|Host city||Auckland, New Zealand|
|Motto||This is the Moment|
|Events||213 events in 10 sports|
|Opening ceremony||24 January|
|Closing ceremony||3 February|
|Officially opened by||Prince Edward|
|Officially closed by||Elizabeth II|
|Queen's Baton Final Runner||Mark Todd and Peter Snell|
|Main venue||Mount Smart Stadium|
The 1990 Commonwealth Games were held in Auckland, New Zealand from 24 January – 3 February 1990. It was the 14th Commonwealth Games, and part of New Zealand's 1990 sesquicentennial celebrations. Participants competed in ten sports: athletics, aquatics, badminton, boxing, cycling, gymnastics, judo, lawn bowls, shooting and weightlifting. The Triathlon was a demonstration event.
Auckland is a city in the North Island of New Zealand. The most populous urban area in the country, Auckland has an urban population of around 1,628,900. It is located in the Auckland Region—the area governed by Auckland Council—which includes outlying rural areas and the islands of the Hauraki Gulf, resulting in a total population of 1,695,900. Auckland is a diverse, multicultural and cosmopolitan city, home to the largest Polynesian population in the world. A Māori-language name for Auckland is Tāmaki or Tāmaki Makaurau, meaning "Tāmaki with a hundred lovers", in reference to the desirability of its fertile land at the hub of waterways in all directions.
New Zealand is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. The country has two main landmasses—the North Island, and the South Island —and around 600 smaller islands. It has a total land area of 268,000 square kilometres (103,500 sq mi). New Zealand is about 2,000 kilometres (1,200 mi) east of Australia across the Tasman Sea and 1,000 kilometres (600 mi) south of the Pacific island areas of New Caledonia, Fiji, and Tonga. Because of its remoteness, it was one of the last lands to be settled by humans. During its long period of isolation, New Zealand developed a distinct biodiversity of animal, fungal, and plant life. The country's varied topography and its sharp mountain peaks, such as the Southern Alps, owe much to the tectonic uplift of land and volcanic eruptions. New Zealand's capital city is Wellington, and its most populous city is Auckland.
The Commonwealth Games are an international multi-sport event involving athletes from the Commonwealth of Nations. The event was first held in 1930, and has taken place every four years since then. The Commonwealth Games were known as the British Empire Games from 1930 to 1950, the British Empire and Commonwealth Games from 1954 to 1966, and British Commonwealth Games from 1970 to 1974. It is the world's first multi-sport event which inducted equal number of women’s and men’s medal events and was implemented recently in the 2018 Commonwealth Games.
The main venue was the Mount Smart Stadium.
The Games were awarded to Auckland on 27 July 1984 at the Los Angeles Summer Olympics. Perth, Australia, had withdrawn from the bid contest leaving New Delhi, India, as the sole opponent to Auckland's bid.
The 1984 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XXIII Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event that was held from July 28 to August 12, 1984, in Los Angeles, United States. This was the second time that Los Angeles had hosted the Games, the first being in 1932.
Perth is the capital and largest city of the Australian state of Western Australia (WA). It is named after the city of Perth, Scotland and is the fourth-most populous city in Australia, with a population of 2.06 million living in Greater Perth. Perth is part of the South West Land Division of Western Australia, with the majority of the metropolitan area located on the Swan Coastal Plain, a narrow strip between the Indian Ocean and the Darling Scarp. The first areas settled were on the Swan River at Guildford, with the city's central business district and port (Fremantle) both later founded downriver.
New Delhi is an urban district of Delhi which serves as the capital of India and seat of all three branches of the Government of India.
|1990 Commonwealth Games bidding results|
The opening of the games comprised a variety of events, including the arrival of The Queen's representative The Prince Edward (her youngest son), the arrival of the Queen's Baton and many Māori ceremonial stories.
Elizabeth II is Queen of the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth realms.
Prince Edward, Earl of Wessex, is the youngest of four children and the third son of Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. At the time of his birth, he was third in line of succession to the British throne; as of July 2019, he is 11th. The Earl is a full-time working member of the British royal family and supports the Queen in her official duties – often alongside his wife, the Countess of Wessex – as well as undertaking public engagements for many of his own charities. In particular he has assumed many duties from his father, the Duke of Edinburgh, who retired from public life in 2017. Prince Edward succeeded Prince Philip as president of the Commonwealth Games Federation and opened the 1990 Commonwealth Games in New Zealand and the 1998 Commonwealth Games in Malaysia. He has also taken over the Duke's role in the Duke of Edinburgh's Award Scheme.
The Queen's Baton Relay is a relay around the world held prior to the beginning of the Commonwealth Games. The Baton carries a message from the Head of the Commonwealth, currently Queen Elizabeth II. The Relay traditionally begins at Buckingham Palace in London as a part of the city's Commonwealth Day festivities. The Queen entrusts the baton to the first relay runner. At the Opening Ceremony of the Games, the final relay runner hands the baton back to the Queen or her representative, who reads the message aloud to officially open the Games.The Queen's Baton Relay is similar to the Olympic Torch Relay.
The opening ceremony itself started off with the Auckland Commonwealth Games Choir singing the Song of Welcome. Upon the arrival of The Prince Edward, the Māori in attendance, gave him a Challenge of a welcome. This is conducted by a Māori placing a wooden batton on the ground. To see if the visitor comes in peace or not, the visitor must pick it up.
The New Zealand national anthem "God Defend New Zealand" was sung during a ceremonial fourteen gun salute from nearby One Tree Hill. This was followed by the New Zealand Army Guard Commander allowing The Prince Edward to inspect the guard of honour. After which was the introduction of the participating countries of the Commonwealth, Scotland entering first as the hosts of the previous games, and New Zealand entering last as hosts. During the introduction of the countries, the choir at attendance would display the flag of the announced country with boards.
"God Defend New Zealand" is one of two national anthems of New Zealand, the other being "God Save the Queen". Legally the two have equal status, but "God Defend New Zealand" is more commonly used. Originally written as a poem, it was set to music as part of a competition in 1876. Over the years its popularity increased, and it was eventually named the second national anthem in 1977. It has English and Māori lyrics, with slightly different meanings. Since the late 1990s, the usual practice when performed in public is to perform the first verse of the national anthem twice, first in Māori and then in English.
The New Zealand Army is the land component of the New Zealand Defence Force and comprises around 4,500 Regular Force personnel, 2,000 Territorial Force personnel and 500 civilians. Formerly the New Zealand Military Forces, the current name was adopted by the New Zealand Army Act 1950. The New Zealand Army traces its history from settler militia raised in 1845.
A guard of honour (en-GB), guard of honor (en-US), also honour guard (en-GB), honor guard (en-US), also ceremonial guard, is a guard, usually military in nature, appointed to receive or guard a head of state or other dignitary, the fallen in war, or to attend at state ceremonials, especially funerals. In military weddings, especially those of commissioned officers, a guard, composed usually of service members of the same branch, form the Saber arch. In principle any military unit could act as a guard of honour. However, in some countries certain units are specially designated for guard of honour duty.
When all the athletes finally sat down, the main Māori ceremonies began. First of the Māori ceremonies was all the Māori women performing a "Song of Welcome" for the athletes with the use of Poi. The Māori women then gave some of the athletes a Hongi. Next was the Māori story of how New Zealand was formed, performed by many New Zealanders and organised by Logan Brewer. It involved a narration of how the Polynesians found their way to what was to become New Zealand. In the middle of the performance, a re-enactment was performed of how New Zealand was formed between Rangi and Papa (the sky father and earth mother). The story then moved on to the coming of religion and European migration. This was demonstrated with a formation of the Union Jack, to show the colonisation by the British. Dame Whina Cooper then made a speech about the Treaty of Waitangi signed in 1840 that brought about peace and stability of modern New Zealand.
Poi refers to both a style of performing art and the equipment used for engaging in poi performance. As a performance art, poi involves swinging tethered weights through a variety of rhythmical and geometric patterns. Poi artists may also sing or dance while swinging their poi. Poi can be made from various materials with different handles, weights, and effects.
The traditional Māori greeting, the hongi is performed by two people pressing their noses together; some include, at the same time, the touching of foreheads. The greeting is used at traditional meetings among Māori people, and at major ceremonies, such as a pōwhiri. It may be followed by a handshake.
Polynesians are an ethnolinguistic group of closely related peoples who are native to Polynesia, an expansive region of Oceania in the Pacific Ocean. They trace their origins to Island Southeast Asia and are part of the larger Austronesian ethnolinguistic group with an Urheimat ultimately from Taiwan. They speak the Polynesian languages, a branch of the Oceanic subfamily of the Austronesian language family.
Introduction of the European communities was next with music and native dancing from European countries such as Italy, Poland, Greece, Netherlands, Scotland, Ireland, Austria, Wales and England, and music and native dancing also from Asian countries such as China, Sri Lanka and India. From here, many of the neighbouring Pacific Islanders made their entrance with the rhythmic tempo of the Pacific Island drum beat. This was to show the then complete migration of people to New Zealand.
New Zealand performer Howard Morrison then lead New Zealand in singing the folk song Tukua-a-hau. After Howard Morrison, the Queen's Baton arrived at the stadium where The Prince Edward announced the opening of the games which was followed by the Athletes Pledge .
Fireworks followed and was capped off with a night time flyover by nine A-4 Skyhawk jets of the Royal New Zealand Air Forces 75 Squadron. The ceremony was concluded by the singing of the game's motto "This is the moment" as performers and athletes exited the stadium.
A more relaxed affair was held for the 14th Commonwealth Games closing ceremony, reflecting that of Christchurch in 1974. Attended by HM The Queen of New Zealand, formality and respect played their due part in the beginning with formal salute and the acceptance of the Commonwealth Games flag to the next host city, Victoria, Canada. This was followed by a First Nations and modern Canadian dancing display.
Then the fun began with thousands of children entering the stadium with a mass jumprope demonstration, followed by the athletes themselves. The Queen then made the traditional closing speech and called for all the Commonwealth's athletes to assemble in four years time in Victoria. As the evening wore on, opera singer Dame Kiri Te Kanawa sang "Now is the Hour", a favorite New Zealand hymn, as the Royal New Zealand Air Force's A4 Skyhawks made one final swooping flyover of Mount Smart Stadium followed by fireworks. The Queen, Duke of Edinburgh, and Prince Edward then exited the stadium standing in open top vehicles.
The mascot of the games was Goldie, representing New Zealand's national symbol the kiwi bird.
55 teams were represented at the 1990 Games.
(Teams competing for the first time are shown in bold).
|Participating Commonwealth countries and territories|
|Debuting Commonwealth countries and territories|
This is the full table of the medal count of the 1990 Commonwealth Games. These rankings sort by the number of gold medals earned by a country. The number of silvers is taken into consideration next and then the number of bronze. If, after the above, countries are still tied, equal ranking is given and they are listed alphabetically. This follows the system used by the IOC, IAAF and BBC.
Figures from Commonwealth Games Foundation website.
Host nation (New Zealand)
|Totals (29 nations)||205||204||234||643|
|10 Miles Scratch||00:19:44||00:19:44||00:19:44|
|Team Time Trial|
|Free Pistol - Pairs|
|Centre-Fire Pistol - Pairs|
|Rapid-Fire Pistol - Pairs|
|Air Pistol - Pairs|
|Small Bore Rifle, Prone||591||590||590|
|Small Bore Rifle, Prone - Pairs|
|Small Bore Rifle, Three Positions||1157||1154||1143|
|Small Bore Rifle, Three Positions - Pairs|
|Full Bore Rifle||394||390||390|
|Full Bore Rifle - Pairs|
|Air Rifle - Pairs|
|Running Target - Pairs|
|Trap - Pairs|
|Skeet - Pairs|
|Flyweight - Snatch||105||95||90|
|Flyweight - Clean and Jerk||127.5||117.5||117.5|
|Flyweight - Overall||232.5||212.5||207.5|
|Bantamweight - Snatch||110||107.5||102.5|
|Bantamweight - Clean and Jerk||137.5||125||122.5|
|Bantamweight - Overall||247.5||230||227.5|
|Featherweight - Snatch||112.5||112.5||110|
|Featherweight - Clean and Jerk||145||142.5||142.5|
|Featherweight - Overall||257.5||255||252.5|
|Lightweight - Snatch||130||130||127.5|
|Lightweight - Clean and Jerk||165||160||155|
|Lightweight - Overall||295||290||280|
|Middleweight - Snatch||135||135||132.5|
|Middleweight - Clean and Jerk||177.5||170||167.5|
|Middleweight - Overall||310||305||292.5|
|Light Heavyweight - Snatch||155||152.5||145|
|Light Heavyweight - Clean and Jerk||192.5||182.5||180|
|Light Heavyweight - Overall||347.5||332.5||317.5|
|Middle Heavyweight - Snatch||162.5||152.5||150|
|Middle Heavyweight - Clean and Jerk||195||192.5||190|
|Middle Heavyweight - Overall||357.5||345||340|
|Sub Heavyweight - Snatch||165||145||140|
|Sub Heavyweight - Clean and Jerk||197.5||175||175|
|Sub Heavyweight - Overall||362.5||320||315|
|Heavyweight - Snatch||160||152.5||152.5|
|Heavyweight - Clean and Jerk||197.5||192.5||187.5|
|Heavyweight - Overall||357.5||345||335|
|Super Heavyweight - Snatch||180||177.5||172.5|
|Super Heavyweight - Clean and Jerk||222.5||222.5||205|
|Super Heavyweight - Overall||402.5||400||377.5|
The 2002 Commonwealth Games, officially known as the XVII Commonwealth Games and commonly known as Manchester 2002 were held in Manchester, England, from 25 July to 4 August 2002. The 2002 Games were to be hosted in the United Kingdom to coincide with the Golden Jubilee of Elizabeth II, head of the Commonwealth, and Manchester was selected for the 2002 Games ahead of London. The XVII Commonwealth Games was, prior to the 2012 Summer Olympics, the largest multi-sport event ever to be held in the UK, eclipsing the London 1948 Summer Olympics in numbers of teams and athletes participating. In terms of sports and events, the 2002 Games were the largest Commonwealth Games in history featuring 281 events across 17 sports.
The 2006 Commonwealth Games, officially the XVIII Commonwealth Games and commonly known as Melbourne 2006, was an international multi-sport event for members of the Commonwealth held in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia between 15 and 26 March 2006. It was the fourth time Australia had hosted the Commonwealth Games. It was also the largest sporting event to be staged in Melbourne, eclipsing the 1956 Summer Olympics in terms of the number of teams competing, athletes competing, and events being held.
The 1998 Commonwealth Games(Malay: Sukan Komanwel 1998), officially known as the XVI Commonwealth Games(Malay: Sukan Komanwel ke-16), was a multi-sport event held in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. This edition is marked by several unprecedented facts in the history of the event. The 1998 games were the first held in an Asian country and the last Commonwealth Games of the 20th century. This was also the first time the games took place in a nation with a head of state other than the Head of the Commonwealth, and the first time the games were held in a country whose majority of the population did not have English as the first language. For the first time ever, the games included team sports. The other bid from the 1998 games came from Adelaide in Australia. Malaysia was the eighth nation to host the Commonwealth Games after Canada, England, Australia, New Zealand, Wales, Jamaica and Scotland. Around 3638 athletes from 69 Commonwealth member nations participated at the games which featured 214 events in 15 sports with 34 of them collected medals.
The monarchy of New Zealand is the constitutional system of government in which a hereditary monarch is the sovereign and head of state of New Zealand. The current monarch, Queen Elizabeth II, ascended the throne on the death of her father, King George VI, on 6 February 1952. Elizabeth's eldest son, Charles, Prince of Wales, is heir apparent.
The 1974 British Commonwealth Games were held in Christchurch, New Zealand from 24 January to 2 February 1974. The bid vote was held in Edinburgh at the 1970 British Commonwealth Games. The Games were officially named "the friendly games". There were 1,276 competitors and 372 officials, according to the official history, and public attendance was excellent. The main venue was the QEII Park, purpose built for this event. The Athletics Stadium and fully covered Olympic standard pool, diving tank, and practice pools were all on the one site. The theme song was "Join Together", sung by Steve Allen. The Games were held after the 1974 Commonwealth Paraplegic Games in Dunedin for wheelchair athletes.
The 1982 Commonwealth Games were held in Brisbane, Queensland, Australia from 30 September to 9 October 1982. The Opening Ceremony was held at the QEII Stadium, in the Brisbane suburb of Nathan. The QEII Stadium was also the venue which was used for the athletics and archery competitions during the Games. Other events were held at the purpose-built Sleeman Sports Complex in Chandler.
The 2014 Commonwealth Games, officially known as the XX Commonwealth Games and commonly known as Glasgow 2014,, was an international multi-sport event celebrated in the tradition of the Commonwealth Games as governed by the Commonwealth Games Federation (CGF). It took place in Glasgow, Scotland, from 23 July to 3 August 2014.
The 2007 Southeast Asian Games, officially known as the 24th Southeast Asian Games was a Southeast Asian multi-sport event held in Nakhon Ratchasima (Korat), Thailand. This was the sixth time Thailand hosted the Southeast Asian Games and its first time since 1995. Previously, Thailand also hosted the 1959 inaugural games, 1967 games, 1975 games and the 1985 games.
The 2009 Southeast Asian Games, officially known as the 25th Southeast Asian Games was a Southeast Asian multi-sport event hosted by Vientiane, Laos. This was the first time Laos had held the Southeast Asian Games as Laos had previously declined hosting the 1965 Southeast Asian Peninsular Games, citing financial difficulties.
The Opening Ceremony of the 2006 Commonwealth Games was held on 15 March 2006 at the Melbourne Cricket Ground in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. The ceremony was conceived and produced by Jack Morton Worldwide, which also produced the ceremonies for the 2002 Commonwealth Games in Manchester.
The Opening Ceremony of the 1982 Commonwealth Games was held on 30 September 1982 at the QEII Stadium in Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.
The 2007 South Pacific Games were held in Apia, Samoa, from 25 August to 8 September 2007. The Games were the thirteenth to be held since the inception of the South Pacific Games in 1963, and included traditional multi-sport event disciplines, such as athletics and swimming, alongside region-specific and smaller events such as outrigger canoeing, surfing and lawn bowls.
The 2018 Commonwealth Games, officially known as the XXI Commonwealth Games and commonly known as Gold Coast 2018, were an international multi-sport event for members of the Commonwealth that were held on the Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia, between 4 and 15 April 2018. It was the fifth time Australia had hosted the Commonwealth Games and the first time a major multi-sport event achieved gender equality by having an equal number of events for male and female athletes.
New Zealand at the 1950 British Empire Games was represented by a team of 175 competitors and 24 officials. Selection of the host nation's team for the Games in Auckland, was the responsibility of the New Zealand Olympic and British Empire Games Association. New Zealand's flagbearer at the opening ceremony was Harold Nelson. The New Zealand team finished third on the medal table, winning a total of 53 medals, 10 of which were gold.
New Zealand had a team of 224 competitors and 61 officials to the 1990 Commonwealth Games, which were held in Auckland, New Zealand. The games were part of New Zealand's 1990 sesquicentennial celebrations.
Triathlon is one of the sports at the quadrennial Commonwealth Games competition. It was first granted Commonwealth Games sport status in 2002. It is a core sport which has to be included in each competition's sporting programme. A para triathlon was first included as an optional sport in the Gold Coast 2018 games.
The opening ceremony of the 2010 Commonwealth Games was held at the Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium, the main stadium of the event, in New Delhi, India. It began at 7:00 PM (IST) on 3 October 2010 ending at 10:00 PM (IST) displaying India's varied culture in a plethora of cultural showcases. Wizcraft was given the contract to produce the opening and closing ceremonies of the 2010 Commonwealth Games.
The closing ceremony of the 2010 Commonwealth Games was held at the Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium, the main stadium of the event, in New Delhi, India. It began at 7:00 pm (IST) on 14 October 2010 and ended at 9:20 pm (IST). The ceremony included display of martial arts from a number of states of India followed by musical performances and showcasing the culture of Scotland, which will host the 2014 Commonwealth Games in Glasgow.
The opening ceremony for the 2018 Commonwealth Games took place on the evening of Wednesday 4 April in the Carrara Stadium, Gold Coast. As mandated by the Commonwealth Games Charter, the proceedings of the ceremony combined the formal opening of the sporting event with an artistic performance to showcase the host nation's culture. The 2018 Games were formally opened by Charles, Prince of Wales. Jack Morton Worldwide was given the contract to produce the opening and closing ceremonies of the 2018 Commonwealth Games. The theme of the opening ceremony was Hello Earth and directed by David Zolkwer.
The Bateman New Zealand Encyclopedia
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XIV Commonwealth Games