-man
Kim Won-tak [1] [2]
Stadium Seoul Olympic Stadium
Summer

The 1988 Summer Olympics (Korean : 1988년 하계 올림픽; RR : Cheon gubaek palsip-pal nyeon Hagye Ollimpig), officially known as the Games of the XXIV Olympiad (Korean : 제24회 올림픽경기대회; RR : Jeisipsahoe Ollimpiggyeong-gidaehoe) and commonly known as Seoul 1988 (Korean : 서울 1988, romanized: Seoul Cheon gubaek palsip-pal), was an international multi-sport event held from 17 September to 2 October 1988 in Seoul, South Korea. 159 nations were represented at the games by a total of 8,391 athletes (6,197 men and 2,194 women). 237 events were held and 27,221 volunteers helped to prepare the Olympics.

Contents

The 1988 Seoul Olympics were the second summer Olympic Games held in Asia and the first held in South Korea. [3] As the host country, South Korea ranked fourth overall, winning 12 gold medals and 33 medals in the competition. 11,331 media (4,978 written press and 6,353 broadcasters) showed the Games all over the world. [4] These were the last Olympic Games of the Cold War, as well as for the Soviet Union and East Germany, as both ceased to exist before the next Olympic Games in 1992. The Soviet Union dominated the medal count, winning 55 gold and 132 total medals. The results that got closest to that medal haul are China's 48 gold medals in 2008 and the USA's 121 total medals in 2016.

Compared to the 1980 Summer Olympics (Moscow) and the 1984 Summer Olympics (Los Angeles), which were divided into two camps by ideology, the 1988 Seoul Olympics was boycotted by fewer countries (six, including North Korea). Albania, Ethiopia, and Seychelles did not respond to invitations from the International Olympic Committee (IOC). [5] Nicaragua declined for athletic and financial reasons [6] and Madagascar financial. [7] These games attracted the largest number of participating nations during the Cold War and are sometimes cited as a means to its end.

For South Korea, the 1988 Olympics was a symbolic event that elevated its international image while also contributing to national pride. [8] Only thirty-five years after the Korean War which devastated the nation, and during a decade of social unrest in South Korea, the Olympics was successfully held and became the culmination of what was deemed the "Miracle on the Han River". [9] [10]

Host city selection

Seoul was chosen to host the Summer Games through a vote held on 30 September 1981, finishing ahead of Nagoya, Japan. [4] For most international analysts, Seoul's eventual victory was seen as a major upset. Since many saw Nagoya as a safe and certain choice. [3] Below was the vote count that occurred at the 84th IOC Session and 11th Olympic Congress in Baden-Baden, West Germany. [11]

1988 Summer Olympics bidding result [12]
CityCountry (NOC)Round 1
Seoul Flag of South Korea (1949-1984).svg  South Korea 52
Nagoya Flag of Japan (1870-1999).svg  Japan 27

Seoul had previously hosted many international sporting events, but the ones that had biggest and positive repercution was the Miss Universe 1980 and the city been chosen to host the 1986 Asian Games the year before, proving it could host big events and give the right direction to the city and blinded the bid from risks. [13]

Highlights

Kim Won-tak (athlete), Chong Son-man (teacher) und Son Mi-jong (dance student) during the lighting of the 1988 Summer Olympic cauldron Seoul Olympic torch.jpg
Kim Won-tak (athlete), Chong Son-man (teacher) und Son Mi-jong (dance student) during the lighting of the 1988 Summer Olympic cauldron
Fireworks at the closing ceremony of the 1988 Summer Olympics Fireworks at the closing ceremonies of the 1988 Summer Games.JPEG
Fireworks at the closing ceremony of the 1988 Summer Olympics

Ceremonies

This is the last time that live doves were released during the opening ceremony as a symbol of world peace, but a number of the doves were burned alive or suffered major trauma by the lighting of the Olympic cauldron. As a result of protests following the incident, the last time live doves were released at the opening ceremony was in 1992 in Barcelona, hours before the cauldron was lit and the doves were represented by flags during the opening ceremonies. Another creative solutions were made on next opening ceremonies. Balloon doves were released in the 1994 Winter Olympics and the 1998 Winter Olympics and paper doves were used at the 1996 Summer Olympics. [40]

These were also the last Summer Olympic Games to hold the opening ceremony during the daytime. The opening ceremony featured a skydiving team descending over the stadium and forming the five-colored Olympic Rings, [41] as well as a mass demonstration of taekwondo. The skydiving team trained at SkyDance SkyDiving and had hoped the opening ceremony appearance would set the stage for skydiving becoming a medal event by 2000. [42]

Domestic historical significance

Seoul Olympic Stadium View from COEX Tower.jpg
Seoul Olympic Stadium

The idea for South Korea to place a bid for the 1988 Games emerged during the last days of the Park Chung-hee administration in the late 1970s, as hosting the Olympics was a big opportunity to bring international attention to South Korea. But before that, it was necessary to prove the country's capacity, as South Korea was seen as an exotic and risky destination for large events. [43] The project continued to run even after President Park's assassination in 1979. With the successful staging of Miss Universe 1980 and the 1986 Asian Games, Chun Doo-hwan, Park's successor, submitted Korea's bid to the IOC in September 1981, in hopes that the increased international exposure brought by the Olympics would legitimize his authoritarian regime amidst increasing political pressure for democratization and less rigidity in state policies. Further, he hoped it would provide protection from increasing threats from North Korea, and showcase the economic strength that the country was experiencing to the world. [44] Seoul was awarded the bid on 30 September 1981, becoming the 16th nation in the Summer Olympics, as well as the second Asian nation (following Japan in the 1964 Summer Olympics) and the first mainland Asian nation to host the Olympics.

Influenced by the model of 1964 Summer Olympics as a rite of passage for the Japan and re-integration of the country in all political and economic senses at the international community in the post-war era,the South Korean government had hopes to use the Olympics as a "welcome party".From the beginning of the bid,the South Korean government saw that hosting the Summer Olympics was a crucial move to strengthen economic relations with some countries at the Eastern Europe, the Soviet Union and with China. [45] In January 1982, South Korea's curfew that had been in place since 1945 was lifted. [46]

In utilizing media events theory, Larson and Park investigated the Seoul Olympics as a form of political communication. They revealed the significance of South Korea's military government throughout the period of the Olympic bid and preparation, followed by the many advantages of the hosting the Games: rapid economic modernization, social mobilization and the legitimization of the military dictatorship. [47]

Homeless camp expansion

Existing camps for "vagrants" (homeless people) were ramped up before the 1988 Olympics. An Associated Press article states that homeless and alcoholic people, "but mostly children and the disabled", were arrested and sent to these camps to prepare for the Olympics. In addition, a prosecutor had his investigation into the Brothers Home camp limited at a number of levels of government "in part out of fear of an embarrassing international incident on the eve of the Olympics." [48]

In 1975, the previous president of South Korea had begun a policy of rounding up vagrants. According to government documents obtained by the Associated Press, from 1981 to 1986 the number of people held increased from 8,600 to more than 16,000. [49] Police officers often received promotions based on the number of vagrants they had arrested, and owners of facilities received a subsidy based on the number of people held. There were multiple reports of inmates raped or beaten, and sometimes beaten to death. [48]

4,000 of these "vagrants" were held at the Brothers Home facility. [50] Many of the guards were former inmates who had been "promoted" because of loyalty to the camp's owner. Various money-making operations were conducted such as manufacturing ball-point pens and fishing hooks, as well as clothing for Daewoo. Only a few inmates were paid belatedly for this work. [48]

By accident while on a hunting trip, prosecutor Kim Yong-won heard about and visited a work detail of prisoners in ragged clothes overseen by guards with wooden bats and dogs. In his words, he knew immediately that "a very serious crime" was occurring, and in January 1987, he led a raid on the facility and found beaten and malnourished inmates. He was politically pressured at various levels to reduce the charges against the owner, managers, and guards. In the end, the owner only served two-and-a-half years in prison. [48]

The Brothers Home was a religious facility based on the Christian faith. There were in fact inspections by both city officials and church officials. These were scheduled inspections in which healthier inmates were presented in carefully planned and orchestrated circumstances. There were no unannounced inspections. [48]

In the 1990s, construction workers found about 100 human bones on a mountainside outside the location of the former Brothers Home. [48] Victims of the Brothers Home are seeking a government investigation into the crimes committed and accountability. [50]

Boycott

Countries boycotting or absent from the 1988 Games are shaded blue. 1988 Summer Olympics Seoul boycotting countries blue.png
Countries boycotting or absent from the 1988 Games are shaded blue.

In preparation for the 1988 Olympics, the International Olympic Committee worked to prevent another Olympic boycott by the Eastern Bloc as had happened at the 1984 Summer Olympics in Los Angeles. This was made more difficult by the lack of diplomatic relations between South Korea and communist countries. This prompted action by the IOC president Juan Antonio Samaranch, who was committed to the participation of these countries. Thus, at the Assembly of National Olympic Committees in Mexico City in November 1984, the "Mexico Declaration" [51] was adopted. The declaration offered support for participation in the 1988 Olympics by all members of the Association of National Olympic Committees. The agreement with the Soviet Union was reached in 1987. After the Los Angeles games, East Germany had already decided to participate again in Seoul. The IOC sent invitations to the 1988 Games rather than leave this task to the organizing committee as had been done before. Behind the scenes, it considered relocating the Games and explored the suitability of Munich as an alternative.

Another point of conflict was the involvement of North Korea in hosting the Games, something that had been encouraged by Cuban president Fidel Castro, who called for North Korea to be considered joint host of the Games. As a result, on 8 and 9 January 1986 in Lausanne, Switzerland, the IOC President chaired a meeting of the North and South Korean Olympic Committees. North Korea demanded that eleven of the 23 Olympic sports be carried out on its territory, and also demanded special opening and closing ceremonies. It wanted a joint organizing committee and a united team. The negotiations were continued into another meeting, but were not successful. The IOC did not meet the demands of North Korea and only about half of the desired sporting events were offered to the North. So the focus thereafter was solely on Seoul and South Korea. [52]

The games were boycotted by North Korea and its ally Cuba. Ethiopia, Albania and the Seychelles did not respond to the invitations sent by the IOC. [5] Nicaragua did not participate due to athletic and financial considerations. [6] Madagascar had been expected to participate before withdrawing for financial reasons. [7]

Official theme song

The official Olympic Torch used during the 1988 Summer Olympics in Seoul Seoul 88 olympic torch flame.jpg
The official Olympic Torch used during the 1988 Summer Olympics in Seoul

In 1988, the Seoul Olympic Organizing Committee (SLOOC) produced and distributed an official song of the Seoul Games to publicize the Games to all the IOC member nations, encouraging their participation in the festival and consolidating the harmony and friendship of the entire world citizens through the song. The song "Hand in Hand" was written by Italian composer Giorgio Moroder and American songwriter Tom Whitlock, and performed by singing group Koreana.

Venues

The World Peace Gate in Seoul Khitai6.jpg
The World Peace Gate in Seoul
Jamsil Indoor Swimming Pool Jamsil Indoor Swimming Pool.jpg
Jamsil Indoor Swimming Pool
Seoul Olympic Park in autumn Autumn Seoul Olympic Park.jpg
Seoul Olympic Park in autumn

E Existing facilities modified or refurbished in preparation for the Olympic Games.
N New facilities constructed in preparation for the Olympic Games.

Cost

According to The Oxford Olympics Study data is not available to establish the cost of the Seoul 1988 Summer Olympics. [53]

Sports

The 1988 Summer Olympics featured 23 different sports encompassing 31 disciplines, and medals were awarded in 237 events. In the list below, the number of events in each discipline is noted in parentheses.

Erich Buljung shows a silver medal he won in the 10m air pistol competition at the 1988 Summer Olympics. Erich Buljung.JPEG
Erich Buljung shows a silver medal he won in the 10m air pistol competition at the 1988 Summer Olympics.

Demonstration

These were the demonstration sports in the games: [4]

Calendar

All times are local KDT (UTC+10) [lower-alpha 1]
  Opening ceremony  Event competitions  Event finals  Closing ceremony
DateSeptemberOctober
17th
Sat
18th
Sun
19th
Mon
20th
Tue
21st
Wed
22nd
Thu
23rd
Fri
24th
Sat
25th
Sun
26th
Mon
27th
Tue
28th
Wed
29th
Thu
30th
Fri
1st
Sat
2nd
Sun
Archery
Athletics








Basketball
Boxing

Canoeing

Cycling
Diving
Equestrian
Fencing
Field hockey
Football (soccer)
Gymnastics

Handball
Judo
Modern pentathlon
Rowing



Sailing
Shooting
Swimming





Synchronized swimming
Table tennis
Tennis
Volleyball
Water polo
Weightlifting
Wrestling





Total gold medals579141712302691591136379
Ceremonies
Date17th
Sat
18th
Sun
19th
Mon
20th
Tue
21st
Wed
22nd
Thu
23rd
Fri
24th
Sat
25th
Sun
26th
Mon
27th
Tue
28th
Wed
29th
Thu
30th
Fri
1st
Sat
2nd
Sun
SeptemberOctober
  1. At the time of the multi-sports event, the time in South Korea was on a trial daylight saving time.

Participating National Olympic Committees

Participants (blue nations had their first entrance) 1988 Summer Olympic games countries.png
Participants (blue nations had their first entrance)
Number of athletes sent by each nation 1988 Summer olympics team numbers.gif
Number of athletes sent by each nation

Athletes from 159 nations competed at the Seoul Games. Aruba, American Samoa, Brunei, Cook Islands, Maldives, Vanuatu, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, and South Yemen made their first Olympic appearance at these Games. Guam made their first Summer Olympic appearance at these games having participated in the 1988 Winter Olympics in Calgary.

In the following list, the number in parentheses indicates the number of athletes from each nation that competed in Seoul: [54]

Participating National Olympic Committees

^  Note: Brunei participated in the Opening Ceremonies and Closing Ceremonies, marking its first appearance at the Olympic Games, but its delegation consisted of only one swimming official.

Medal count

Gold medal of the 1988 Summer Olympics in Seoul Seoul 88 olympic gold medal.jpg
Gold medal of the 1988 Summer Olympics in Seoul

These are the top ten nations that won medals at the 1988 Games.

RankNationGoldSilverBronzeTotal
1Flag of the Soviet Union.svg  Soviet Union  (URS)553146132
2Flag of East Germany.svg  East Germany  (GDR)373530102
3Flag of the United States.svg  United States  (USA)36312794
4Flag of South Korea (1984-1997).svg  South Korea  (KOR)*12101133
5Flag of Germany.svg  West Germany  (FRG)11141540
6Flag of Hungary.svg  Hungary  (HUN)116623
7Flag of Bulgaria (1971-1990).svg  Bulgaria  (BUL)10121335
8Flag of Romania (1965-1989).svg  Romania  (ROU)711624
9Flag of France.svg  France  (FRA)64616
10Flag of Italy.svg  Italy  (ITA)64414
Totals (10 entries)191158164513

  *   Host nation (South Korea)

Mascot

The official mascot for the 1988 Summer Olympic Games was Hodori. It was a stylized tiger designed by Kim Hyun as an amicable Amur tiger, portraying the friendly and hospitable traditions of the Korean people. [56] Hodori's female version was called Hosuni. [57]

The name 호돌이Hodori was chosen from 2,295 suggestions sent in by the public. It is a compound of ho, the Sino-Korean bound morpheme for "tiger" (appearing also in the usual word 호랑이horangi for "tiger"), and 돌이dori, a diminutive for "boys". [56]

Broadcasting

In the United States, NBC became the telecast provider hereafter for the Summer Games, after a five-Olympics run by American Broadcasting Company from 1968 to 1984.

Doping

NameCountrySportBanned substanceMedalsRef.
Ali Dad Afghanistan Wrestling Furosemide
Kerrith Brown Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  Great Britain Judo Furosemide Bronze medal icon.svg (71 kg) [58]
Kalman Csengeri Flag of Hungary.svg  Hungary Weightlifting Stanozolol
Mitko Grablev Flag of Bulgaria (1971-1990).svg  Bulgaria Weightlifting Furosemide Gold medal icon.svg (56 kg)
Angell Guenchev Flag of Bulgaria (1971-1990).svg  Bulgaria Weightlifting Furosemide Gold medal icon.svg (67.5 kg)
Ben Johnson Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada Athletics Stanozolol Gold medal icon.svg (men's 100 m) [59]
Fernando Mariaca Flag of Spain.svg  Spain Weightlifting Pemoline
Jorge Quesada Flag of Spain.svg  Spain Modern pentathlon Propanolol
Andor Szanyi Flag of Hungary.svg  Hungary Weightlifting Stanozolol Silver medal icon.svg (100 kg)
Alexander Watson Flag of Australia.svg  Australia Modern Pentathlon Caffeine

In 2003, Wade Exum, the United States Olympic Committee's director of drug control administration from 1991 to 2000, released documents that showed Carl Lewis had tested positive three times at the 1988 United States Olympic trials for minimum amounts of pseudoephedrine, ephedrine, and phenylpropanolamine, which were banned stimulants. Bronchodilators are also found in cold medication. Due to the rules, his case could have led to disqualification from the Seoul Olympics and suspension from competition for six months. The levels of the combined stimulants registered in the separate tests were 2 ppm, 4 ppm and 6 ppm. [60] Lewis defended himself, claiming that he had accidentally consumed the banned substances. After the supplements that he had taken were analyzed to prove his claims, the USOC accepted his claim of inadvertent use, since a dietary supplement he ingested was found to contain "Ma huang", the Chinese name for Ephedra (ephedrine is known to help weight loss). [60] Fellow Santa Monica Track Club teammates Joe DeLoach and Floyd Heard were also found to have the same banned stimulants in their systems, and were cleared to compete for the same reason. [61] [62] The highest level of the stimulants Lewis recorded was 6 ppm, which was regarded as a positive test in 1988 but is now regarded as negative test. The acceptable level has been raised to ten parts per million for ephedrine and twenty-five parts per million for other substances. [60] [63] According to the IOC rules at the time, positive tests with levels lower than 10 ppm were cause of further investigation but not immediate ban. Neal Benowitz, a professor of medicine at UC San Francisco who is an expert on ephedrine and other stimulants, agreed that "These [levels] are what you'd see from someone taking cold or allergy medicines and are unlikely to have any effect on performance." [60] Following Exum's revelations the IAAF acknowledged that at the 1988 Olympic Trials the USOC indeed followed the correct procedures in dealing with eight positive findings for ephedrine and ephedrine-related compounds in low concentration. Additionally, in 1988 the federation reviewed the relevant documents with the athletes' names undisclosed and stated that "the medical committee felt satisfied, however, on the basis of the information received that the cases had been properly concluded by the USOC as 'negative cases' in accordance with the rules and regulations in place at the time and no further action was taken". [64] [65]

See also

Notes

  1. 1 2 "Factsheet – Opening Ceremony of the Games of the Olympiad" (PDF) (Press release). International Olympic Committee. 9 October 2014. Archived (PDF) from the original on 14 August 2016. Retrieved 22 December 2018.
  2. "Seoul 1988 Torch Relay". www.olympic.org. Retrieved 2 June 2018.
  3. 1 2 "Seoul surprises Nagoya for Olympic bid". UPI. 30 September 1981.
  4. 1 2 3 4 "Seoul 1988". olympic.org. Archived from the original on 4 October 2009. Retrieved 12 March 2010.
  5. 1 2 John E. Findling; Kimberly D. Pelle (1996). Historical Dictionary of the Modern Olympic Movement. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 182–. ISBN   978-0-313-28477-9.
  6. 1 2 Janofsky, Michael (16 January 1988). "CUBANS TURN THEIR BACK ON THE SEOUL OLYMPICS". The New York Times . Retrieved 27 September 2017.
  7. 1 2 "Seoul Olympics 1988" . Retrieved 27 September 2017.
  8. "Seoul 1988: South Korea opens up to the world". olympics.com. 25 June 2020.
  9. Randy Harvey (14 September 1988). "OLYMPICS '88: A PREVIEW : THE HOST CITY : Seoul Rises From Ashes to Become Metropolitan Center of Distinction". Los Angeles Times.
  10. Bridges, Brian (1 December 2008). "The Seoul Olympics: Economic Miracle Meets the World". The International Journal of the History of Sport. 25 (14): 1939–52. doi:10.1080/09523360802438983. ISSN   0952-3367. S2CID   143356778.
  11. "Vote History". IOC. Archived from the original on 25 May 2008. Retrieved 7 October 2011.
  12. "Past Olympic host city election results". GamesBids. Archived from the original on 24 January 2011. Retrieved 17 March 2011.
  13. "第10届亚运会概况—1986年汉城亚运会". Tencent Sports. Retrieved 11 February 2019.
  14. "Honored Inductees – Vladimir Artemov". www.ighof.com . Archived from the original on 30 October 2007. Retrieved 6 October 2007.
  15. "Honored Inductees – Daniela Silivas". www.ighof.com . Archived from the original on 27 September 2007. Retrieved 6 October 2007.
  16. "World Sport – Florence Griffith-Joyner". CNN. 23 June 2004. Retrieved 6 October 2007.
  17. Pitel, Laura (23 September 2003). "A Look at André Jackson, the Mystery Man (and friend of Carl Lewis) in the Drug testing area with Ben Johnson in Seoul". The Times Online (UK). London. Retrieved 23 September 2003.
  18. "Ben Johnson acusa a EEUU de proteger a sus atletas dopados". www.elmundo.es (in Spanish). Retrieved 6 October 2007.
  19. "Christa Luding-Rothenburger Encyclopædia Britannica article". Britannica Online Encyclopedia . Retrieved 6 October 2007.
  20. "Odds against Phelps eclipsing Spitz". Reuters. 29 May 2008. Retrieved 29 May 2008.
  21. "El deporte en el Sur". Alejandro Guevara Onofre, Liceus.com (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 17 October 2007. Retrieved 6 October 2007.
  22. "United States Olympic Committee – Biondi, Matt". usoc.com . Archived from the original on 10 October 2007. Retrieved 6 October 2007.
  23. "United States Olympic Committee – Evans, Janet". usoc.com . Archived from the original on 11 October 2007. Retrieved 6 October 2007.
  24. "History of Awards : 1980–1989". Halberg Trust website. Archived from the original on 27 September 2007. Retrieved 6 October 2007.
  25. "Demonstration Sports at the Olympic Games". topendsports.com. Retrieved 6 October 2007.
  26. "About WTF – History". www.wtf.org . Archived from the original on 5 October 2007. Retrieved 6 October 2007.
  27. "The Original Dream Team". NBA.com . Archived from the original on 24 October 2007. Retrieved 6 October 2007.
  28. Alfano, Peter (28 September 1988). "THE SEOUL OLYMPICS: Men's Basketball; After 16-Year Wait, Soviets Stun U.S. Again, 82–76". The New York Times. Retrieved 6 October 2007.
  29. "Canada at the 1988 Summer Olympics". sportsofworld.com. Archived from the original on 13 October 2007. Retrieved 6 October 2007.
  30. "Obukan Judo History". obukan.org. Archived from the original on 28 December 2007. Retrieved 6 October 2007.
  31. "Olympic Table Tennis Champions". usatt.org. Archived from the original on 20 October 2007. Retrieved 6 October 2007.
  32. Alfano, Peter (2 October 1988). "The Seoul Olympics: Tennis; Tennis Returns to Good Reviews". The New York Times .
  33. "Steffi graf, la mejor". elTenis.net (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 7 August 2008. Retrieved 6 October 2007.
  34. "Gabriela Sabatini – Fotos, Vídeos, Biografía, Wallpapers y Ficha Técnica". idolosdeportivos.com (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 18 October 2007. Retrieved 6 October 2007.
  35. "The Seoul Olympics: Weight Lifting; Team Lifted After 2d Drug Test Is Failed". The New York Times . 24 September 1988. Retrieved 6 October 2007.
  36. Mamet, David (7 October 1988). "In Losing, a Boxer Won". The New York Times. Retrieved 10 April 2010.
  37. "Sports of The Times – Nice Gesture Substitutes For Justice – NYTimes.com". Query.nytimes.com. 26 September 1997. Retrieved 16 April 2015.
  38. "Seoul Games scarred by riots". in.rediff.com . Retrieved 22 August 2008.
  39. "Lennox Lewis vs Riddick Bowe 88 Olympic Final". YouTube . Archived from the original on 30 October 2021. Retrieved 3 May 2017.
  40. "When messengers of peace were burned alive". Archived from the original on 29 August 2004. Retrieved 10 January 2009.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link), Deccan Herald, 12 August 2004. Retrieved 25 June 2008.
  41. "Demonstration Jumps". Archived from the original on 25 September 2010. Retrieved 5 March 2010.
  42. Natt, Lorena (5 September 1988). "Skydivers aiming to elevate sport with Olympic jump". The Orange County Register . Retrieved 12 July 2018.
  43. Horton, Peter; Saunders, John. "The 'East Asian' Olympic Games: what of sustainable legacies?". Taylor and Francis. Retrieved 20 February 2015.
  44. Manheim, Jarol (1990). "Rites of Passage: The 1988 Seoul Olympics as Public Diplomacy". The Western Political Quarterly. Western Political Science Association. 43 (2): 279–295. doi:10.2307/448367. JSTOR   448367.
  45. Cho, Ji-Hyun; Bairner, Alan (2012). "The sociocultural legacy of the 1988 Seoul Olympic Games". Leisure Studies. 31 (3): 271–289. doi:10.1080/02614367.2011.636178. S2CID   144604578.
  46. Tracy Dahl (18 January 1982). "S. Koreans Enjoy Nights Without Curfew". The Washington Post.[ dead link ]
  47. Kang, Jaeho; Traganou, Jilly (2011). "The Beijing National Stadium as Media-space". Design and Culture. 3 (2): 145–163. doi:10.2752/175470811X13002771867761. S2CID   143762612.
  48. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Tong-Hyung, Kim (20 April 2016). "AP: S. Korea covered up mass abuse, killings of 'vagrants'". Associated Press.
  49. Hong, Sukjung (21 August 2016). "The Heinous Olympification of Seoul". The New Republic.
  50. 1 2 Hancocks, Paula (25 October 2016). "South Korea's shame: Child victims of Brothers Home abuse still searching for justice". CNN. Retrieved 28 July 2021.
  51. "Mexico Declaration" (PDF). library.la84.org. 1984. Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 August 2016. Retrieved 22 December 2021.
  52. "Sport and Politics on the Korean Peninsula – North Korea and the 1988 Seoul Olympics" NKIDP e-Dossier No. 3. Retrieved 23 April 2012
  53. Flyvbjerg, Bent; Stewart, Allison; Budzier, Alexander (2016). The Oxford Olympics Study 2016: Cost and Cost Overrun at the Games. Oxford: Saïd Business School Working Papers (Oxford: University of Oxford). pp. 9–13. SSRN   2804554.
  54. "Olympic Games Participating Countries – 1988 Seoul". olympic-museum.de. Archived from the original on 12 October 2007. Retrieved 7 October 2007.
  55. Lee Junewoo (14 January 2014). [1/3] Opening Ceremony – 1988 Seoul Olympic Games. Event occurs at 38:15. Retrieved 25 October 2016.
  56. 1 2 "Hodori – mascot of the 1988 Olympic Summer Games". beijing2008.com. Archived from the original on 11 October 2007. Retrieved 8 October 2007.
  57. "Seoul 1988 – Hodori and Hosuni". www.chinadaily.com.cn . Retrieved 8 October 2007.
  58. Brown steps down as British Judo Association chairman to become President of UFC partner IMMAF
  59. Butler, Mark (2015). "Doping violations Olympic Athletics". IAAF World Championships Beijing 2015 Statistics Handbook. Monaco: IAAF. pp. 419–420.
  60. 1 2 3 4 Abrahamson, Alan (23 April 2003). "Just a Dash of Drugs in Lewis, DeLoach". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 10 October 2019.
  61. Pete McEntegart (14 April 2003). "Scorecard". Sports Illustrated.
  62. "Carl Lewis's positive test covered up". The Sydney Morning Herald . 18 April 2003. Retrieved 9 October 2019.
  63. Wallechinsky and Loucky, The Complete Book of the Olympics (2012 edition), page 61.
  64. "IAAF: USOC followed rules over dope tests". April 30, 2003. Archived from the original on February 1, 2014.
  65. Abrahamson, Alan (1 May 2003). "USOC's Actions on Lewis Justified by IAAF". Los Angeles Times.
Summer Olympics
Preceded by XXIV Olympiad
Seoul

1988
Succeeded by

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Summer Olympic Games</span> Major international multi-sport event

The Summer Olympic Games, also known as the Games of the Olympiad, and often referred to as the Summer Olympics, is a major international multi-sport event normally held once every four years. The inaugural Games took place in 1896 in Athens, Greece, and the most recent edition was held in 2021 in Tokyo, Japan. The International Olympic Committee (IOC) is responsible for organising the Games and for overseeing the host city's preparations. The tradition of awarding medals began in 1904; in each Olympic event, gold medals are awarded for first place, silver medals for second place, and bronze medals for third place. The Winter Olympic Games were created out of the success of the Summer Olympic Games, which are regarded as the largest and most prestigious multi-sport international event in the world.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Winter Olympic Games</span> Major international multi-sport event

The Winter Olympic Games is a major international multi-sport event held once every four years for sports practiced on snow and ice. The first Winter Olympic Games, the 1924 Winter Olympics, were held in Chamonix, France. The modern Olympic Games were inspired by the ancient Olympic Games, which were held in Olympia, Greece, from the 8th century BC to the 4th century AD. Baron Pierre de Coubertin founded the International Olympic Committee (IOC) in 1894, leading to the first modern Summer Olympic Games in Athens, Greece in 1896. The IOC is the governing body of the Olympic Movement, with the Olympic Charter defining its structure and authority.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">1972 Summer Olympics</span> Multi-sport event in Munich, Germany

The 1972 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XX Olympiad and commonly known as Munich 1972, was an international multi-sport event held in Munich, West Germany, from 26 August to 11 September 1972.

The 1968 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XIX Olympiad and commonly known as Mexico 1968, were an international multi-sport event held from 12 to 27 October 1968 in Mexico City, Mexico. These were the first Olympic Games to be staged in Latin America and the first to be staged in a Spanish-speaking country. They were also the first Games to use an all-weather (smooth) track for track and field events instead of the traditional cinder track, as well as the first example of the Olympics exclusively using electronic timekeeping equipment.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">1904 Summer Olympics</span> Multi-sport event in Saint Louis, Missouri, US

The 1904 Summer Olympics were an international multi-sport event held in St. Louis, Missouri, United States, from 29 August to 3 September 1904, as part of an extended sports program lasting from 1 July to 23 November 1904, located at what is now known as Francis Field on the campus of Washington University in St. Louis. This was the first time that the Olympic Games were held outside Europe.

The 1988 Summer Paralympics were the first Paralympics in 24 years to take place in the same city as the Olympic Games. They took place in Seoul, South Korea. This was the first time the term "Paralympic" was used officially.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">United States Olympic & Paralympic Committee</span> National Olympic and Paralympic Committee

The United States Olympic & Paralympic Committee (USOPC) is the National Olympic Committee and the National Paralympic Committee for the United States. It was founded in 1895 as the United States Olympic Committee, and is headquartered in Colorado Springs, Colorado. The USOPC is one of only four NOCs in the world that also serve as the National Paralympic Committee for their country. The USOPC is responsible for supporting, entering and overseeing U.S. teams for the Olympic Games, Paralympic Games, Youth Olympic Games, Pan American Games, and Parapan American Games and serves as the steward of the Olympic and Paralympic Movements in the United States.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Ben Johnson (Canadian sprinter)</span> Canadian sprinter

Benjamin Sinclair Johnson, is a Canadian former sprinter. During the 1987–88 season he held the title of the world's fastest man, breaking both the 100m and the 60m indoor World Records. He won gold medals in the 100 metres at the 1987 World Championships and 1988 Summer Olympics, before he was disqualified for doping and stripped of his medals. He was the first man who beat 9.9 and 9.8 seconds.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Calvin Smith</span> American sprinter

Calvin Smith is a former sprint track and field athlete from the United States. He is a former world record holder in the 100-meter sprint with 9.93 seconds in 1983 and was twice world champion over 200 metres, in 1983 and 1987. He also won an Olympic gold medal in the 4x100-meter relay in 1984. He was born in Bolton, Mississippi.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">2018 Winter Olympics</span> Multi-sport event in Pyeongchang, South Korea

The 2018 Winter Olympics, officially the XXIII Olympic Winter Games and also known as PyeongChang 2018, were an international winter multi-sport event held between 9 and 25 February 2018 in Pyeongchang, South Korea, with the opening rounds for certain events held on 8 February, a day before the opening ceremony.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">United States at the Olympics</span> Sporting event delegation

United States of America (USA) has sent athletes to every celebration of the modern era Olympic Games, except for the one 1980 Summer Olympics during which it led a boycott, to protest the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. The United States Olympic & Paralympic Committee (USOPC) is the National Olympic Committee of the United States.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">1958 Asian Games</span> Third edition of the Asian Games

The 1958 Asian Games, officially the Third Asian Games and commonly known as Tokyo 1958, was a multi-sport event held in Tokyo, Japan, from 24 May to 1 June 1958. It was governed by the Asian Games Federation. A total of 1,820 athletes representing 20 Asian National Olympic Committees (NOCs) participated in the Games. The program featured competitions in 13 different sports encompassing 97 events, including four non-Olympic sports, judo, table tennis, tennis and volleyball. Four of these competition sports – field hockey, table tennis, tennis and volleyball – were introduced for the first time in the Asian Games.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Taekwondo at the Summer Olympics</span> Taekwondo competition

Taekwondo at the Summer Olympics made its first appearance as a demonstration sport at the 1988 Summer Olympics in Seoul, South Korea. The opening ceremony featured a mass demonstration of taekwondo with hundreds of adults and children performing moves in unison. Taekwondo was again a demonstration sport at the 1992 Summer Olympics in Barcelona, Spain. Taekwondo became a full medal sport at the 2000 Summer Olympics in Sydney, Australia, and has been a sport in the Olympic games since then.

The men's 100 meters at the 1988 Summer Olympics in Seoul, South Korea saw world champion Ben Johnson of Canada defeat defending Olympic champion Carl Lewis of the United States in a world record time of 9.79, breaking his own record of 9.83 that he had set at the 1987 World Championships in Rome. Two days later, Johnson was stripped of his gold medal and world record by the International Olympic Committee (IOC) after he tested positive for stanozolol. The gold medal was then awarded to the original silver medalist Lewis, who had run 9.92. On 30 September 1989, following Johnson's admission to steroid use between 1981 and 1988, the IAAF rescinded his world record of 9.83 from the 1987 World Championship Final and stripped Johnson of his World Championship gold medal, which was also awarded to Lewis, who initially finished second. This made Lewis the first man to repeat as Olympic champion in the 100 metres.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">South Korea at the Olympics</span> Participation of athletes from South Korea in the Olympic Games

The Republic of Korea first participated at the Olympic Games in 1948, and has sent athletes to compete in every Summer Olympic Games since then, except for 1980 which they boycotted. South Korea has also participated in every Winter Olympic Games since 1948, except for the 1952 games.

Son Mi-Na is a South Korean team handball player and Olympic champion. She participated at the 1984 Summer Olympics in Los Angeles where she received a silver medal. At the 1988 Summer Olympics in Seoul she received a gold medal with the South Korean team.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Olympic Games ceremony</span> Ceremonial events of the ancient and modern Olympic Games

The Olympic Games ceremonies of the Ancient Olympic Games were an integral part of these Games; the modern Olympic games have opening, closing, and medal ceremonies. Some of the elements of the modern ceremonies date back to the Ancient Games from which the Modern Olympics draw their ancestry. An example of this is the prominence of Greece in both the opening and closing ceremonies. During the 2004 Games, the medal winners received a crown of olive branches, which was a direct reference to the Ancient Games, in which the victor's prize was an olive wreath. The various elements of the ceremonies are mandated by the Olympic Charter, and cannot be changed by the host nation. This requirement of seeking the approval of the International Olympic Committee (IOC) includes the artistic portion of opening and closing ceremonies.

The men's 400 metre freestyle event at the 1972 Olympic Games took place September 1. This swimming event used freestyle swimming, which means that the method of the stroke is not regulated. Nearly all swimmers use the front crawl or a variant of that stroke. Because an Olympic size swimming pool is 50 metres long, this race consisted of eight lengths of the pool.

For the 1988 Summer Olympics, a total of thirty-one sports venues were used. South Korea hosted its first World Championships in 1978 in shooting sports. Three years later, Seoul was awarded the 1988 Summer Olympics. Many of the venues constructed for the 1988 Games were completed two years earlier in time for the Asian Games. The 1986 Asian Games served as test events for the 1988 Summer Olympics. The men's marathon course was lined by 36,000 policemen. Steffi Graf won a gold medal in women's singles to complete the "Golden Slam". None of the football venues used for these games were used for the 2002 FIFA World Cup that Korea co-hosted with Japan.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Australia at the 1988 Summer Paralympics</span> Sporting event delegation

Australia competed at the 1988 Summer Paralympics in Seoul, South Korea in 16 sports, winning medals in 6 sports. Gold medals were won in three sports – athletics, lawn bowls and swimming. Australia won 95 medals – 23 gold, 34 silver and 38 bronze medals. Australia finished 10th on the gold medal table and 7th on the combined medal table. Australian Confederation of Sports for the Disabled reported another medal ranking after Games with Australia being 2nd ranked in amputee sports, 8th in wheelchair sports, 11th in blind sports and 12th in cerebral palsy sports.