1992 Summer Olympics

Last updated

Games of the XXV Olympiad
1992 Summer Olympics logo.svg
Emblem of the 1992 Summer Olympics
Host city Barcelona, Spain
MottoFriends For Life
(Spanish: Amigos para siempre, Catalan: Amics per sempre)
Athletes9,386 (6,663 men, 2,723 women)
Events257 in 25 sports (34 disciplines)
Opening 25 July 1992
Closing 9 August 1992
Opened by
Stadium Estadi Olímpic de Montjuïc

The 1992 Summer Olympics (Spanish : Juegos Olímpicos de Verano de 1992, Catalan : Jocs Olímpics d'estiu de 1992), officially known as the Games of the XXV Olympiad (Spanish : Juegos de la XXV Olimpiada, Catalan : Jocs de la XXV Olimpíada) and commonly known as Barcelona '92, was an international multi-sport event held from 25 July to 9 August 1992 in Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain. Beginning in 1994, the International Olympic Committee decided to hold the Summer and Winter Olympics in alternating even-numbered years. The 1992 Summer and Winter Olympics were the last games to be staged in the same year. [2] These games were the second and last two consecutive Olympic games to be held in Western Europe after the 1992 Winter Olympics in Albertville, France, held five months earlier.


The 1992 Summer Games were the first since the end of the Cold War, and the first unaffected by boycotts since the 1972 Summer Games. [3] 1992 was also the first year South Africa was re-invited to the Olympic Games by the International Olympic Committee, after a 32-year ban from participating in international sport due to Apartheid. [4] The Unified Team (made up by the former Soviet republics without the Baltic states) topped the medal table, winning 45 gold and 112 overall medals.

Host city selection

Barcelona is the second-largest city in Spain and the capital of the autonomous community of Catalonia, and the hometown of then-IOC president Juan Antonio Samaranch and the famous European club, FC Barcelona. The city was also a host for the 1982 FIFA World Cup. On 17 October 1986, Barcelona was selected to host the 1992 Summer Olympics over Amsterdam, Netherlands; Belgrade, Yugoslavia; Birmingham, United Kingdom; Brisbane, Australia; and Paris, France, during the 91st IOC Session in Lausanne, Switzerland. [5] New Delhi, India, had announced a bid for the games, but withdrew in March 1986. [6] With 85 out of 89 members of the IOC voting by secret ballot, Barcelona won a majority of 47 votes. Samaranch abstained from voting. In the same IOC meeting, Albertville, France, won the right to host the 1992 Winter Games. Paris and Brisbane would eventually be selected to host the 2024 and 2032 Summer Olympics respectively. [7]

Barcelona had previously bid for the 1936 Summer Olympics that were ultimately held in Berlin.

1992 Summer Olympics bidding results [8]
CityNOC NameRound 1Round 2Round 3
Barcelona Flag of Spain.svg  Spain 293747
Paris Flag of France.svg  France 192023
Belgrade Flag of Yugoslavia (1946-1992).svg  Yugoslavia 13115
Brisbane Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia 11910
Birmingham Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  Great Britain 88
Amsterdam Flag of the Netherlands.svg  Netherlands 5


The Olympic cauldron lit during the Games in Montjuic Barcelona AUGUST 1992 the Olympic Games (Juegos Olimpicos de Barcelona 1992) - panoramio.jpg
The Olympic cauldron lit during the Games in Montjuïc
David Robinson shoots a free throw to help secure the gold medal for the United States "Dream Team". Dream Team at the 1992 Summer Olympics.JPEG
David Robinson shoots a free throw to help secure the gold medal for the United States "Dream Team".



Anella Olimpica from above BCN-EstadiOlimpic-4860.jpg
Anella Olímpica from above
Estadi Olimpic de Montjuic Estadi Olimpic Lluis Companys Karsten Knoefler.jpg
Estadi Olímpic de Montjuïc
Palau Sant Jordi Barcelona Palau Sant Jordi.jpg
Palau Sant Jordi
Piscina Municipal de Montjuic Piscina Municipal de Montjuic - vista general.JPG
Piscina Municipal de Montjuïc
Canal Olimpic de Catalunya Canal Olimpic Catalunya FACILITIES.JPG
Canal Olímpic de Catalunya

Medals awarded

The 1992 Summer Olympic programme featured 257 events in the following 25 sports:

1992 Summer Olympics Sports Programme

Demonstration sports

Participating National Olympic Committees

Participants 1992 Summer Olympic games countries.png
Participating countries by number of competitors 1992 Summer olympics team numbers.gif
Participating countries by number of competitors

A total of 169 nations sent athletes to compete in the 1992 Summer Games.

With the dissolution of the Soviet Union, twelve of the fifteen new states chose to form a Unified Team, while the Baltic States of Estonia and Latvia sent their own teams for the first time since 1936, and Lithuania sent its own team for the first time since 1928. Bosnia-Herzegovina competed for the first time as an independent nation after its separation from Socialist Yugoslavia, and Namibia and the unified team of Yemen (previously North and South Yemen) also made their Olympic debuts. Croatia and Slovenia made their first Summer Olympic appearance at these games having participated in the 1992 Winter Olympics in Albertville.

The 1992 Summer Olympics notably marked Germany competing as a unified team for the first time since 1964. South Africa returned to the Games for the first time in 32 years.

The Federal Republic of Yugoslavia was banned due to UN sanctions, but individual Yugoslav athletes were allowed to take part as Independent Olympic Participants. Four then-existing National Olympic Committees did not send any athletes to compete: Afghanistan, Brunei, Liberia and Somalia.

Participating National Olympic Committees
  • Flag of Brunei.svg  Brunei participated in the Opening Ceremony, but its delegation consisted of only one official. This also occurred in the 1988 Games. [17] [18]
  • Flag of Afghanistan (1992-2001).svg Afghanistan didn't send their athletes to compete, but the country took part in the Parade of Nations. Apparently, its flag was carried by a volunteer from the Barcelona Organising Committee. [18]
  • Flag of Liberia.svg  Liberia and Flag of Somalia.svg  Somalia also participated in the Opening Ceremony, but its accredited athletes (five and two, respectively) did not enter to compete. [17] [18]

Number of athletes by National Olympic Committee

9,356 athletes from 169 NOCs

IOC CountryAthletes
USAFlag of the United States.svg  United States 545
ESPFlag of Spain.svg  Spain 489
GERFlag of Germany.svg  Germany 485
EUNOlympic flag.svg  Unified Team 475


All times are in Central European Summer Time (UTC+2)
OCOpening ceremonyEvent competitions1Gold medal eventsCCClosing ceremony
July/August 1992JulyAugustEvents
Olympic Rings Icon.svg Ceremonies OC CC
Aquatics Diving pictogram.svg Diving 1111139
Swimming pictogram.svg Swimming 455566
Synchronized swimming pictogram.svg Synchronized swimming 11
Water polo pictogram.svg Water polo 1
Archery pictogram.svg Archery 1124
Athletics pictogram.svg Athletics 24465669143
Badminton pictogram.svg Badminton 44
Baseball pictogram.svg Baseball 11
Basketball pictogram.svg Basketball 112
Boxing pictogram.svg Boxing 6612
Canoeing Canoeing (slalom) pictogram.svg Slalom 2216
Canoeing (flatwater) pictogram.svg Sprint 66
Cycling Cycling (road) pictogram.svg Road cycling 2110
Cycling (track) pictogram.svg Track cycling 115
Equestrian pictogram.svg Equestrian 211116
Fencing pictogram.svg Fencing 111111118
Field hockey pictogram.svg Field hockey 112
Football pictogram.svg Football 11
Gymnastics Gymnastics (artistic) pictogram.svg Artistic 11114615
Gymnastics (rhythmic) pictogram.svg Rhythmic1
Handball pictogram.svg Handball 22
Judo pictogram.svg Judo 222222214
Modern pentathlon pictogram.svg Modern pentathlon 22
Rowing pictogram.svg Rowing 7714
Sailing pictogram.svg Sailing 27110
Shooting pictogram.svg Shooting 2221221113
Table tennis pictogram.svg Table tennis 11114
Tennis pictogram.svg Tennis 224
Volleyball (indoor) pictogram.svg Volleyball 112
Weightlifting pictogram.svg Weightlifting 111111219
Wrestling pictogram.svg Wrestling 33433420
Daily medal events91214171919223018111212223010257
Cumulative total92135527190112142160171183195217247257
July/August 199224th
Total events

Medal count

The following table reflects the top ten nations in terms of total medals won at the 1992 Games (the host nation is highlighted).

1Olympic flag.svg  Unified Team 453829112
2Flag of the United States.svg  United States 373437108
3Flag of Germany.svg  Germany 33212882
4Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  China 16221654
5Flag of Cuba.svg  Cuba 1461131
6Flag of Spain.svg  Spain*137222
7Flag of South Korea (1984-1997).svg  South Korea 1251229
8Flag of Hungary.svg  Hungary 1112730
9Flag of France.svg  France 851629
10Flag of Australia.svg  Australia 791127
Totals (10 entries)196159169524


International signal

In order to guarantee that the international signal was produced objectively and impartially, for the first time in Olympic history, a host broadcaster was expressly created for each of the 1992 Olympic Games instead of delegating responsibility to a national host broadcaster. The Albertville Organizing Committee created the Organisme de radio télévision olympique '92 (ORTO'92) for the Winter Olympics and the Barcelona Organizing Committee created the Radio Televisión Olímpica '92 (RTO'92) for the Summer Olympics. [19]

RTO'92 managed the staff and the production and technical resources hired to Radiotelevisión Española (RTVE), the Corporació Catalana de Ràdio i Televisió (CCRTV) and the European Broadcasting Union (EBU). With a workforce of 3,083 people, a permanent radio and television installation at the Olympic Stadium and Palau Sant Jordi, and over 50 mobile units for other venues, RTO'92 provided live coverage of all Summer Olympic sports for the first time ever –except for a few preliminary events–, some 2,800 hours of live television footage, to its international rights-holders. The International Broadcast Centre (IBC) was located at the exhibition halls of Fira de Barcelona in Montjuïc. [19]

NHK and Panasonic developed the 1/2" DX digital system used to record the Games digitally for the first time. Also new were the underwater camera dolly on a track at the bottom of the swimming pool, the underwater microcameras at the bottom of the water polo pool, the periscope camera capable of transmit shots from below and above the water, the overhead camera dolly on a track along the canopy of the Olympic Stadium for the 35 metres (115 ft) high zenithal shot of the athletics track, the stabilized optic gyro-zoom cameras, the super slow motion PAL camera and the microcamera on the high jump bar. [19]

Personalized coverage

To cover the Games, major international broadcasting unions such as the Asia-Pacific Broadcasting Union (ABU), the European Broadcasting Union (EBU), the International Radio and Television Organisation (OIRT), the Organización de Televisión Iberoamericana (OTI), the Arab States Broadcasting Union (ASBU), the Caribbean Broadcasting Union (CBU) and the Union of African National Television and Radio Organizations (URTNA), secured the rights for their member broadcasters in their countries. In other countries, broadcast networks secured the rights directly or pooled to secure the rights. The Games were covered by the following television and radio broadcasters: [20]

Flag of Algeria.svg  Algeria ENTV
Flag of Argentina.svg  Argentina
Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia Seven Network ABC
Flag of Austria.svg  Austria ORF ORF
Flag of Belarus (1918, 1991-1995).svg  Belarus btv
Flag of Belgium (civil).svg  Belgium
Flag of Brazil.svg  Brazil
Flag of Bulgaria.svg  Bulgaria BNT
Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada
Flag of Chile.svg  Chile
Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  China CCTV CPBS
Flag of Colombia.svg  Colombia Canal A
Flag of Croatia.svg  Croatia HRT HRT
Flag of Cuba.svg  Cuba ICRT ICRT
Flag of Cyprus.svg  Cyprus CyBC
Flag of the Czech Republic.svg  Czechoslovakia ČST Czechoslovak Radio
Flag of Denmark.svg  Denmark DR DR
Flag of Egypt.svg  Egypt ERTU ERTU
Flag of Estonia.svg  Estonia ETV
Flag of Finland.svg  Finland Yle Yle
Flag of France.svg  France
Flag of Germany.svg  Germany ARD
Flag of Greece.svg  Greece ERT ERT
Flag of Hong Kong 1959.svg  Hong Kong
Flag of Hungary.svg  Hungary MTV Magyar Rádió
Flag of Iceland.svg  Iceland RÚV RÚV
Flag of India.svg  India Doordarshan
Flag of Indonesia.svg  Indonesia Radio Republik Indonesia
Flag of Iran.svg  Iran Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting
Flag of Ireland.svg  Ireland RTÉ RTÉ
Flag of Israel.svg  Israel IBA IBA
Flag of Italy.svg  Italy RAI RAI
Flag of Japan (1870-1999).svg  Japan
Flag of Jordan.svg  Jordan JRTV
Flag of Lebanon.svg  Lebanon Télé Liban
Flag of Libya (1977-2011).svg  Libya LJBC
Flag of Lithuania.svg  Lithuania LTV
Flag of Luxembourg.svg  Luxembourg RTL RTL
Flag of Portugal.svg  Macau TDM
Flag of Malaysia.svg  Malaysia
Flag of Malta.svg  Malta MBA
Flag of Mexico.svg  Mexico Televisa
Flag of Monaco.svg  Monaco RMC RMC
Flag of Mongolia.svg  Mongolia MNB
Flag of Morocco.svg  Morocco RTM RTM
Flag of the Netherlands.svg  Netherlands NOS NOS
Flag of New Zealand.svg  New Zealand TVNZ RNZ
Flag of Norway.svg  Norway NRK NRK
Flag of Pakistan.svg  Pakistan PTV PBC
Flag of the Philippines (navy blue).svg  Philippines ABS-CBN
Flag of Poland.svg  Poland TVP PR S.A.
Flag of Portugal.svg  Portugal RTP RDP
Flag of Puerto Rico (1952-1995).svg  Puerto Rico WIPR
Flag of Romania.svg  Romania TVR Radio România
Flag of Russia (1991-1993).svg  Russia
Flag of Singapore.svg  Singapore SBC Channel 12
Flag of Slovenia.svg  Slovenia RTVSLO RTVSLO
Flag of South Africa (1982-1994).svg  South Africa SABC
Flag of South Korea (1984-1997).svg  South Korea
Flag of Spain.svg  Spain TVE
Flag of Sweden.svg  Sweden SVT SR
Flag of Switzerland (Pantone).svg   Switzerland SRG SSR
Flag of the Republic of China.svg  Taiwan
Flag of Thailand.svg  Thailand
Flag of Tunisia.svg  Tunisia ERTT
Flag of Turkey.svg  Turkey TRT TRT
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom BBC One BBC Radio 4
Flag of the United States.svg  United States NBC West Coast Talk Radio
Flag of Venezuela (1954-2006).svg  Venezuela Venevisión

HDTV coverage

The 1992 Winter and Summer Olympics were the first in which a comprehensive coverage in high-definition television (HDTV) was attempted. The European HDTV broadcast of the Summer Olympics was managed by the joint venture "Barcelona 1250" created by RTO'92, RTVE, Retevisión and PESA, with the financial support of the European Economic Community and a workforce of over 300 production and technical staff. A total of 225 hours and 45 minutes was broadcast in analog HD-MAC standard in 1,250 lines and 16:9 aspect ratio, with commentary in five languages –Spanish, English, French, German and Italian– in addition to the non-commentary sound track, of eighteen different sports at seventeen venues, as well as the opening and closing ceremonies. Events from five venues were covered live –80% of the total broadcast time– and other events were recorded for a delayed broadcast. On-screen text and graphics were shown in HDTV for the first time ever. Nearly 700 viewing sites installed throughout Europe, including the fifty HDTV receivers installed in various pavilions at the Seville Universal Exposition, were able to receive the broadcast. [21]

For Japan, NHK also covered the 1992 Summer Olympics in HDTV in their own analog Hi-Vision system. [22]


The Basque nationalist group ETA attempted to disrupt the Barcelona Games with terrorist attacks. It was already feared beforehand that ETA would use the Olympics to gain publicity for their cause in front of a worldwide audience. [23] As the time of the Games approached, [24] ETA committed attacks in Barcelona and the Catalonia region as a whole, including the deadly 1991 Vic bombing. [25] [26] On 10 July 1992, the group offered a two-month truce covering the Olympics in exchange for negotiations, which the Spanish government rejected. [27] However, the Games went ahead successfully without an attack. [28]

Effect on the city

Frank Gehry's Fish sculpture in front of the Hotel Arts (left) and the Torre Mapfre (right) in the Olympic Village neighbourhood 050529 Barcelona 049.jpg
Frank Gehry's Fish sculpture in front of the Hotel Arts (left) and the Torre Mapfre (right) in the Olympic Village neighbourhood

The celebration of the 1992 Olympic Games had an enormous impact on the urban culture and outward projection of Barcelona. The Games provided billions of dollars for infrastructure investments, which are considered to have improved the quality of life in the city, and its attraction for investment and tourism. [29] Barcelona became one of the most visited cities in Europe after Paris, London, and Rome. [30] [31]

Barcelona's nomination for the 1992 Summer Olympics sparked the implementation of an ambitious plan for urban transformation that had already been developed previously. [32] Barcelona was opened to the sea with the construction of the Olympic Village and Olympic Port in Poblenou. New centers were created, and modern sports facilities were built in the Olympic zones of Montjuïc, Diagonal, and Vall d'Hebron; hotels were also refurbished and new ones built. The construction of ring roads around the city helped to reduce traffic density, and El Prat airport was modernized and expanded with the opening of two new terminals. [33]

Cost and cost overrun

The Oxford Olympics Study [34] estimates the direct costs of the Barcelona 1992 Summer Olympics to be US$9.7 billion (expressed in 2015 U.S. dollars) with a cost overrun of 266%. This includes only sports-related costs, that is: (i) operational costs incurred by the organizing committee for the purpose of staging the Games, e.g., expenditures for technology, direct transportation, workforce, administration, security, catering, ceremonies, and medical services; and (ii) direct capital costs incurred by the host city and country or private investors to build the competition venues, the Olympic village, international broadcast center, media and press center, and similar structures required to host the Games. Costs excluded from the study are indirect capital and infrastructure costs, such as for road, rail, or airport infrastructure, or for hotel upgrades or other business investment incurred in preparation for the Games. [34] [35]

The costs for Barcelona 1992 may be compared with those of London 2012, which cost US$15 billion with a cost overrun of 76%, and those of Rio 2016 which cost US$4.6 billion with a cost overrun of 51%. The average cost for the Summer Olympics since 1960 is US$5.2 billion, with an average cost overrun of 176%. [34] [35]

Songs and themes

There were two main musical themes for the 1992 Games. The first one was "Barcelona", a classical crossover song composed five years earlier by Freddie Mercury and Mike Moran; Mercury was an admirer of lyric soprano Montserrat Caballé, both recorded the official theme as a duet. Due to Mercury's death eight months earlier, the duo was unable to perform the song together during the opening ceremony. A recording of the song instead played over a travelogue of the city at the start of the opening ceremony, seconds before the official countdown. [36] [37] "Amigos Para Siempre" (Friends for Life) was the other musical theme and it was official theme song of the 1992 Summer Olympics. It was written by Andrew Lloyd Webber and Don Black, and sung by Sarah Brightman and José Carreras during the closing ceremonies.

Ryuichi Sakamoto composed and conducted some musical pieces at the opening ceremony musical score. [38] The Opening Olympic fanfare was composed by Angelo Badalamenti and with orchestrations by Joseph Turrin.


Cobi Figureta d'en Cobi (2).jpg

The official mascot was Cobi, a Catalan sheepdog in cubist style designed by Javier Mariscal. [39] He was widely featured in merchandising products and starred his own animated television series, The Cobi Troupe . [40]

Corporate image and identity

A renewal in Barcelona's image and corporate identity could be seen in the publication of posters, commemorative coins, stamps minted by the FNMT in Madrid, and the Barcelona 1992 Olympic Official Commemorative Medals, designed and struck in Barcelona. [41]

See also

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Unified Team at the Olympics</span> Sporting event delegation

The Unified Team was the name used for the sports team of the former Soviet Union (except the Baltic states) at the 1992 Winter Olympics in Albertville and the 1992 Summer Olympics in Barcelona. The IOC country code was EUN, after the French name, Équipe unifiée. The Unified Team was sometimes informally called the CIS Team, although Georgia did not join the CIS until 1993.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Winter Olympic Games</span> Major international multi-sport event

The Winter Olympic Games is a major international multi-sport event held once every four years for sports practiced on snow and ice. The first Winter Olympic Games, the 1924 Winter Olympics, were held in Chamonix, France. The modern Olympic Games were inspired by the ancient Olympic Games, which were held in Olympia, Greece, from 776 BC to 394 AD. The Baron Pierre de Coubertin of France founded the International Olympic Committee (IOC) 1,500 years later in 1894, leading to the first modern Summer Olympic Games in Athens, Greece in 1896. The IOC is the governing body of the Olympic Movement, with the Olympic Charter defining its structure and authority. The original five Winter Olympic Sports were bobsleigh, curling, ice hockey, Nordic skiing, and skating. The Games were held every four years from 1924 to 1936, interrupted in 1940 and 1944 by World War II, and resumed in 1948. Until 1992, the Summer Olympic Games and the Winter Olympic Games were held in the same year. A decision to change this was made in 1986, when during the 91st International Olympic Committee session, IOC members decided to alternate the Summer Olympic Games and the Winter Olympic Games on separate four-year cycles in even-numbered years. Also, at that same congress it was decided that 1992 Winter Olympics would be the last to be held in the same year as the Summer Games and that to change the rotation, the edition that would be held in 1996 would be brought forward by two years, being scheduled to 1994. After this edition, the next one was to be held in 1998 when the 4-year Olympic Cycle resumed.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Juan Antonio Samaranch</span> President of the International Olympic Committee from 1980 to 2001

Juan Antonio Samaranch y Torelló, 1st Marquess of Samaranch was a Spanish sports administrator under the Franco regime (1973–1977) who served as the seventh President of the International Olympic Committee (IOC) from 1980 to 2001.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Montjuïc</span> Hill in Barcelona, Spain

Montjuïc is a hill in Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">1992 Winter Olympics</span> Multi-sport event in Albertville, France

The 1992 Winter Olympics, officially known as the XVI Olympic Winter Games and commonly known as Albertville '92, was a winter multi-sport event held from 8 to 23 February 1992 in and around Albertville, France. Albertville won the bid to host the Winter Olympics in 1986, beating Sofia, Falun, Lillehammer, Cortina d'Ampezzo, Anchorage, and Berchtesgaden. The 1992 Winter Olympics were the last winter games held in the same year as the Summer Olympics. The Games were the fifth Olympic Games held in France and the country's third Winter Olympics, after the 1924 Winter Games in Chamonix and the 1968 Winter Games in Grenoble. This games was the first of two consecutive Olympic games to be held in Western Europe, preceding the 1992 Summer Olympics in Barcelona, Spain.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">1992 Summer Paralympics</span> Multi-parasport event in Spain

The 1992 Summer Paralympics were the ninth Paralympic Games to be held. They were held in Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain. In addition, the 1992 Paralympic Games for Persons with mental handicap were held immediately after the regular Paralympics in the Spanish capital, Madrid.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Estadi Olímpic Lluís Companys</span> Stadium at Barcelona, Catalonia

Estadi Olímpic Lluís Companys is a stadium in Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain. Originally built in 1927 for the 1929 International Exposition in the city, it was renovated in 1989 to be the main stadium for the 1992 Summer Olympics and 1992 Summer Paralympics. It is the home stadium of Barcelona for the 2023–24 season, due to the renovation of their regular ground, the Camp Nou.

Basketball at the 1992 Summer Olympics was the thirteenth appearance of the sport of basketball as an official Olympic medal event. It included the sport of basketball's men's and women's competitions of the 1992 Summer Olympics. The games were played at the Pavelló Olímpic de Badalona. 12 men's teams and 8 women's teams participated in the tournament.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Basketball at the Summer Olympics</span> Sport for men consistently since 1936

Basketball at the Summer Olympics has been a sport for men consistently since 1936. Prior to its inclusion as a medal sport, basketball was held as an unofficial demonstration event in 1904 and 1924. Women's basketball made its debut in the Summer Olympics in 1976. FIBA organizes both the men's and women's FIBA World Olympic Qualifying Tournaments and the Summer Olympics basketball tournaments, which are sanctioned by the IOC.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Palau Municipal d'Esports de Badalona</span> Arena in Badalona, Catalonia

Palau Municipal d'Esports de Badalona is an arena in the Gorg area of Badalona, Catalonia, Spain. The arena holds 12,760 people, and it is primarily used for basketball, though it is also an habitual home for music concerts and other municipal events.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">1955 Mediterranean Games</span> 2nd edition of the Mediterranean Games

The 1955 Mediterranean Games, officially known as the II Mediterranean Games, and commonly known as Barcelona 1955, were the 2nd Mediterranean Games. The Games were held in Barcelona, Spain over 10 days, from 15 to 25 July 1955, where 1,135 athletes from 10 countries participated. There were a total of 102 medal events from 19 different sports. In the medals table France was first on the podium, Italy second and Spain came third.

Roller hockey was one of three demonstration sports included in the official Olympic programme of the 1992 Summer Olympics, held in Barcelona. This sport's widespread popularity and the existence of top-level competitive teams in Catalonia prompted the Organizing Committee to suggest its inclusion in the Olympic programme.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Athletics at the 1992 Summer Olympics – Men's marathon</span>

The men's marathon at the 1992 Summer Olympics in Barcelona, Spain, was held on Sunday August 9, 1992. The race started at 18:30h local time. One hundred and ten athletes from 72 nations started; 87 athletes completed the race, with Pyambuugiin Tuul from Mongolia finishing in last position in 4:00:44. The maximum number of athletes per nation had been set at 3 since the 1930 Olympic Congress. The event was won by Hwang Young-Cho of South Korea, the nation's first Olympic men's marathon medal. Koichi Morishita's silver was Japan's first medal in the event since 1968. Stephan Freigang of Germany took bronze, the first medal for Germany in the event though East Germany had won two golds during partition.

The United States' Gigi Fernández and Mary Joe Fernández defeated Spain's Conchita Martínez and Arantxa Sánchez Vicario in the final, 7–5, 2–6, 6–2 to win the gold medal in Women's Doubles tennis at the 1992 Summer Olympics. The Unified Team's Leila Meskhi and Natasha Zvereva and Australia's Rachel McQuillan and Nicole Provis won the bronze medals.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Volleyball at the 1992 Summer Olympics – Women's tournament</span>

The 1992 women's Olympic volleyball tournament was the eighth edition of the event, organised by the world's governing body, the FIVB in conjunction with the International Olympic Committee. The competition in Barcelona, Spain was held from 29 July to 8 August 1992 in three venues in the city: the Palau d'Esports, the Pavelló de la Vall d'Hebron and the Palau Sant Jordi, where the semi-finals and finals were played.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Unified Team at the Paralympics</span> Sporting event delegation

The Unified Team was the name used for the sports team of eleven former constituent republics of the Soviet Union (excluding Estonia, Georgia, Latvia, and Lithuania) at the 1992 Winter Paralympics in Albertville and the 1992 Summer Paralympics in Barcelona. The IOC country code was EUN, after the French name, Équipe Unifiée.

The Camp Olímpic de Tir amb Arc was a temporary venue located in Barcelona. It hosted the archery competitions for the 1992 Summer Olympics. It was located in a site at the Ronda de Dalt, next to the Pavelló de la Vall d'Hebron, in the Barcelona district of Horta-Guinardó.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Venues of the 1992 Summer Olympics</span>

For the 1992 Summer Olympics in Barcelona, a total of forty-three sports venues were used.

Barcelona, the capital of Catalonia, is the second largest city and metropolitan area in Spain and sixth-most populous urban area in the European Union. It has hosted many major international tournaments and has professional teams in different sports.

The closing ceremony of the 1992 Summer Olympics took place at Estadi Olímpic de Montjuïc in Barcelona, Spain, on 9 August 1992.


  1. 1 2 "Factsheet - Opening Ceremony of the Games of the Olympiad" (PDF) (Press release). International Olympic Committee. 9 October 2014. Archived (PDF) from the original on 14 August 2016. Retrieved 22 December 2018.
  2. "Albertville 1992". www.olympic.org. Archived from the original on 7 January 2014. Retrieved 12 March 2010.
  3. "Barcelona 1992 Summer Olympics | Olympic Videos, Photos, News". Olympic.org. Retrieved 4 December 2011.
  4. Wren, Christopher S. (7 November 1991). "OLYMPICS; an Era Ends, Another Begins: South Africa to Go to Olympics". The New York Times.
  5. "IOC Vote History". Aldaver.com. Archived from the original on 25 May 2008. Retrieved 4 December 2011.
  6. "Philip Barker: An Olympic passage to India 40 years ago". 6 October 2023.
  7. Miller, Judith (18 October 1986). "Barcelona gets 1992 Summer Olympics" (Archives). The New York Times .
  8. "Past Olympic Host City Election Results". Archived from the original on 30 June 2011.
  9. "Ciudad Olímpica: La parábola del suspiro" [Olympic City: The parable of the sigh]. La Vanguardia (in Spanish). 27 July 1992. p. 36.
  10. "Ceremonial hall of shame". BBC News . 15 September 2000. Retrieved 27 March 2010.
  11. Official Report of the Games of the XXV Olympiad, Barcelona 1992, v.4. LA84 Foundation. 1992. p. 72. ISBN   84-7868-097-7. The arrow described an arc and lit the gas issuing from the cauldron; the flame soared up to a height of three metres.
  12. "Barcelona 1992: Did you know?". IOC. 2002. Archived from the original on 4 April 2002.
  13. "Hall of Famers: 1992 United States Olympic Team". Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame. Archived from the original on 18 August 2010. Retrieved 15 October 2015.
  14. "Fermin Cacho Ruiz". Olympic.org. Retrieved 25 August 2013.
  15. Arnold, Chloe (11 February 2012). "Hassiba Boulmerka: Defying death threats to win gold". BBC News . Algiers.
  16. Farber, Michael (30 July 1996). "On the Bright Side". CNN/SI. Archived from the original on 16 September 2000.
  17. 1 2 1992 Olympics Official Report. Part IV. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 December 2018. Retrieved 24 October 2012. List of participants by NOC's and sport.
  18. 1 2 3 Barcelona 1992 Opening Ceremony - Full Length on YouTube
  19. 1 2 3 Official Report of the Games of the XXV Olympiad, Barcelona 1992. Vol. 3. International Olympic Committee. 1992. pp. 64–69. Retrieved 11 November 2022.
  20. Miquel de Moragas, Nancy Kay Rivenburgh, ed. (1995). Television in the Olympics : international research project (illustrated ed.). James F. Larson. pp. 257–260. ISBN   978-0861965380 . Retrieved 27 April 2013.
  21. Romero, M.; Gavilán, E. (Winter 1992). "HDTV coverage of the Barcelona Olympic Games" (PDF). EBU Technical Review. European Broadcasting Union: 16–24. Archived (PDF) from the original on 6 July 2011. Retrieved 13 November 2022.
  22. Yukio, Omori (1993). "Current State of Japanese HDTV" (PDF). Journal of Japanese Trade & Industry (6): 36–38. Retrieved 14 November 2022.
  23. Fussey, Pete; Coaffee, Jon; Hobbs, Dick (April 2011). Securing and Sustaining the Olympic City: Reconfiguring London for 2012 and Beyond. Routledge. p. 48. ISBN   9780754679455.
  24. "CTV News - CTV News Channel". www.ctvnews.ca. Retrieved 17 January 2019.
  25. "Spain Tackles Terrorist Threat By Basques to Olympics, Expo". Christian Science Monitor. 1 April 1992. Retrieved 17 January 2019.
  26. Finkelstein, Beth; Koch, Noel (11 August 1991). "The Threat to the Games in Spain". The Washington Post . Archived from the original on 30 July 2018.
  27. "Eta rebuffed" . The Independent. 13 July 1992. Archived from the original on 1 May 2022. Retrieved 17 January 2019.
  28. Thompson, Wayne C (31 August 2017). Western Europe 2017-2018. Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN   9781475835090.
  29. Brunet, Ferran (2005). "The economic impact of the Barcelona Olympic Games, 1986–2004" (PDF). Autonomous University of Barcelona. Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 April 2009.
  30. Payne, Bob (6 August 2008). "The Olympics Effect". MSNBC. Archived from the original on 2 September 2008.
  31. Bremner, Caroline (11 October 2007). "Top 150 City Destinations: London Leads the Way". Euromonitor International. Archived from the original on 1 September 2009.
  32. Brunet, Ferran (1995). "An economic analysis of the Barcelona '92 Olympic Games: resources, financing, and impact" (PDF). Autonomous University of Barcelona. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 September 2017.
  33. Beard, Matthew (22 March 2011). "Lessons of Barcelona: 1992 Games provided model for London... and few warnings". London Evening Standard. Archived from the original on 5 April 2011. Retrieved 31 March 2011.
  34. 1 2 3 Flyvbjerg, Bent; Stewart, Allison; Budzier, Alexander (2016). The Oxford Olympics Study 2016: Cost and Cost Overrun at the Games. Oxford: Saïd Business School Working Papers (Oxford: University of Oxford). pp. 18–20. SSRN   2804554.
  35. 1 2 Joe Myers (29 July 2016). "The cost of hosting every Olympics since 1964" (Based on working paper from The University of Oxford and Said Business School). World Economic Forum.
  36. "Barcelona 92: 11 momentos inolvidables de aquellos Juegos Olímpicos (VÍDEOS, FOTOS)". The Huffington Post (in Spanish). 25 July 2012. Retrieved 7 September 2016.
  37. "Barcelona 92: inicio de la ceremonia". YouTube. Archived from the original on 21 December 2011. Retrieved 23 March 2011.
  38. Illness, Critical (3 September 2010). "Doreen D'Agostino Media " Ryuichi Sakamoto and Decca". Doreendagostinomedia.com. Retrieved 23 March 2011.
  39. "Barcelona 1992 - Summer Games Mascots". Olympic.org. IOC. Retrieved 15 October 2015.
  40. Guiral, Antoni (3 April 1991). ""The Cobi Troupe" will be released in Spain next October". El País (in Spanish). Retrieved 7 May 2023.
  41. "Catálogo de Monedas: Moneda | Various Pesetas (Mint set 1992)" (in Spanish). Connect | FNMT. 2020.
External videos
Nuvola apps kaboodle.svg Official Film - Barcelona 1992 Olympic Games on YouTube
Summer Olympics
Preceded by XXV Olympiad

Succeeded by

41°21′51″N2°09′08″E / 41.36417°N 2.15222°E / 41.36417; 2.15222