1992 Summer Olympics

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Games of the XXV Olympiad
1992 Summer Olympics logo.svg
Host city Barcelona, Spain
MottoFriends For Life
(Catalan: Amics Per Sempre)
(Spanish: Amigos Para Siempre)
Nations169
Athletes9,356 (6,652 men, 2,704 women)
Events257 in 25 sports (34 disciplines)
Opening 25 July
Closing 9 August
Opened by
Cauldron
Stadium Estadi Olímpic Lluís Companys
Summer
Seoul 1988 Atlanta 1996
Winter
Albertville 1992 Lillehammer 1994

The 1992 Summer Olympic Games (Spanish: Juegos Olímpicos de Verano de 1992; Catalan: Jocs Olímpics d'estiu de 1992), officially known as the Games of the XXV Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event celebrated in Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain from 25 July to 9 August 1992.

Spanish language Romance language

Spanish or Castilian is a Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in the Americas and Spain. It is a global language and the world's second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese.

Catalan language Romance language

Catalan is a Western Romance language derived from Vulgar Latin and named after the medieval Principality of Catalonia, in northeastern modern Spain. It is the only official language of Andorra, and a co-official language of the Spanish autonomous communities of Catalonia, the Balearic Islands and Valencia. It also has semi-official status in the Italian commune of Alghero. It is also spoken in the eastern strip of Aragon, in some villages of Region of Murcia called Carche and in the Pyrénées-Orientales department of France. These territories are often called Països Catalans or "Catalan Countries".

A multi-sport event is an organized sporting event, often held over multiple days, featuring competition in many different sports among organized teams of athletes from (mostly) nation-states. The first major, modern, multi-sport event of international significance is the modern Olympic Games.

Contents

Beginning in 1994, the International Olympic Committee decided to hold the games in alternating even-numbered years; as a result, the 1992 Summer Olympics were the last competition to be staged in the same year as the Winter Olympics. [2] The games were the first to be unaffected by boycotts since 1972 [3] and the first summer games since the end of the Cold War.

International Olympic Committee ruling body of the Olympic movement

The International Olympic Committee is a non-governmental sports organisation based in Lausanne, Switzerland. Created by Pierre de Coubertin and Demetrios Vikelas in 1894, it is the authority responsible for organising the modern Summer and Winter Olympic Games.

The Unified Team topped the medal table, winning 45 gold and 112 overall medals.

Unified Team at the 1992 Summer Olympics

The Unified Team at the 1992 Summer Olympics in Barcelona, Spain, was a joint team consisting of twelve of the fifteen former Soviet republics that chose to compete together. Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania competed separately. The team has been informally called the Commonwealth of Independent States team, though Georgia was not yet a member of the CIS when it competed as part of the Unified Team. It competed under the IOC country code EUN. A total of 475 competitors, 310 men and 165 women, took part in 234 events in 27 sports.

Host city selection

Barcelona is the second-largest city in Spain, and the hometown of then-IOC president Juan Antonio Samaranch. The city was also a host for the 1982 FIFA World Cup. On 17 October 1986, Barcelona was selected to host the 1992 Summer Games over Amsterdam, The Netherlands; Belgrade, Yugoslavia; Birmingham, UK; Brisbane, Australia; and Paris, France, during the 91st IOC Session in Lausanne, Switzerland. [4] With 85 out of 89 members of the IOC voting by secret ballot, Barcelona won a majority of 47 votes. Samaranch abstained from voting. In the same IOC meeting, Albertville, France, won the right to host the 1992 Winter Games. [5]

Juan Antonio Samaranch IOC president 1980–2001

Juan Antonio Samaranch y Torelló, 1st Marquess of Samaranch was a Spanish sports administrator and minister of sports under the Franco regime (1973–1977) who served as the seventh President of the International Olympic Committee (IOC) from 1980 to 2001. Samaranch served the second-longest term as the head of the IOC, the longest being that of Pierre de Coubertin.

1982 FIFA World Cup 1982 edition of the FIFA World Cup

The 1982 FIFA World Cup was the 12th FIFA World Cup, played in Spain between 13 June and 11 July 1982. The tournament was won by Italy, who defeated West Germany 3–1 in the final match, held in the Spanish capital of Madrid. It was Italy's third World Cup win, but their first since 1938. The defending champions, Argentina, were eliminated in the second group round. Algeria, Cameroon, Honduras, Kuwait and New Zealand made their first appearances in the finals.

Amsterdam Capital city of the Netherlands and municipality

Amsterdam is the capital city and most populous municipality of the Netherlands. Its status as the capital is mandated by the Constitution of the Netherlands, although it is not the seat of the government, which is The Hague. Amsterdam has a population of 854,047 within the city proper, 1,357,675 in the urban area and 2,410,960 in the metropolitan area. The city is located in the province of North Holland in the west of the country but is not its capital, which is Haarlem. The Amsterdam metropolitan area comprises much of the northern part of the Randstad, one of the larger conurbations in Europe, which has a population of approximately 8.1 million.

Barcelona had previously bid for the 1936 Summer Olympics, but they ultimately lost to Berlin.

1936 Summer Olympics games of the XI Olympiad, celebrated in Berlin in 1936

The 1936 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XI Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event held in 1936 in Berlin, Nazi Germany. Berlin won the bid to host the Games over Barcelona, Spain, on 26 April 1931, at the 29th IOC Session in Barcelona. It marked the second and final time the International Olympic Committee gathered to vote in a city that was bidding to host those Games.

Berlin Capital of Germany

Berlin is the capital and largest city of Germany by both area and population. Its 3,748,148 (2018) inhabitants make it the second most populous city proper of the European Union after London. The city is one of Germany's 16 federal states. It is surrounded by the state of Brandenburg, and contiguous with its capital, Potsdam. The two cities are at the center of the Berlin-Brandenburg capital region, which is, with about six million inhabitants and an area of more than 30,000 km², Germany's third-largest metropolitan region after the Rhine-Ruhr and Rhine-Main regions.

1992 Summer Olympics bidding results [6]
CityNOC NameRound 1Round 2Round 3
Barcelona Flag of Spain.svg  Spain 293747
Paris Flag of France.svg  France 192023
Brisbane Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia 11910
Belgrade Flag of Yugoslavia (1946-1992).svg  Yugoslavia 13115
Birmingham Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  Great Britain 88
Amsterdam Flag of the Netherlands.svg  Netherlands 5

Highlights

David Robinson shoots a free throw for the gold-medal winning United States "Dream Team". Dream Team at the 1992 Summer Olympics.JPEG
David Robinson shoots a free throw for the gold-medal winning United States "Dream Team".
Agnes Baltsa Greek mezzo-soprano

Agni Baltsa is a leading Greek mezzo-soprano singer.

Alfredo Kraus Spanish singer

Alfredo Kraus Trujillo was a distinguished Spanish tenor from the Canary islands, particularly known for the artistry he brought to opera's bel canto roles. He was also considered an outstanding interpreter of the title role in Massenet's opera Werther, and especially of its famous aria, "Pourquoi me réveiller?"

Olympic Hymn choral cantata by Spyridon Samaras

The Olympic Hymn, also known informally as the Olympic Anthem, is a choral cantata by opera composer Spyridon Samaras (1861-1917), with lyrics by Greek poet Kostis Palamas. Both poet and composer were the choice of the Greek Demetrius Vikelas, who was the first President of the International Olympic Committee.

Records

Venues

Estadi Olimpic de Montjuic Barcelona stadium.JPG
Estadi Olímpic de Montjuïc
Palau Sant Jordi and Montjuic Communications Tower Palau San Jordi Torre Calatrava Barcelona.jpg
Palau Sant Jordi and Montjuïc Communications Tower

Medals awarded

The 1992 Summer Olympic programme featured 257 events in the following 25 sports:

Demonstration sports

Calendar

All times are in Central European Summer Time (UTC+2)
  Opening ceremony  Event competitions  Event finals  Closing ceremony
DateJulyAugust
24th
Fri
25th
Sat
26th
Sun
27th
Mon
28th
Tue
29th
Wed
30th
Thu
31st
Fri
1st
Sat
2nd
Sun
3rd
Mon
4th
Tue
5th
Wed
6th
Thu
7th
Fri
8th
Sat
9th
Sun
Archery
Athletics







Badminton
Baseball
Basketball
Boxing

Canoeing

Cycling
Diving
Equestrian
Fencing
Field hockey
Football
Gymnastics

Handball
Judo
Modern pentathlon
Rowing


Sailing
Shooting
Swimming





Synchronized swimming
Table tennis
Tennis
Volleyball
Water polo
Weightlifting
Wrestling





Total gold medals91214171919223018111212223010
Ceremonies
Date24th
Fri
25th
Sat
26th
Sun
27th
Mon
28th
Tue
29th
Wed
30th
Thu
31st
Fri
1st
Sat
2nd
Sun
3rd
Mon
4th
Tue
5th
Wed
6th
Thu
7th
Fri
8th
Sat
9th
Sun
JulyAugust

Participating National Olympic Committees

Participants 1992 Summer Olympic games countries.png
Participants
Participating countries by number of competitors 1992 Summer olympics team numbers.gif
Participating countries by number of competitors

A total of 169 nations sent athletes to compete in the 1992 Summer Games.

With the dissolution of the Soviet Union, twelve of the fifteen new states chose to form a Unified Team, while the Baltic States of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania each entered their own teams for the first time since 1936. For the first time, Croatia, Slovenia and Bosnia-Herzegovina competed as independent nations after their separation from Socialist Yugoslavia, and Namibia and the unified team of Yemen (previously North and South Yemen) also made their Olympic debuts.

The 1992 Summer Olympics notably marked Germany competing as a unified team for the first time since 1964, while South Africa returned to the Games for the first time in 32 years.

The Federal Republic of Yugoslavia was banned due to UN sanctions, but individual Yugoslav athletes were allowed to take part as Independent Olympic Participants. Four National Olympic Committees did not send any athletes to compete: Afghanistan, Brunei, Liberia and Somalia.

Participating National Olympic Committees

Medal count

The following table reflects the top ten nations in terms of total medals won at the 1992 Games (the host nation is highlighted).

RankNationGoldSilverBronzeTotal
1Olympic flag.svg  Unified Team 453829112
2Flag of the United States.svg  United States 373437108
3Flag of Germany.svg  Germany 33212882
4Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  China 16221654
5Flag of Cuba.svg  Cuba 1461131
6Flag of Spain.svg  Spain*137222
7Flag of South Korea (1984-1997).svg  South Korea 1251229
8Flag of Hungary.svg  Hungary 1112730
9Flag of France.svg  France 851629
10Flag of Australia.svg  Australia 791127
Totals (10 nations)196159169524

Broadcast rights

The 1992 Summer Olympics were covered by the following television and radio broadcasters: [20]

Terrorism

The Basque nationalist group ETA attempted to disrupt the Barcelona Games with terrorist attacks. It was already feared beforehand that ETA would use the Olympics to gain publicity for their cause in front of a worldwide audience. [21] As the time of the Games approached, [22] ETA committed attacks in Barcelona and the Catalonia region as a whole, including the deadly 1991 Vic bombing. [23] [24] On 10 July 1992, the group offered a two-month truce covering the Olympics in exchange for negotiations, which the Spanish government rejected. [25] However, the Games went ahead successfully without an attack. [26]

Effect on the city

Frank Gehry's Fish sculpture in front of the Hotel Arts (left) and the Torre Mapfre (right) in the Olympic Village neighbourhood 050529 Barcelona 049.jpg
Frank Gehry's Fish sculpture in front of the Hotel Arts (left) and the Torre Mapfre (right) in the Olympic Village neighbourhood

The celebration of the 1992 Olympic Games had an enormous impact on the urban culture and outward projection of Barcelona. The Games provided billions of dollars for infrastructure investments, which are considered to have improved the quality of life in the city, and its attraction for investment and tourism. [27] Barcelona became one of the most visited cities in Europe after Paris, London, and Rome. [28] [29]

Barcelona's nomination for the 1992 Summer Olympics sparked the implementation of an ambitious plan for urban transformation that had already been developed previously. [30] Barcelona was opened to the sea with the construction of the Olympic Village and Olympic Port in Poblenou. New centres were created, and modern sports facilities were built in the Olympic zones of Montjuïc, Diagonal, and Vall d'Hebron; hotels were also refurbished and new ones built. The construction of ring roads around the city helped to reduce traffic density, and El Prat airport was modernized and expanded with the opening of two new terminals. [31]

Cost and cost overrun

The Oxford Olympics Study [32] estimates the direct costs of the Barcelona 1992 Summer Olympics to be US$9.7 billion (expressed in 2015 U.S. dollars) with a cost overrun of 266%. This includes only sports-related costs, that is: (i) operational costs incurred by the organizing committee for the purpose of staging the Games, e.g., expenditures for technology, direct transportation, workforce, administration, security, catering, ceremonies, and medical services; and (ii) direct capital costs incurred by the host city and country or private investors to build the competition venues, the Olympic village, international broadcast center, media and press center, and similar structures required to host the Games. Costs excluded from the study are indirect capital and infrastructure costs, such as for road, rail, or airport infrastructure, or for hotel upgrades or other business investment incurred in preparation for the Games. [32] [33]

The costs for Barcelona 1992 may be compared with those of London 2012, which cost US$15 billion with a cost overrun of 76%, and those of Rio 2016 which cost US$4.6 billion with a cost overrun of 51%. The average cost for the Summer Olympics since 1960 is US$5.2 billion, with an average cost overrun of 176%. [32] [33]

Songs and themes

There were two main musical themes for the 1992 Games. The first one was "Barcelona", a classical crossover song composed five years earlier by Freddie Mercury and Mike Moran; Mercury was an admirer of lyric soprano Montserrat Caballé, both recorded the official theme as a duet. Due to Mercury's death eight months earlier, the duo was unable to perform the song together during the opening ceremony. A recording of the song instead played over a travelogue of the city at the start of the opening ceremony, seconds before the official countdown. [34] [35] "Amigos Para Siempre" (Friends for Life) was the other musical theme. It was written by Andrew Lloyd Webber and Don Black, and sung by Sarah Brightman and José Carreras during the closing ceremonies.

Ryuichi Sakamoto composed and conducted the opening ceremony musical score. [36] The Opening Olympic fanfare was composed by Angelo Badalamenti and with orchestrations by Joseph Turrin.

Mascot

The official mascot was Cobi, a Catalan sheepdog in cubist style designed by Javier Mariscal. [37]

Corporate image and identity

A renewal in Barcelona's image and corporate identity could be seen in the publication of posters, commemorative coins, stamps minted by the FNMT in Madrid, and the Barcelona 1992 Olympic Official Commemorative Medals, designed and struck in Barcelona.

See also

Related Research Articles

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The Unified Team was the name used for the sports team of the former Soviet Union (except the Baltic states) at the 1992 Winter Olympics in Albertville and the 1992 Summer Olympics in Barcelona. The IOC country code was EUN, after the French name, Équipe unifiée. The Unified Team was sometimes informally called the CIS Team, although Georgia did not join the CIS until 1993.

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Belarus at the Olympics

Athletes from Belarus began their Olympic participation at the 1952 Summer Games in Helsinki, Finland as part of the Soviet Union. After the Soviet Union disbanded in 1991, Belarus, along with four of the other fourteen former Soviet republics, competed in the 1992 Winter Olympics as the Unified Team. Later in 1992, eleven republics joined Belarus to compete as the Unified Team at the Summer Games in Barcelona, Spain. Two years later, Belarus competed for the first time as an independent nation in the 1994 Winter Olympics, held in Lillehammer, Norway. Since 1994, Belarus has won medals at each Winter and Summer Olympics it has participated in.

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Canada at the Summer Olympics

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Cook Islands at the 1992 Summer Olympics

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Venues of the 1992 Summer Olympics

For the 1992 Summer Olympics in Barcelona, a total of forty-three sports venues were used.

Barcelona, the capital of Catalonia, is the second largest city and metropolitan area in Spain and sixth-most populous urban area in the European Union. It has hosted many major international tournaments and has professional teams in different sports.

The opening ceremony of the 1992 Summer Olympics took place in the evening on Saturday 25 July in the Estadi Olímpic Lluís Companys, Barcelona, Spain. As mandated by the Olympic Charter, the proceedings combined the formal and ceremonial opening of this international sporting event, including welcoming speeches, hoisting of the flags and the parade of athletes, with an artistic spectacle to showcase the host nation’s culture and history.

The closing ceremony of the 1992 Summer Olympics took place at Estadi Olímpic Lluís Companys in Barcelona, Spain, on 9 August 1992.

References

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Preceded by
Seoul
Summer Olympic Games
Barcelona

XXV Olympiad (1992)
Succeeded by
Atlanta

Coordinates: 41°21′51″N2°09′08″E / 41.36417°N 2.15222°E / 41.36417; 2.15222