1988 Summer Olympics

Last updated

Games of the XXIV Olympiad
1988 Summer Olympics logo.svg
Host city Seoul, South Korea
MottoHarmony and Progress
(Korean: 화합과 전진)
Nations159
Athletes8,391 (6,197 men, 2,194 women)
Events237 in 23 sports (31 disciplines)
Opening 17 September
Closing 2 October
Opened by
Cauldron
Stadium Seoul Olympic Stadium
Summer
Los Angeles 1984 Barcelona 1992
Winter
Calgary 1988 Albertville 1992

The 1988 Summer Olympics (Korean : 서울 하계 올림픽; RR : Seoul Hagye Ollimpik [sʌ.ul ɦaɡje olːimpʰik] ), officially known as the Games of the XXIV Olympiad and commonly known as Seoul 1988, were an international multi-sport event held from from 17 September to 2 October 1988 in Seoul, South Korea. 159 nations were represented at the games by a total of 8,391 athletes (6,197 men and 2,194 women). 237 events were held and 27,221 volunteers helped to prepare the Olympics. 11,331 media (4,978 written press and 6,353 broadcasters) showed the Games all over the world. [3] These were the last Olympic Games for the Soviet Union and East Germany, as both ceased to exist before the next Olympic Games in 1992. The Soviet Union dominated the medal table, winning 55 gold and 132 total medals. No country has won more than 50 in an Olympics since 1988.

Contents

The games were boycotted by North Korea and its ally, Cuba. Ethiopia, Albania and the Seychelles did not respond to the invitations sent by the IOC. [4] Nicaragua did not participate due to athletic and financial considerations. [5] The participation of Madagascar had been expected, and their team was expected at the opening ceremony of 160 nations; however, the country withdrew for financial reasons. [6] Nonetheless, the much larger boycotts seen in the 1976, 1980 and 1984 Olympics were avoided, resulting in the largest number of participating nations during the Cold War era.

Host city selection

Seoul was chosen to host the Summer Games through a vote held on 30 September 1981, finishing ahead of Nagoya, Japan. [3] [7] Below was the vote count that occurred at the 84th IOC Session and 11th Olympic Congress in Baden-Baden, West Germany. [8]

1988 Summer Olympics bidding result [9]
CityCountry (NOC)Round 1
Seoul Flag of South Korea (1949-1984).svg  South Korea 52
Nagoya Flag of Japan (1870-1999).svg  Japan 27

After the Olympics were awarded, Seoul also received the opportunity to stage the 10th Asian Games in 1986, using them to test its preparation for the Olympics.

Highlights

South Koreans stand next to the 1988 Summer Olympic cauldron Seoul Olympic torch.jpg
South Koreans stand next to the 1988 Summer Olympic cauldron
Fireworks at the closing ceremony of the 1988 Summer Olympics Fireworks at the closing ceremonies of the 1988 Summer Games.JPEG
Fireworks at the closing ceremony of the 1988 Summer Olympics

Live doves were released during the opening ceremony as a symbol of world peace, but a number of the doves were burned alive or suffered major trauma by the lighting of the Olympic cauldron. As a result of protests following the incident, the last time live doves were released at the opening ceremony was in 1992 in Barcelona, hours before the cauldron was lit. Balloon doves were released in 1994 Winter Olympics and the 1998 Winter Olympics and paper doves were used at the Atlanta Ceremony in 1996. [39]

These were also the last Summer Olympic Games to hold the opening ceremony during the daytime. The opening ceremony featured a skydiving team descending over the stadium and forming the five-colored Olympic Rings, [40] as well as a mass demonstration of taekwondo. The skydiving team trained at SkyDance SkyDiving and had hoped the opening ceremony appearance would set the stage for skydiving becoming a medal event by 2000. [41]

Significance of 1988 Olympics in South Korea

Seoul Olympic Stadium Seoul Olympic Stadium aerial view.jpg
Seoul Olympic Stadium

Hosting the 1988 Olympics presented an opportunity to bring international attention to South Korea. [42] The idea for South Korea to place a bid for the 1988 Games emerged during the last days of the Park Chung-hee administration in the late 1970s. After President Park's assassination in 1979, Chun Doo-hwan, his successor, submitted Korea's bid to the IOC in September 1981, in hopes that the increased international exposure brought by the Olympics would legitimize his authoritarian regime amidst increasing political pressure for democratization, provide protection from increasing threats from North Korea, and showcase the Korean economic miracle to the world community. [43] South Korea was awarded the bid on 30 September 1981, becoming the 20th host nation (16th in the Summer Olympics), as well as the second Asian nation (following Japan in the 1964 Summer Olympics) and the first mainland Asian nation.

Copying the model of 1964 Tokyo Olympics as a rite of passage for the Japanese economy and re-integration of Japan in the family of nations in the post-war era, the South Korean government hoped to use the Olympics as a "coming-out party". The Olympics gave a powerful impetus to the development of South Korea's relations with Eastern Europe, the Soviet Union and with China. [44]

In utilizing media events theory, Larson and Park investigated the 1988 Seoul Olympics as a form of political communication. They revealed the significance of South Korea's military government throughout the period of the Olympic bid and preparation, followed by the many advantages of the Seoul Olympics: rapid economic modernization, social mobilization and the legitimization of the military dictatorship. [45]

Expansion of "vagrant" camps prior to Olympics

Existing camps for "vagrants" (homeless persons) were ramped up prior to the 1988 Olympics. An Associated Press article states that homeless and alcoholic persons, "but mostly children and the disabled" were arrested and sent to these camps to prepare for the Olympics. In addition, a prosecutor had his investigation into the Brothers Home camp limited at a number of levels of government "in part out of fear of an embarrassing international incident on the eve of the Olympics." [46]

In 1975, the previous president of South Korea had begun a policy of rounding up vagrants. According to government documents obtained by the Associated Press, from 1981 to 1986 the number of persons held increased from 8,600 to more than 16,000. Police officers often received promotions based on the number of vagrants they had arrested, and owners of facilities received a subsidy based on the number of persons held. There were multiple reports of inmates being raped or beaten, and sometimes beaten to death. [46]

4,000 of these "vagrants" were held at the Brothers Home facility. Many of the guards were former inmates who had been "promoted" because of loyalty to the camp's owner. Various money-making operations were conducted such as manufacturing ball-point pens and fishing hooks, as well as clothing for Daewoo. Only a few inmates were paid belatedly for this work. [46]

By accident while on a hunting trip, prosecutor Kim Yong-won heard about and visited a work detail of prisoners in ragged clothes being overseen by guards with wooden bats and dogs. In his words, he knew immediately that "a very serious crime" was occurring. And in January 1987, he led a raid on the facility and found beaten and malnourished inmates. However, he received political pressure at various levels to reduce the charges against the owner, managers, and guards. In the end, the owner only served two-and-a-half years in prison. [46]

The Brothers Home was a religious facility based on the Christian faith. There were in fact inspections by both city officials and church officials. However, these were scheduled inspections in which healthier inmates were presented in carefully planned and orchestrated circumstances. There were no unannounced inspections. [46]

In the 1990s, construction workers found about 100 human bones on a mountainside outside the location of the former Brothers Home. [46]

1988 Summer Olympics boycott

Countries boycotting or absent from the 1988 Games are shaded blue 1988 Summer Olympics Seoul boycotting countries blue.png
Countries boycotting or absent from the 1988 Games are shaded blue

In preparation for the 1988 Olympics, the International Olympic Committee worked to prevent another Olympic boycott by the Eastern Bloc as had happened at the 1984 Summer Olympics in Los Angeles. This was made more difficult by the lack of diplomatic relations between South Korea and communist countries. This prompted action by the IOC president Juan Antonio Samaranch, who was committed to the participation of these countries. Thus, at the Assembly of National Olympic Committees in Mexico City in November 1984, the "Mexico Declaration" was adopted; by it, the participants agreed to include the host of the Olympic Games in 1988.[ clarification needed ] The agreement of the Soviet Union was reached in 1987. After the Los Angeles games, East Germany had already decided to participate again in Seoul. The IOC also decided that it would send invitations to the 1988 Games itself and did not leave this task to the organizing committee as had been done before. Despite these developments, behind the scenes, the IOC did consider relocating the Games and explored the suitability of Munich as an alternative.

Another point of conflict was the involvement of North Korea in hosting the Games, something that had been encouraged by Cuban president Fidel Castro, who called for North Korea to be considered joint host of the Games. As a result, on 8 and 9 January 1986 in Lausanne, Switzerland, the IOC President chaired a meeting of the North and South Korean Olympic Committees. North Korea demanded that eleven of the 23 Olympic sports be carried out on its territory, and also demanded special opening and closing ceremonies. It wanted a joint organizing committee and a united team. The negotiations were continued into another meeting, but were not successful. The IOC did not meet the demands of North Korea and only about half of the desired sporting events were offered to the North. So the focus thereafter was solely on Seoul and South Korea. [47]

The games were boycotted by North Korea and its ally Cuba. Ethiopia, Albania and the Seychelles did not respond to the invitations sent by the IOC. [4] Nicaragua did not participate due to athletic and financial considerations. [5] The participation of Madagascar had been expected, and their team was expected at the opening ceremony of 160 nations. However, the country withdrew for financial reasons. [6]

Official theme song

The official Olympic Torch used during the 1988 Summer Olympics in Seoul. Seoul 88 olympic torch flame.jpg
The official Olympic Torch used during the 1988 Summer Olympics in Seoul.

In 1988, the Seoul Olympic Organizing Committee (SLOOC) decided to produce and distribute an official song of the Seoul Games to publicize the Games to all the IOC member nations, encouraging their participation in the festival and consolidating the harmony and friendship of the entire world citizens through the song. The song "Hand in Hand" was written by Italian composer Giorgio Moroder and American songwriter Tom Whitlock, and performed by singing group Koreana.

Venues

The World Peace Gate in Seoul. Khitai6.jpg
The World Peace Gate in Seoul.
Jamsil Indoor Swimming Pool. Jamsil Indoor Swimming Pool.jpg
Jamsil Indoor Swimming Pool.
Seoul Olympic Park in autumn. Autumn Seoul Olympic Park.jpg
Seoul Olympic Park in autumn.

E Existing facilities modified or refurbished in preparation for the Olympic Games.
N New facilities constructed in preparation for the Olympic Games.

Cost

According to The Oxford Olympics Study data is not available to establish the cost of the Seoul 1988 Summer Olympics. [48] Average cost for Summer Games since 1960, for which data is available, is US$5.2 billion.

Sports

The 1988 Summer Olympics featured 23 different sports encompassing 31 disciplines, and medals were awarded in 237 events. In the list below, the number of events in each discipline is noted in parentheses.

Erich Buljung shows a silver medal he won in the 10m air pistol competition at the 1988 Summer Olympics. Erich Buljung.JPEG
Erich Buljung shows a silver medal he won in the 10m air pistol competition at the 1988 Summer Olympics.

Demonstration sports

These were the demonstration sports in the games: [3]

Calendar

All times are local KDT (UTC+10) [lower-alpha 1]
  Opening ceremony  Event competitions  Event finals  Closing ceremony
DateSeptemberOctober
17th
Sat
18th
Sun
19th
Mon
20th
Tue
21st
Wed
22nd
Thu
23rd
Fri
24th
Sat
25th
Sun
26th
Mon
27th
Tue
28th
Wed
29th
Thu
30th
Fri
1st
Sat
2nd
Sun
Archery
Athletics








Basketball
Boxing

Canoeing

Cycling
Diving
Equestrian
Fencing
Field hockey
Football (soccer)
Gymnastics

Handball
Judo
Modern pentathlon
Rowing



Sailing
Shooting
Swimming





Synchronized swimming
Table tennis
Tennis
Volleyball
Water polo
Weightlifting
Wrestling





Total gold medals579141712302691591136379
Ceremonies
Date17th
Sat
18th
Sun
19th
Mon
20th
Tue
21st
Wed
22nd
Thu
23rd
Fri
24th
Sat
25th
Sun
26th
Mon
27th
Tue
28th
Wed
29th
Thu
30th
Fri
1st
Sat
2nd
Sun
SeptemberOctober
  1. At the time of the multi-sports event, the time in South Korea was on a trial daylight saving time.

Participating National Olympic Committees

Participants (blue nations had their first entrance). 1988 Summer Olympic games countries.png
Participants (blue nations had their first entrance).
Number of athletes sent by each nation. 1988 Summer olympics team numbers.gif
Number of athletes sent by each nation.

Athletes from 159 nations competed at the Seoul Games. Aruba, American Samoa, Brunei, Cook Islands, Maldives, Vanuatu, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, and South Yemen made their first Olympic appearance at these Games. Guam made their first Summer Olympic appearance at these games having participated in the 1988 Winter Olympics in Calgary.

In the following list, the number in parentheses indicates the number of athletes from each nation that competed in Seoul: [49]

Participating National Olympic Committees

^  Note: Brunei participated in the Opening Ceremonies and Closing Ceremonies, marking its first appearance at the Olympic Games, but its delegation consisted of only one swimming official.

Medal count

Gold medal of the 1988 Summer Olympics in Seoul. Seoul 88 olympic gold medal.jpg
Gold medal of the 1988 Summer Olympics in Seoul.

These are the top ten nations that won medals at the 1988 Games.

RankNationGoldSilverBronzeTotal
1Flag of the Soviet Union.svg  Soviet Union  (URS)553146132
2Flag of East Germany.svg  East Germany  (GDR)373530102
3Flag of the United States.svg  United States  (USA)36312794
4Flag of South Korea (1984-1997).svg  South Korea  (KOR)*12101133
5Flag of Germany.svg  West Germany  (FRG)11141540
6Flag of Hungary.svg  Hungary  (HUN)116623
7Flag of Bulgaria (1971-1990).svg  Bulgaria  (BUL)10121335
8Flag of Romania (1965-1989).svg  Romania  (ROU)711624
9Flag of France.svg  France  (FRA)64616
10Flag of Italy.svg  Italy  (ITA)64414
Totals (10 nations)191158164513

  *   Host nation (South Korea)

Mascot

The official mascot for the 1988 Summer Olympic Games was Hodori. It was a stylized tiger designed by Kim Hyun as an amicable Amur tiger, portraying the friendly and hospitable traditions of the Korean people. [51] Hodori's female version was called Hosuni. [52]

The name 호돌이Hodori was chosen from 2,295 suggestions sent in by the public. It is a compound of ho, the Sino-Korean bound morpheme for "tiger" (appearing also in the usual word 호랑이horangi for "tiger"), and 돌이dori, a diminutive for "boys". [51]

Broadcasting

In the United States, NBC became the telecast provider hereafter for the Summer Games, after a five-Olympics run by American Broadcasting Company from 1968–1984.

See also

Notes

  1. 1 2 "Factsheet - Opening Ceremony of the Games of the Olympiad" (PDF) (Press release). International Olympic Committee. 9 October 2014. Archived (PDF) from the original on 14 August 2016. Retrieved 22 December 2018.
  2. "Seoul 1988 Torch Relay". www.olympic.org. Retrieved 2 June 2018.
  3. 1 2 3 4 "Seoul 1988". olympic.org. Archived from the original on 4 October 2009. Retrieved 12 March 2010.
  4. 1 2 John E. Findling; Kimberly D. Pelle (1996). Historical Dictionary of the Modern Olympic Movement. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 182–. ISBN   978-0-313-28477-9.
  5. 1 2 Janofsky, Michael (16 January 1988). "CUBANS TURN THEIR BACK ON THE SEOUL OLYMPICS". The New York Times . Retrieved 27 September 2017.
  6. 1 2 "Seoul Olympics 1988" . Retrieved 27 September 2017.
  7. Seoul surprises Nagoya for Olympic bid, UPI (United Press International), Morley Myers, 30 Sept. 1981.
  8. "Vote History". IOC.
  9. "Past Olympic host city election results". GamesBids. Archived from the original on 24 January 2011. Retrieved 17 March 2011.
  10. "Honored Inductees – Vladimir Artemov". www.ighof.com . Archived from the original on 30 October 2007. Retrieved 6 October 2007.
  11. "Honored Inductees – Daniela Silivas". www.ighof.com . Archived from the original on 27 September 2007. Retrieved 6 October 2007.
  12. "World Sport – Florence Griffith-Joyner". CNN. 23 June 2004. Retrieved 6 October 2007.
  13. Pitel, Laura (23 September 2003). "A Look at André Jackson, the Mystery Man (and friend of Carl Lewis) in the Drug testing area with Ben Johnson in Seoul". The Times Online (UK). London. Retrieved 23 September 2003.
  14. "Ben Johnson acusa a EEUU de proteger a sus atletas dopados". www.elmundo.es (in Spanish). Retrieved 6 October 2007.
  15. "Christa Luding-Rothenburger Encyclopædia Britannica article". Britannica Online Encyclopedia . Retrieved 6 October 2007.
  16. "Odds against Phelps eclipsing Spitz". Reuters. 29 May 2008. Retrieved 29 May 2008.
  17. "El deporte en el Sur". Alejandro Guevara Onofre, Liceus.com (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 17 October 2007. Retrieved 6 October 2007.
  18. "United States Olympic Committee – Biondi, Matt". usoc.com . Archived from the original on 10 October 2007. Retrieved 6 October 2007.
  19. "United States Olympic Committee – Evans, Janet". usoc.com . Archived from the original on 11 October 2007. Retrieved 6 October 2007.
  20. SN, Chengalur; PL, Brown (1 June 1992). "An analysis of male and female Olympic swimmers in the 200-meter events". Canadian Journal of Sport Sciences. 17 (2): 104–9. ISSN   0833-1235. PMID   1324101.
  21. "Nuoto – risultati 200m. farfalla uomini". coni.it (in Italian). Archived from the original on 30 April 2008. Retrieved 6 October 2007.
  22. "History of Awards : 1980–1989". Halberg Trust website. Archived from the original on 27 September 2007. Retrieved 6 October 2007.
  23. "Demonstration Sports at the Olympic Games". topendsports.com. Retrieved 6 October 2007.
  24. "About WTF – History". www.wtf.org . Archived from the original on 5 October 2007. Retrieved 6 October 2007.
  25. "The Original Dream Team". NBA.com . Archived from the original on 24 October 2007. Retrieved 6 October 2007.
  26. Alfano, Peter (28 September 1988). "THE SEOUL OLYMPICS: Men's Basketball; After 16-Year Wait, Soviets Stun U.S. Again, 82–76". The New York Times. Retrieved 6 October 2007.
  27. "Canada at the 1988 Summer Olympics". sportsofworld.com. Archived from the original on 13 October 2007. Retrieved 6 October 2007.
  28. "Obukan Judo History". obukan.org. Archived from the original on 28 December 2007. Retrieved 6 October 2007.
  29. "Olympic Table Tennis Champions". usatt.org. Archived from the original on 20 October 2007. Retrieved 6 October 2007.
  30. Alfano, Peter (2 October 1988). "The Seoul Olympics: Tennis; Tennis Returns to Good Reviews". nytimes.com.
  31. "Steffi graf, la mejor". elTenis.net (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 7 August 2008. Retrieved 6 October 2007.
  32. "Gabriela Sabatini – Fotos, Vídeos, Biografía, Wallpapers y Ficha Técnica". idolosdeportivos.com (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 18 October 2007. Retrieved 6 October 2007.
  33. "The Seoul Olympics: Weight Lifting; Team Lifted After 2d Drug Test Is Failed". nytimes.com. 24 September 1988. Retrieved 6 October 2007.
  34. Mamet, David (7 October 1988). "In Losing, a Boxer Won". The New York Times. Retrieved 10 April 2010.
  35. "Sports of The Times – Nice Gesture Substitutes For Justice – NYTimes.com". Query.nytimes.com. 26 September 1997. Retrieved 16 April 2015.
  36. 1 2 "Seoul Games scarred by riots". in.rediff.com . Retrieved 22 August 2008.
  37. Referee Walker remembers Seoul ring riot, Reuters, Greg Stutchbury, 22 July 2008.
  38. "Lennox Lewis vs Riddick Bowe 88 Olympic Final" . Retrieved 3 May 2017.
  39. "When messengers of peace were burned alive". Archived from the original on 29 August 2004. Retrieved 10 January 2009.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link), Deccan Herald, 12 August 2004. Retrieved 25 June 2008.
  40. "Demonstration Jumps".
  41. Natt, Lorena (5 September 1988). "Skydivers aiming to elevate sport with Olympic jump". The Orange County Register . Retrieved 12 July 2018.
  42. Horton, Peter; Saunders, John. "The 'East Asian' Olympic Games: what of sustainable legacies?". Taylor and Francis. Retrieved 20 February 2015.
  43. Manheim, Jarol (1990). "Rites of Passage: The 1988 Seoul Olympics as Public Diplomacy". The Western Political Quarterly. Western Political Science Association. 43 (2): 279–295. doi:10.2307/448367. JSTOR   448367.
  44. Cho, Ji-Hyun; Bairner, Alan (2012). "The sociocultural legacy of the 1988 Seoul Olympic Games". Leisure Studies. 31 (3): 271–289. doi:10.1080/02614367.2011.636178.
  45. Kang, Jaeho; Traganou, Jilly (2011). "The Beijing National Stadium as Media-space". Design and Culture. 3 (2): 145–163. doi:10.2752/175470811X13002771867761.
  46. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Tong-Hyung, Kim (20 April 2016). "AP: S. Korea covered up mass abuse, killings of 'vagrants'". Associated Press.
  47. "Sport and Politics on the Korean Peninsula – North Korea and the 1988 Seoul Olympics" NKIDP e-Dossier No. 3. Retrieved 23 April 2012
  48. Flyvbjerg, Bent; Stewart, Allison; Budzier, Alexander (2016). The Oxford Olympics Study 2016: Cost and Cost Overrun at the Games. Oxford: Saïd Business School Working Papers (Oxford: University of Oxford). pp. 9–13. SSRN   2804554 .
  49. "Olympic Games Participating Countries – 1988 Seoul". olympic-museum.de. Archived from the original on 12 October 2007. Retrieved 7 October 2007.
  50. Lee Junewoo (14 January 2014). [1/3] Opening Ceremony – 1988 Seoul Olympic Games. Event occurs at 38:15. Retrieved 25 October 2016.
  51. 1 2 "Hodori – mascot of the 1988 Olympic Summer Games". beijing2008.com. Archived from the original on 11 October 2007. Retrieved 8 October 2007.
  52. "Seoul 1988 – Hodori and Hosuni". www.chinadaily.com.cn . Retrieved 8 October 2007.
Preceded by
Los Angeles
Summer Olympic Games
Seoul

XXIV Olympiad (1988)
Succeeded by
Barcelona


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The Republic of Korea first participated at the Olympic Games in 1948, and has sent athletes to compete in every Summer Olympic Games since then, except for 1980 which they boycotted. South Korea has also participated in every Winter Olympic Games since 1948, except for the 1952 games.

2002 Asian Games medal table 2002 Asian Games medal table

The 2002 Asian Games was a multi-sport event held in Busan, South Korea from September 29 to October 14, 2002. Busan was the second South Korean city to host the Games, after Seoul in 1986. A total of 6,572 athletes—4,605 men and 1,967 women—from 44 Asian National Olympic Committees (NOCs) participated in 38 sports divided into 419 events. The number of competing athletes was higher than the 1998 Asian Games, in which 6,544 athletes from 41 NOCs participated. It was the first time in the history of the Asian Games that all 44 member nations of the Olympic Council of Asia (OCA) participated in the Games. Afghanistan returned after the fall of the Taliban government in the midst of ongoing war; East Timor, newest member of the OCA made its debut; and North Korea competed for the first time in an international sporting event hosted by South Korea. Both nations marched together at the opening ceremony with a Korean Unification Flag depicting the Korean Peninsula as United Korea.

Australia at the 1988 Summer Paralympics

Australia competed at the 1988 Summer Paralympics in Seoul, South Korea in 16 sports, winning medals in 6 sports. Gold medals were won in three sports – athletics, lawn bowls and swimming. Australia won 95 medals – 23 gold, 34 silver and 38 bronze medals. Australia finished 10th on the gold medal table and 7th on the combined medal table. Australian Confederation of Sports for the Disabled reported another medal ranking after Games with Australia being 2nd ranked in amputee sports, 8th in wheelchair sports, 11th in blind sports and 12th in cerebral palsy sports.

The closing ceremony of the 1984 Summer Olympics took place at Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum in Los Angeles, California, on 12 August, 1984 at 8 PM local time.