1989

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From left, clockwise: an earthquake strikes the San Francisco Bay Area, killing 63 people; the proposal document for the World Wide Web is submitted; the Exxon Valdez oil tanker runs aground in Prince William Sound, Alaska, causing a large oil spill; the fall of the Berlin Wall begins the downfall of Communism in Eastern Europe, and heralds German reunification; the United States invades Panama to depose Manuel Noriega; the Baltic Way led to the independence of the Baltic states of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania from the Soviet Union; the stands of Hillsborough Stadium in Sheffield, Yorkshire, where the Hillsborough disaster occurred; students demonstrate in Tiananmen Square, Beijing; many are killed by forces of the Chinese Communist Party. 1989 Events Collage.png
From left, clockwise: an earthquake strikes the San Francisco Bay Area, killing 63 people; the proposal document for the World Wide Web is submitted; the Exxon Valdez oil tanker runs aground in Prince William Sound, Alaska, causing a large oil spill; the fall of the Berlin Wall begins the downfall of Communism in Eastern Europe, and heralds German reunification; the United States invades Panama to depose Manuel Noriega; the Baltic Way led to the independence of the Baltic states of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania from the Soviet Union; the stands of Hillsborough Stadium in Sheffield, Yorkshire, where the Hillsborough disaster occurred; students demonstrate in Tiananmen Square, Beijing; many are killed by forces of the Chinese Communist Party.

Millennium: 2nd millennium
Centuries:
Decades:
Years:
1989 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar 1989
MCMLXXXIX
Ab urbe condita 2742
Armenian calendar 1438
ԹՎ ՌՆԼԸ
Assyrian calendar 6739
Baháʼí calendar 145–146
Balinese saka calendar 1910–1911
Bengali calendar 1396
Berber calendar 2939
British Regnal year 37  Eliz. 2   38  Eliz. 2
Buddhist calendar 2533
Burmese calendar 1351
Byzantine calendar 7497–7498
Chinese calendar 戊辰年 (Earth  Dragon)
4686 or 4479
     to 
己巳年 (Earth  Snake)
4687 or 4480
Coptic calendar 1705–1706
Discordian calendar 3155
Ethiopian calendar 1981–1982
Hebrew calendar 5749–5750
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat 2045–2046
 - Shaka Samvat 1910–1911
 - Kali Yuga 5089–5090
Holocene calendar 11989
Igbo calendar 989–990
Iranian calendar 1367–1368
Islamic calendar 1409–1410
Japanese calendar Shōwa 64 / Heisei 1
(平成元年)
Javanese calendar 1921–1922
Juche calendar 78
Julian calendar Gregorian minus 13 days
Korean calendar 4322
Minguo calendar ROC 78
民國78年
Nanakshahi calendar 521
Thai solar calendar 2532
Tibetan calendar 阳土龙年
(male Earth-Dragon)
2115 or 1734 or 962
     to 
阴土蛇年
(female Earth-Snake)
2116 or 1735 or 963
Unix time 599616000 – 631151999

1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar, the 1989th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 989th year of the 2nd millennium, the 89th year of the 20th century, and the 10th and last year of the 1980s decade.

Contents

1989 was a turning point in political history with the "Revolutions of 1989" which ended communism in Eastern Bloc of Europe, starting in Poland and Hungary, with experiments in power-sharing coming to a head with the opening of the Berlin Wall in November, the Velvet Revolution in Czechoslovakia and the overthrow of the communist dictatorship in Romania in December; the movement ended in December 1991 with the dissolution of the Soviet Union. Revolutions against communist governments in Eastern Europe mainly succeeded, but the year also saw the suppression by the Chinese government of the 1989 Tiananmen Square protests in Beijing.

It was the year of the first Brazilian presidential election in 29 years, since the end of the military government in 1985 that ruled the country for more than twenty years, and marked the redemocratization process's final point.

F. W. de Klerk was elected as State President of South Africa, and his regime gradually dismantled the apartheid system over the next five years, culminating with the 1994 election that brought jailed African National Congress leader Nelson Mandela to power.

The first commercial Internet service providers surfaced in this year, [1] [2] as well as the first written proposal for the World Wide Web and New Zealand, Japan and Australia's first Internet connections. The first babies born after preimplantation genetic diagnosis were conceived in late 1989. [3]

Events

January

February

Soviet unit pictured prior to their withdrawal from Afghanistan RIAN archive 827820 Soviet unit pictured prior to their withdrawal from Afghanistan.jpg
Soviet unit pictured prior to their withdrawal from Afghanistan

March

Mass demonstration at the Hungarian state television headquarters Nemzeti Unnep - Szabadsag ter 1989.03.15 (4).jpg
Mass demonstration at the Hungarian state television headquarters
The Exxon Valdez Exval.jpeg
The Exxon Valdez

April

Polish Round Table Agreement Okragly Stol Palac Prezydencki 2019.jpg
Polish Round Table Agreement

May

June

July

August

Voyager 2 at Neptune Neptune.jpg
Voyager 2 at Neptune
Baltic Way in Estonia Balti kett 12.jpg
Baltic Way in Estonia

September

October

The Phillips disaster Apdx F2 - Aerial photo after explosion.jpg
The Phillips disaster

November

Germans standing on top of the Berlin Wall West and East Germans at the Brandenburg Gate in 1989.jpg
Germans standing on top of the Berlin Wall
A peaceful demonstration in Prague during the Velvet Revolution Havla 1989.jpg
A peaceful demonstration in Prague during the Velvet Revolution

December

Flames engulf a building following the United States invasion of Panama Panama clashes 1989.JPEG
Flames engulf a building following the United States invasion of Panama


Births and deaths

Nobel Prizes

Nobel medal.png

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Czechoslovakia</span> Country in Central Europe from 1918 to 1992

Czechoslovakia was a landlocked state in Central Europe, created in 1918, when it declared its independence from Austria-Hungary. In 1938, after the Munich Agreement, the Sudetenland became part of Nazi Germany, while the country lost further territories to Hungary and Poland. Between 1939 and 1945, the state ceased to exist, as Slovakia proclaimed its independence and Carpathian Ruthenia became part of Hungary, while in the remainder of the Czech Lands, the German Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia was proclaimed. In 1939, after the outbreak of World War II, former Czechoslovak President Edvard Beneš formed a government-in-exile and sought recognition from the Allies.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Klement Gottwald</span> 5th President of Czechoslovakia

Klement Gottwald was a Czech communist politician, who was the leader of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia from 1929 until his death in 1953 – titled as general secretary until 1945 and as chairman from 1945 to 1953. He was the first leader of Communist Czechoslovakia from 1948 to 1953.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Politics of Mongolia</span> Political system of Mongolia

The politics of Mongolia takes place in a framework of a semi-presidential multi-party representative democracy. Executive power is exercised by the prime minister, who is the head of government, and the Cabinet. The president is the head of state, but holds limited authority over the executive branch of the government, unlike full presidential republics like the United States. Legislative power is vested in parliament. The judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">1990</span> Calendar year

1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, the 1990th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 990th year of the 2nd millennium, the 90th year of the 20th century, and the 1st year of the 1990s decade.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Wojciech Jaruzelski</span> Leader of Poland from 1981 to 1989

Wojciech Witold Jaruzelski was a Polish military general, politician and de facto leader of the Polish People's Republic from 1981 until 1989. He was the First Secretary of the Polish United Workers' Party between 1981 and 1989, making him the last leader of the Polish People's Republic. Jaruzelski served as Prime Minister from 1981 to 1985, the Chairman of the Council of State from 1985 to 1989 and briefly as President of Poland from 1989 to 1990, when the office of President was restored after 37 years. He was also the last commander-in-chief of the Polish People's Army, which in 1990 became the Polish Armed Forces.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Velvet Revolution</span> Democratization process in Czechoslovakia in 1989

The Velvet Revolution or Gentle Revolution was a non-violent transition of power in what was then Czechoslovakia, occurring from 17 November to 28 November 1989. Popular demonstrations against the one-party government of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia included students and older dissidents. The result was the end of 41 years of one-party rule in Czechoslovakia, and the subsequent dismantling of the command economy and conversion to a parliamentary republic.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Egon Krenz</span> Head of state of East Germany (born 1937)

Egon Rudi Ernst Krenz is a German former politician who was the last Communist leader of the German Democratic Republic during the Revolutions of 1989. He succeeded Erich Honecker as the General Secretary of the ruling Socialist Unity Party of Germany (SED) but was forced to resign only weeks later when the Berlin Wall fell.

After the Communist rulership ended and the former Communist dictator Nicolae Ceaușescu was executed in the midst of the bloody Romanian Revolution of December 1989, the National Salvation Front (FSN) seized power, led by Ion Iliescu. The FSN transformed itself into a massive political party in short time and overwhelmingly won the general election of May 1990, with Iliescu as president. These first months of 1990 were marked by violent protests and counter-protests, involving most notably the tremendously violent and brutal coal miners of the Jiu Valley which were called by Iliescu himself and the FSN to crush peaceful protesters in the University Square in Bucharest.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">History of modern Mongolia</span>

The modern democratic era of Mongolia started after the Mongolian Revolution of 1990.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Mongolian People's Party</span> Social democratic political party in Mongolia

The Mongolian People's Party (MPP) is a social democratic political party in Mongolia. It was founded as a communist party in 1920 by Mongolian revolutionaries and is the oldest political party in Mongolia. The party played an important role in the Mongolian Revolution of 1921, which was inspired by the Bolsheviks' October Revolution. Following independence, it governed Mongolia as a one-party socialist state. The party changed its name to the Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party (MPRP) and joined the Communist International in 1924 and served as a sole-ruling party of the Mongolian People's Republic.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Gustáv Husák</span> Czechoslovak politician, 9th President of Czechoslovakia (1913–1991)

Gustáv Husák was a Czechoslovak politician who served as the long-time First Secretary of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia from 1969 to 1987 and the President of Czechoslovakia from 1975 to 1989.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Peaceful Revolution</span> 1989–1990 process disestablishing East Germany

The Peaceful Revolution, as a part of the Revolutions of 1989, was the process of sociopolitical change that led to the opening of East Germany's borders with the West, the end of the ruling of the Socialist Unity Party of Germany (SED) in the German Democratic Republic in 1989 and the transition to a parliamentary democracy, which later enabled the reunification of Germany in October 1990. This happened through non-violent initiatives and demonstrations. This period of change is referred to in German as Die Wende.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Romanian revolution</span> 1989 popular uprising/coup in Romania

The Romanian revolution, also known as the Christmas Revolution, was a period of violent civil unrest in Romania during December 1989 as a part of the revolutions of 1989 that occurred in several countries around the world, primarily within the Eastern Bloc. The Romanian revolution started in the city of Timișoara and soon spread throughout the country, ultimately culminating in the drumhead trial and execution of longtime Romanian Communist Party (PCR) General Secretary Nicolae Ceaușescu and his wife Elena, and the end of 42 years of Communist rule in Romania. It was also the last removal of a Marxist–Leninist government in a Warsaw Pact country during the events of 1989, and the only one that violently overthrew a country's leadership and executed its leader; according to estimates, over one thousand people died and thousands more were injured.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Public Against Violence</span> Political party in Czechoslovakia

Public Against Violence was a political movement established in Bratislava, Slovakia in November 1989. It was the Slovak counterpart of the Czech Civic Forum.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Ferenc Nagy</span> Hungarian politician

Ferenc Nagy was a Hungarian politician of the Smallholders Party who served as Prime Minister of Hungary from 1946 until his forced resignation in 1947. He was also a Speaker of the National Assembly of Hungary and a member of the High National Council from 1945 to 1946. Nagy was the second democratically elected prime minister of Hungary, and would be the last until 1990 not to be a Communist or fellow traveler. The subsequent Hungarian prime minister Imre Nagy was unrelated to him.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Independent Smallholders, Agrarian Workers and Civic Party</span> Political party in Hungary

The Independent Smallholders, Agrarian Workers and Civic Party, known mostly by its acronym FKgP or its shortened form Independent Smallholders' Party, is a political party in Hungary. Since the 2002 parliamentary elections, the party has won no seats.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Cold War (1985–1991)</span> Phase of the Cold War during 1985-1991

The time period of around 1985–1991 marked the final period of the Cold War. It was characterized by systemic reform within the Soviet Union, the easing of geopolitical tensions between the Soviet-led bloc and the United States-led bloc, the collapse of the Soviet Union's influence in Eastern Europe, and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Revolutions of 1989</span> Revolutionary wave overthrowing most communist states

The Revolutions of 1989, also known as the Fall of Communism, was a revolutionary wave of liberal democracy movements that resulted in the collapse of most Marxist–Leninist governments in the Eastern Bloc and other parts of the world. Sometimes this revolutionary wave is also called the Fall of Nations or the Autumn of Nations, a play on the term Spring of Nations that is sometimes used to describe the Revolutions of 1848 in Europe. It may have contributed to the eventual dissolution of the Soviet Union—the world's largest Marxist–Leninist state—and the abandonment of communist regimes in many parts of the world, some of which were violently overthrown. The events, especially the fall of the Soviet Union, drastically altered the world's balance of power, marking the end of the Cold War and the beginning of the post-Cold War era.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Second Hungarian Republic</span> State in Central Europe from 1946 to 1949

The Second Hungarian Republic was a parliamentary republic briefly established after the disestablishment of the Kingdom of Hungary on 1 February 1946 and was itself dissolved on 20 August 1949. It was succeeded by the Hungarian People's Republic.

The 1989 Tiananmen Square protests and massacre were the first of their type shown in detail on Western television. The Chinese government's response was denounced across the world; a report by the U.S. State Department said: "Foreign governments have expressed near universal revulsion over the crackdown although a few exceptions have supported China's approaches. Negative reactions range from punitive measures by Western countries to private criticisms in the East." Specifically, it said: "China's credentials as a socialist reformer were being called into question not only by Western European communists but also by progressives in Eastern Europe and, to a lesser extent, the Soviet Union." Notably however, many Asian countries remained silent throughout the protests; the government of India responded to the massacre by ordering the state television to pare down the coverage to the barest minimum, so as not to jeopardize a thawing in relations with China, and to offer political empathy for the events. Criticism came from both Western and Eastern Europe, North America, Australia and some east Asian and Latin American countries. North Korea, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, and East Germany, among others, supported the Chinese government and denounced the protests. Overseas Chinese students demonstrated in many cities in Europe, America, the Middle East, and Asia against the Chinese government.

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Further reading