1992 Summer Olympics

Last updated

Games of the XXV Olympiad
1992 Summer Olympics logo.svg
Host city Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain [1]
MottoFriends For Life
(Spanish: Amigos para siempre, Catalan: Amics per sempre)
Nations169
Athletes9,356 (6,652 men, 2,704 women)
Events257 in 25 sports (34 disciplines)
Opening 25 July
Closing 9 August
Opened by
Cauldron
Stadium Estadi Olímpic Lluís Companys
Summer

The 1992 Summer Olympics (Spanish : Juegos Olímpicos de Verano de 1992, Catalan : Jocs Olímpics d'estiu de 1992), officially known as the Games of the XXV Olympiad (Spanish : Juegos de la XXV Olimpiada, Catalan : Jocs de la XXV Olimpíada) and commonly known as Barcelona '92, were an international multi-sport event held from 25 July to 9 August 1992 in Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain. This was the first and to date only Summer Olympics to be held in the country. Beginning in 1994, the International Olympic Committee decided to hold the Summer and Winter Olympics in alternating even-numbered years. 1992 was the last year in which both the Summer and Winter Olympics were staged. [3] The 1992 Summer Games were the first since the end of the Cold War, and the first unaffected by boycotts since the 1972 Summer Games. [4] 1992 was also the first year South Africa was re-invited to the Olympic Games by the International Olympic Committee, after a 32-year ban from participating in international sport. [5] The Unified Team (made up by the former Soviet republics without the Baltic states) topped the medal table, winning 45 gold and 112 overall medals.

Contents

Host city selection

Barcelona is the second-largest city in Spain and the capital of the autonomous community of Catalonia, and the hometown of then-IOC president Juan Antonio Samaranch. The city was also a host for the 1982 FIFA World Cup. On 17 October 1986, Barcelona was selected to host the 1992 Summer Olympics over Amsterdam, Netherlands; Belgrade, Yugoslavia; Birmingham, United Kingdom; Brisbane, Queensland, Australia; and Paris, France, during the 91st IOC Session in Lausanne, Switzerland. [6] With 85 out of 89 members of the IOC voting by secret ballot, Barcelona won a majority of 47 votes. Samaranch abstained from voting. In the same IOC meeting, Albertville, France, won the right to host the 1992 Winter Games. Paris and Brisbane would eventually be selected to host the 2024 and 2032 Summer Olympics respectively. [7]

Barcelona had previously bid for the 1936 Summer Olympics that were ultimately held in Berlin.

1992 Summer Olympics bidding results [8]
CityNOC NameRound 1Round 2Round 3
Barcelona Flag of Spain.svg  Spain 293747
Paris Flag of France.svg  France 192023
Brisbane Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia 11910
Belgrade Flag of Yugoslavia (1946-1992).svg  Yugoslavia 13115
Birmingham Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  Great Britain 88
Amsterdam Flag of the Netherlands.svg  Netherlands 5

Highlights

The Olympic cauldron lit during the Games Barcelona AUGUST 1992 the Olympic Games (Juegos Olimpicos de Barcelona 1992) - panoramio.jpg
The Olympic cauldron lit during the Games
David Robinson shoots a free throw to help secure the gold medal for the United States "Dream Team". Dream Team at the 1992 Summer Olympics.JPEG
David Robinson shoots a free throw to help secure the gold medal for the United States "Dream Team".

Records

Venues

Anella Olimpica from above BCN-EstadiOlimpic-4860.jpg
Anella Olímpica from above
Estadi Olimpic de Montjuic Estadi Olimpic Lluis Companys Karsten Knoefler.jpg
Estadi Olímpic de Montjuïc
Palau Sant Jordi Barcelona Palau Sant Jordi.jpg
Palau Sant Jordi
Piscina Municipal de Montjuic Piscina Municipal de Montjuic - vista general.JPG
Piscina Municipal de Montjuïc
Canal Olimpic de Catalunya Canal Olimpic Catalunya FACILITIES.JPG
Canal Olímpic de Catalunya

Medals awarded

The 1992 Summer Olympic programme featured 257 events in the following 25 sports:

1992 Summer Olympics Sports Programme

Demonstration sports

Participating National Olympic Committees

Participants 1992 Summer Olympic games countries.png
Participants
Participating countries by number of competitors 1992 Summer olympics team numbers.gif
Participating countries by number of competitors

A total of 169 nations sent athletes to compete in the 1992 Summer Games.

With the dissolution of the Soviet Union, twelve of the fifteen new states chose to form a Unified Team, while the Baltic States of Estonia and Latvia sent their own teams for the first time since 1936, and Lithuania sent its own team for the first time since 1928. For the first time, Croatia, Slovenia and Bosnia-Herzegovina competed as independent nations after their separation from Socialist Yugoslavia, and Namibia and the unified team of Yemen (previously North and South Yemen) also made their Olympic debuts.

The 1992 Summer Olympics notably marked Germany competing as a unified team for the first time since 1964. South Africa returned to the Games for the first time in 32 years.

The Federal Republic of Yugoslavia was banned due to UN sanctions, but individual Yugoslav athletes were allowed to take part as Independent Olympic Participants. Four then-existing National Olympic Committees did not send any athletes to compete: Afghanistan, Brunei, Liberia and Somalia.

Participating National Olympic Committees
  • Flag of Brunei.svg  Brunei participated in the Opening Ceremony, but its delegation consisted of only one official. This also occurred in the 1988 Games. [17] [18]
  • Flag of Afghanistan (1987-1992).svg  Afghanistan didn't send their athletes to compete, but the country took part in the Parade of Nations. Apparently its flag was carried by an volunteer from the Barcelona Organising Committee. [18]
  • Flag of Liberia.svg  Liberia and Flag of Somalia.svg  Somalia also participated in the Opening Ceremony, but its accredited athletes (five and two, respectively) did not enter to compete. [17] [18]

Number of athletes by National Olympic Committee

9,356 athletes from 169 NOCs

IOC CountryAthletes
USAFlag of the United States.svg  United States 545
ESPFlag of Spain.svg  Spain 489
GERFlag of Germany.svg  Germany 485

Calendar

All times are in Central European Summer Time (UTC+2)
OCOpening ceremonyEvent competitions1Gold medal eventsCCClosing ceremony
July/August 1992JulyAugustEvents
24th
Fri
25th
Sat
26th
Sun
27th
Mon
28th
Tue
29th
Wed
30th
Thu
31st
Fri
1st
Sat
2nd
Sun
3rd
Mon
4th
Tue
5th
Wed
6th
Thu
7th
Fri
8th
Sat
9th
Sun
Olympic Rings Icon.svg Ceremonies OC CC N/A
Aquatics Diving pictogram.svg Diving 1111139
Swimming pictogram.svg Swimming 455566
Synchronized swimming pictogram.svg Synchronized swimming 11
Water polo pictogram.svg Water polo 1
Archery pictogram.svg Archery 1124
Athletics pictogram.svg Athletics 24465669143
Badminton pictogram.svg Badminton 44
Baseball pictogram.svg Baseball 11
Basketball pictogram.svg Basketball 112
Boxing pictogram.svg Boxing 6612
Canoeing Canoeing (slalom) pictogram.svg Slalom2216
Canoeing (flatwater) pictogram.svg Sprint66
Cycling Cycling (road) pictogram.svg Road cycling2110
Cycling (track) pictogram.svg Track cycling115
Equestrian pictogram.svg Equestrian 211116
Fencing pictogram.svg Fencing 111111118
Field hockey pictogram.svg Field hockey 112
Football pictogram.svg Football 11
Gymnastics Gymnastics (artistic) pictogram.svg Artistic11114615
Gymnastics (rhythmic) pictogram.svg Rhythmic1
Handball pictogram.svg Handball 22
Judo pictogram.svg Judo 222222214
Modern pentathlon pictogram.svg Modern pentathlon 22
Rowing pictogram.svg Rowing 7714
Sailing pictogram.svg Sailing 27110
Shooting pictogram.svg Shooting 2221221113
Table tennis pictogram.svg Table tennis 11114
Tennis pictogram.svg Tennis 224
Volleyball (indoor) pictogram.svg Volleyball 112
Weightlifting pictogram.svg Weightlifting 111111219
Wrestling pictogram.svg Wrestling 33433420
Daily medal events91214171919223018111212223010257
Cumulative total92135527190112142160171183195217247257
July/August 199224th
Fri
25th
Sat
26th
Sun
27th
Mon
28th
Tue
29th
Wed
30th
Thu
31st
Fri
1st
Sat
2nd
Sun
3rd
Mon
4th
Tue
5th
Wed
6th
Thu
7th
Fri
8th
Sat
9th
Sun
Total events
JulyAugust

Medal count

The following table reflects the top ten nations in terms of total medals won at the 1992 Games (the host nation is highlighted).

RankNationGoldSilverBronzeTotal
1Olympic flag.svg  Unified Team 453829112
2Flag of the United States.svg  United States 373437108
3Flag of Germany.svg  Germany 33212882
4Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  China 16221654
5Flag of Cuba.svg  Cuba 1461131
6Flag of Spain.svg  Spain*137222
7Flag of South Korea (1984-1997).svg  South Korea 1251229
8Flag of Hungary.svg  Hungary 1112730
9Flag of France.svg  France 851629
10Flag of Australia.svg  Australia 791127
Totals (10 nations)196159169524

Broadcast rights

The 1992 Summer Olympics were covered by the following television and radio broadcasters: [19]

TerritoryTelevisionRadio
Flag of Algeria.svg  Algeria ENTV
Flag of Argentina.svg  Argentina
Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia Seven Network ABC
Flag of Austria.svg  Austria ORF ORF
Flag of Belarus (1918, 1991-1995).svg  Belarus btv
Flag of Belgium (civil).svg  Belgium
Flag of Brazil.svg  Brazil
Flag of Bulgaria.svg  Bulgaria BNT
Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada
Flag of Chile.svg  Chile
Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  China CCTV CPBS
Flag of Colombia.svg  Colombia Canal A
Flag of Croatia.svg  Croatia HRT HRT
Flag of Cuba.svg  Cuba ICRT ICRT
Flag of Cyprus.svg  Cyprus CyBC
Flag of the Czech Republic.svg  Czechoslovakia ČST Czechoslovak Radio
Flag of Denmark.svg  Denmark DR DR
Flag of Egypt.svg  Egypt ERTU ERTU
Flag of Estonia.svg  Estonia ETV
Flag of Finland.svg  Finland Yle Yle
Flag of France.svg  France
Flag of Germany.svg  Germany ARD
Flag of Greece.svg  Greece ERT ERT
Flag of Hong Kong 1959.svg  Hong Kong
Flag of Hungary.svg  Hungary MTV Magyar Rádió
Flag of Iceland.svg  Iceland RÚV RÚV
Flag of India.svg  India Doordarshan
Flag of Indonesia.svg  Indonesia Radio Republik Indonesia
Flag of Iran.svg  Iran Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting
Flag of Ireland.svg  Ireland RTÉ RTÉ
Flag of Israel.svg  Israel IBA IBA
Flag of Italy.svg  Italy RAI RAI
Flag of Japan (1870-1999).svg  Japan
Flag of Jordan.svg  Jordan JRTV
Flag of Lebanon.svg  Lebanon Télé Liban
Flag of Libya (1977-2011).svg  Libya LJBC
Flag of Lithuania.svg  Lithuania LTV
Flag of Luxembourg.svg  Luxembourg RTL RTL
Flag of Portugal.svg  Macau TDM
Flag of Malaysia.svg  Malaysia
RTM
Flag of Malta.svg  Malta MBA
Flag of Mexico.svg  Mexico Televisa
Flag of Monaco.svg  Monaco RMC RMC
Flag of Mongolia.svg  Mongolia Mongolian TV
Flag of Morocco.svg  Morocco RTM RTM
Flag of the Netherlands.svg  Netherlands NOS NOS
Flag of New Zealand.svg  New Zealand TVNZ RNZ
Flag of Norway.svg  Norway NRK NRK
Flag of Pakistan.svg  Pakistan PTV PBC
Flag of the Philippines (navy blue).svg  Philippines ABS-CBN
Flag of Poland.svg  Poland TVP PR S.A.
Flag of Portugal.svg  Portugal RTP RDP
Flag of Puerto Rico (1952-1995).svg  Puerto Rico WIPR
Flag of Romania.svg  Romania TVR Radio România
Flag of Russia (1991-1993).svg  Russia
Flag of Singapore.svg  Singapore SBC Channel 12
Flag of Slovenia.svg  Slovenia RTVSLO RTVSLO
Flag of South Africa (1982-1994).svg  South Africa SABC
Flag of South Korea (1984-1997).svg  South Korea
Flag of Spain.svg  Spain TVE (host broadcaster)
Flag of Sweden.svg  Sweden SVT SR
Flag of Switzerland.svg   Switzerland SRG SSR
Flag of the Republic of China.svg  Taiwan
Flag of Thailand.svg  Thailand
Flag of Tunisia.svg  Tunisia ERTT
Flag of Turkey.svg  Turkey TRT TRT
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom BBC One BBC Radio 4
Flag of the United States.svg  United States NBC West Coast Talk Radio
Flag of Venezuela (1954-2006).svg  Venezuela Venevisión

Terrorism

The Basque nationalist group ETA attempted to disrupt the Barcelona Games with terrorist attacks. It was already feared beforehand that ETA would use the Olympics to gain publicity for their cause in front of a worldwide audience. [20] As the time of the Games approached, [21] ETA committed attacks in Barcelona and the Catalonia region as a whole, including the deadly 1991 Vic bombing. [22] [23] On 10 July 1992, the group offered a two-month truce covering the Olympics in exchange for negotiations, which the Spanish government rejected. [24] However, the Games went ahead successfully without an attack. [25]

Effect on the city

Frank Gehry's Fish sculpture in front of the Hotel Arts (left) and the Torre Mapfre (right) in the Olympic Village neighbourhood 050529 Barcelona 049.jpg
Frank Gehry's Fish sculpture in front of the Hotel Arts (left) and the Torre Mapfre (right) in the Olympic Village neighbourhood

The celebration of the 1992 Olympic Games had an enormous impact on the urban culture and outward projection of Barcelona. The Games provided billions of dollars for infrastructure investments, which are considered to have improved the quality of life in the city, and its attraction for investment and tourism. [26] Barcelona became one of the most visited cities in Europe after Paris, London, and Rome. [27] [28]

Barcelona's nomination for the 1992 Summer Olympics sparked the implementation of an ambitious plan for urban transformation that had already been developed previously. [29] Barcelona was opened to the sea with the construction of the Olympic Village and Olympic Port in Poblenou. New centers were created, and modern sports facilities were built in the Olympic zones of Montjuïc, Diagonal, and Vall d'Hebron; hotels were also refurbished and new ones built. The construction of ring roads around the city helped to reduce traffic density, and El Prat airport was modernized and expanded with the opening of two new terminals. [30]

Cost and cost overrun

The Oxford Olympics Study [31] estimates the direct costs of the Barcelona 1992 Summer Olympics to be US$9.7 billion (expressed in 2015 U.S. dollars) with a cost overrun of 266%. This includes only sports-related costs, that is: (i) operational costs incurred by the organizing committee for the purpose of staging the Games, e.g., expenditures for technology, direct transportation, workforce, administration, security, catering, ceremonies, and medical services; and (ii) direct capital costs incurred by the host city and country or private investors to build the competition venues, the Olympic village, international broadcast center, media and press center, and similar structures required to host the Games. Costs excluded from the study are indirect capital and infrastructure costs, such as for road, rail, or airport infrastructure, or for hotel upgrades or other business investment incurred in preparation for the Games. [31] [32]

The costs for Barcelona 1992 may be compared with those of London 2012, which cost US$15 billion with a cost overrun of 76%, and those of Rio 2016 which cost US$4.6 billion with a cost overrun of 51%. The average cost for the Summer Olympics since 1960 is US$5.2 billion, with an average cost overrun of 176%. [31] [32]

Songs and themes

There were two main musical themes for the 1992 Games. The first one was "Barcelona", a classical crossover song composed five years earlier by Freddie Mercury and Mike Moran; Mercury was an admirer of lyric soprano Montserrat Caballé, both recorded the official theme as a duet. Due to Mercury's death eight months earlier, the duo was unable to perform the song together during the opening ceremony. A recording of the song instead played over a travelogue of the city at the start of the opening ceremony, seconds before the official countdown. [33] [34] "Amigos Para Siempre" (Friends for Life) was the other musical theme. It was written by Andrew Lloyd Webber and Don Black, and sung by Sarah Brightman and José Carreras during the closing ceremonies.

Ryuichi Sakamoto composed and conducted some musical pieces at the opening ceremony musical score. [35] The Opening Olympic fanfare was composed by Angelo Badalamenti and with orchestrations by Joseph Turrin.

Mascot

Cobi Figureta d'en Cobi (2).jpg
Cobi

The official mascot was Cobi, a Catalan sheepdog in cubist style designed by Javier Mariscal. [36]

Corporate image and identity

A renewal in Barcelona's image and corporate identity could be seen in the publication of posters, commemorative coins, stamps minted by the FNMT in Madrid, and the Barcelona 1992 Olympic Official Commemorative Medals, designed and struck in Barcelona. [37]

See also

Related Research Articles

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Juan Antonio Samaranch 7th president of the International Olympic Committee from 1980 to 2001

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Montjuïc

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Estadi Olímpic Lluís Companys

Estadi Olímpic Lluís Companys is a stadium in Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain. Originally built in 1927 for the 1929 International Exposition in the city, it was renovated in 1989 to be the main stadium for the 1992 Summer Olympics and 1992 Summer Paralympics.

Belarus at the Olympics Sporting event delegation

Athletes from Belarus began their Olympic participation at the 1952 Summer Games in Helsinki, Finland, as part of the Soviet Union. After the Soviet Union disbanded in 1991, Belarus, along with four of the other fourteen former Soviet republics, competed in the 1992 Winter Olympics as the Unified Team. Later in 1992, Belarus joined eleven republics to compete as the Unified Team at the Summer Games in Barcelona, Spain. Two years later, Belarus competed for the first time as an independent nation in the 1994 Winter Olympics, held in Lillehammer, Norway. Since 1994, Belarus has won medals at each Winter and Summer Olympics it has participated in.

Basketball at the Summer Olympics Sport for men consistently since 1936

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Sarrià Stadium

Sarrià Stadium was a football stadium in Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain. The stadium was the home of RCD Espanyol from 1923 to 1997, and was located in the district of Sarrià.

The modern pentathlon at the 1992 Summer Olympics was represented by two events : Individual competition and Team competition. As usual in Olympic modern pentathlon, one competition was held and each competitor's score was included to the Individual competition event results table and was also added to his teammates' scores to be included to the Team competition event results table. This competition consisted of 5 disciplines:

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Palau Municipal dEsports de Badalona Arena in Badalona, Catalonia

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1955 Mediterranean Games

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Roller hockey (quad) was one of three demonstration sports included in the official Olympic programme of the 1992 Summer Olympics, held in Barcelona. This sport's widespread popularity and the existence of top-level competitive teams in Catalonia prompted the Organizing Committee to suggest its inclusion in the Olympic programme.

Athletics at the 1992 Summer Olympics – Mens marathon Mens marathon events at the Olympics

The men's marathon at the 1992 Summer Olympics in Barcelona, Spain, was held on Sunday August 9, 1992. The race started at 18:30h local time. One hundred and ten athletes from 72 nations started; 87 athletes completed the race, with Pyambuugiin Tuul from Mongolia finishing in last position in 4:00:44. The maximum number of athletes per nation had been set at 3 since the 1930 Olympic Congress. The event was won by Hwang Young-Cho of South Korea, the nation's first Olympic men's marathon medal. Koichi Morishita's silver was Japan's first medal in the event since 1968. Stephan Freigang of Germany took bronze, the first medal for Germany in the event though East Germany had won two golds during partition.

Volleyball at the 1992 Summer Olympics – Womens tournament Womens volleyball events at the Olympics

The 1992 women's Olympic volleyball tournament was the eighth edition of the event, organised by the world's governing body, the FIVB in conjunction with the International Olympic Committee. The competition in Barcelona, Spain was held from 29 July to 8 August 1992 in three venues in the city: the Palau d'Esports, the Pavelló de la Vall d'Hebron and the Palau Sant Jordi, where the semi-finals and finals were played.

The 1992 Barcelona Dragons season was the second season for the franchise in the World League of American Football (WLAF). The team was led by head coach Jack Bicknell in his second year, and played its home games at Estadi Olímpic de Montjuïc in Barcelona, Spain. They finished the regular season in first place of the European Division with a record of five wins and five losses. In the WLAF semifinals, the Dragons lost to the Sacramento Surge 17–15.

Venues of the 1992 Summer Olympics

For the 1992 Summer Olympics in Barcelona, a total of forty-three sports venues were used.

Barcelona, the capital of Catalonia, is the second largest city and metropolitan area in Spain and sixth-most populous urban area in the European Union. It has hosted many major international tournaments and has professional teams in different sports.

The women's field hockey tournament at the 1992 Summer Olympics was the 4th edition of the field hockey event for women at the Summer Olympic Games. It was held over a twelve-day period beginning on 27 July, and culminating with the medal finals on 7 August. All games were played at the Estadi Olímpic de Terrassa in Terrassa, Spain, located 30 kilometers from Barcelona.

The closing ceremony of the 1992 Summer Olympics took place at Estadi Olímpic Lluís Companys in Barcelona, Spain, on 9 August 1992.

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External video
Nuvola apps kaboodle.svg Official Film - Barcelona 1992 Olympic Games on YouTube
Summer Olympics
Preceded by XXV Olympiad
Barcelona

1992
Succeeded by

Coordinates: 41°21′51″N2°09′08″E / 41.36417°N 2.15222°E / 41.36417; 2.15222