1992 Winter Olympics

Last updated

XVI Olympic Winter Games
1992 Winter Olympics logo.svg
Emblem of the 1992 Winter Olympics [lower-alpha 1]
Host city Albertville, France
MottoSavoie en Fête
(English: Party in Savoie) [1]
Nations64
Athletes1,801 (1313 men, 488 women)
Events57 in 6 sports (12 disciplines)
Opening 8 February
Closing23 February
Opened by
Cauldron
Stadium Théâtre des Cérémonies
Winter
Calgary 1988 Lillehammer 1994
Summer
Seoul 1988 Barcelona 1992
Olympic rings.svg 1992 Winter Olympics

The 1992 Winter Olympics (French: Les XVIes Jeux Olympiques d'hiver), officially known as the XVI Olympic Winter Games and commonly known as Albertville '92, were a winter multi-sport event held from 8 to 23 February 1992 in and around Albertville, France. Albertville won the bid to host the Winter Olympics in 1986, beating Sofia, Falun, Lillehammer, Cortina d'Ampezzo, Anchorage, and Berchtesgaden. The 1992 Games were the last year the Winter Olympics were held in the same year as the Summer Olympics. [2] [3] The Games were the fifth Olympic Games held in France and the country's third Winter Olympics, after the 1924 Winter Games in Chamonix and the 1968 Winter Games in Grenoble.

Contents

Figure skating, short track speed skating, speed skating, and the opening and closing ceremonies were the only events that took place in Albertville. The other events were held in the villages of Courchevel, La Plagne, Les Arcs, Les Menuires, Les Saisies, Méribel, Pralognan-la-Vanoise, Tignes, and Val d'Isère. Sixty-four nations and 1,801 athletes participated in six sports and fifty-seven events. This included both the Unified Team, representing the non-Baltic former Soviet republics, and Germany, newly consolidated as a team following the reunification of the former East and West Germany in 1990. The event also saw the debut of eight nations in the Winter Olympics. New events included Short track speed skating, freestyle skiing, and women's biathlon. These were the last Winter Olympics to include demonstration sports, consisting of curling, aerials and ski ballet, and speed skiing, and the last Games to feature an outdoor speed skating rink.

Host city selection

Mexican sculptor Abel Ramirez Aguilar working on his gold medal piece in snow sculpture competition related to the Games Olimpic France 2.jpg
Mexican sculptor Abel Ramírez Águilar working on his gold medal piece in snow sculpture competition related to the Games

A record-breaking seven locations bid for the games. The non-winning bids were from Anchorage, Berchtesgaden, Cortina d'Ampezzo, Falun, Lillehammer, and Sofia. The 91st IOC Session, held in Lausanne on 17 October 1986, voted Albertville the host of the Games. [4]

1992 Winter Olympics bidding results [5]
CityCountryRound 1Round 2Round 3Round 4Run-offRound 5
Albertville Flag of France.svg France1926294251
Sofia Flag of Bulgaria.svg Bulgaria2525282425
Falun Flag of Sweden.svg Sweden10111111419
Lillehammer Flag of Norway.svg Norway101191140
Cortina d'Ampezzo Flag of Italy.svg Italy767
Anchorage Flag of the United States.svg United States75
Berchtesgaden Flag of Germany.svg West Germany6

Opening ceremony

Highlights

Bjørn Dæhlie and Vegard Ulvang dominated men's cross-country skiing race, both taking home three gold medals with Norway taking a medal sweep in the event. 16-year-old Ski jumper Toni Nieminen became the youngest male gold medalist in a Winter Olympic event. Petra Kronberger won both the combined event and the slalom of alpine skiing, while Bonnie Blair won both the 500 m and 1000 m speed skating events, and Gunda Niemann took both of the longest races.

Three National Olympic Committees won a medal for the first time at the Winter Olympics (all Pacific Ocean littoral states; one in a sport making its debut at the Games, short track speed skating). Kim Ki-hoon's gold medal in 1000 m short track speed skating signified South Korea's first medal in the Winter Olympics, while Ye Qiaobo's silver medal in women's 500 m speed skating represented China's first Winter Olympics medal. Annelise Coberger from New Zealand became the first Oceanian athlete to win a medal in women's alpine skiing slalom, making her the first athlete from the southern hemisphere to mount the podium at the Winter Games.

Swiss speed skier Nicolas Bochatay died on the second-to-last day of the Games, when he crashed into a snow-grooming vehicle during a training run.

Legacy

The 1992 Olympic Winter Games marked the last time both the Winter and Summer games were held in the same year. The 1992 Olympics also marked the last time France hosted the Olympics. The games are scheduled to return to France in 2024 when Paris is set to become the second city to host the Summer Olympics three times.

Cost and cost overrun

The Oxford Olympics Study established the outturn cost of the Albertville 1992 Winter Olympics at US$2.0 billion (in 2015-dollars) and cost overrun at 137% in real terms. [6] This includes sports-related costs only, that is: (i) operational costs incurred by the organizing committee to stage the Games, e.g., expenditures for technology, transportation, workforce, administration, security, catering, ceremonies, and medical services; and (ii) direct capital costs incurred by the host city and country or private investors to build, e.g., the competition venues, the Olympic village, international broadcast center, and media and press center, which are required to host the Games. Indirect capital costs were not included, e.g. road, rail, or airport infrastructure, or hotel upgrades or other business investment incurred in preparation for the Games but not directly related to their staging. In comparison, the cost and cost overrun of the 2010 Vancouver Winter Olympics were US$2.5 billion and 13%, respectively, while the 2014 Sochi Winter Olympics (the most costly Olympics to date) had costs and cost overrun at US$51 billion and 289%, respectively. [7] The average cost for the Winter Games since 1960 is US$3.1 billion, while the average cost overrun is 142%.[ citation needed ]

Mascot

The 1992 Winter Games's mascot, Magique (Magic), was a small imp in the shape of a star and a cube. The mascot was created by Philippe Mairesse and was first presented in 1989. The star shape symbolized dreams and imagination, while the mascot's colors originates from the French flag with a red hat and a blue costume.

Sports

There were 57 events contested in 6 sports (12 disciplines). See the medal winners, ordered by sport:

Demonstration sports

This was the last time demonstration events were included in the Winter Olympics program. Of the 8 events that were under evaluation, 4 received the endorsement to be included in an official form in future editions of the Games (Curling tournaments and the aerials events on the freestyle skiing). The other four events (speed skiing and skiing ballet events on the freestyle skiing) were rejected and have not since returned.

Participating nations

Sixty-four nations sent competitors to the 1992 Olympics, including seven nations making their first appearance at a Winter Olympics. [11] Following the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, six former-Soviet bloc nations chose to form a Unified Team, while the Baltic states of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania competed as independent nations for the first time since 1936. [12] United Nations Security Council Resolution 757 took effect on 30 May 1992 (97 days after the closing ceremonies), and Yugoslav athletes were able to participate under their country's national symbols. It also suspended the activities of the Yugoslav Olympic Committee, making the country's athletes ineligible to compete on the 1992 Summer Olympics. Despite this, some of their athletes classified in individual sports and gained authorization to compete as Independent Olympic Participants (which also happened at the 1992 Summer Paralympics). Yugoslav athletes returned to the Olympic Games in the 1996 Summer Olympics, when only Serbia, Montenegro and Kosovo were still part of the country. The 1992 Winter Olympics were the first time since the 1964 Summer Olympics that Germany competed with a unified team. Seven National Olympic Committees sent their first delegations to the Winter Olympics: Algeria, Bermuda, Brazil, Honduras, Ireland, Swaziland, Croatia, and Slovenia (the last two making their first appearances at any Olympics, just a few months after their respective declarations of independence from Yugoslavia). Until the 2018 Winter Olympics, this was the only participation of Swaziland and Honduras in an edition of the Winter Olympics. [13]

Participating National Olympic Committees

Venues

The 1992 Games are the last (as of 2020) in which the speed skating venue was outdoors.

Medal table

(Host nation is highlighted.)

RankNationGoldSilverBronzeTotal
1Flag of Germany.svg  Germany 1010626
2Olympic flag.svg  Unified Team¹96823
3Flag of Norway.svg  Norway 96520
4Flag of Austria.svg  Austria 67821
5Flag of the United States.svg  United States 54211
6Flag of Italy.svg  Italy 46414
7Flag of France.svg  France 3519
8Flag of Finland.svg  Finland 3137
9Flag of Canada.svg  Canada 2327
10Flag of South Korea (1984-1997).svg  South Korea 2114
Totals (10 nations)534940142

(¹ combined team with athletes from 6 nations of the Commonwealth of Independent States; the team only appeared in these Winter Olympics)

Podium sweeps

DateSportEventNOCGoldSilverBronze
10 February Cross-country skiing Men's 30 kilometers classical Flag of Norway.svg  Norway Vegard Ulvang Bjørn Dæhlie Terje Langli
17 February Speed skating Women's 5000 meters Flag of Germany.svg  Germany Gunda Niemann-Kleemann Heike Warnicke Claudia Pechstein

See also

Notes

Notes

  1. The emblem is the flag of Savoy region in the shape of the Olympic flame, dancing above stripes representing the flag of France.

Citations

  1. "Slogans", The Olympic Design, 22 September 2019
  2. "Albertville 1992". olympic.org. Archived from the original on 7 January 2014. Retrieved 12 March 2010.
  3. "The Olympic Winter Games Factsheet" (PDF). International Olympic Committee. Retrieved 5 August 2012.
  4. IOC Vote History
  5. "Past Olympic host city election results". GamesBids. Archived from the original on 24 January 2011. Retrieved 17 March 2011.
  6. Flyvbjerg, Bent; Stewart, Allison; Budzier, Alexander (2016). The Oxford Olympics Study 2016: Cost and Cost Overrun at the Games. Oxford: Saïd Business School Working Papers (Oxford: University of Oxford). pp. 9–13. SSRN   2804554 .
  7. "Sochi 2014: the costliest Olympics yet but where has all the money gone?". The Guardian. Retrieved 12 February 2014.
  8. "OL-ishockey på Lillehammer og GJøvik" (in Norwegian). Norwegian News Agency. 10 October 1990.
  9. "Skiing". February 2007. Retrieved 17 June 2020.
  10. Usborne, Simon (9 February 2018). "Speed skiing: too fast for the Olympics". Financial Times. Retrieved 29 October 2019.
  11. International Olympic Committee. "Albertville 1992". www.olympic.org. Retrieved 5 September 2020.
  12. "Albertville, France 1992". The Washington Post Archive. 1998. Retrieved 3 September 2020.
  13. Nauright, John; Parrish, Charles (2012). Sports Around the World: History, Culture, and Practice. ABC-CLIO. ISBN   978-1-59884-300-2.
Preceded by
Calgary
Winter Olympics
Albertville

XVI Olympic Winter Games (1992)
Succeeded by
Lillehammer

Related Research Articles

Winter Olympic Games Major international sporting event

The Winter Olympic Games is a major international multi-sport event held once every four years for sports practiced on snow and ice. The first Winter Olympic Games, the 1924 Winter Olympics, were held in Chamonix, France. The modern Olympic Games were inspired by the ancient Olympic Games, which were held in Olympia, Greece, from the 8th century BC to the 4th century AD. Baron Pierre de Coubertin founded the International Olympic Committee (IOC) in 1894, leading to the first modern Summer Olympic Games in Athens, Greece in 1896. The IOC is the governing body of the Olympic Movement, with the Olympic Charter defining its structure and authority.

1924 Winter Olympics 1st edition of Winter Olympics, held in Chamonix-Mont-Blanc (France) in 1924

The 1924 Winter Olympics, officially known as the I Olympic Winter Games, were a winter multi-sport event which was held in 1924 in Chamonix, France. Originally held in association with the 1924 Summer Olympics, the sports competitions were held at the foot of Mont Blanc in Chamonix, and Haute-Savoie, France between January 25 and February 5, 1924. The Games were organized by the French Olympic Committee, and were originally reckoned as the "International Winter Sports Week." With the success of the event, it was retroactively designated by the International Olympic Committee (IOC) as the I Olympic Winter Games.

2006 Winter Olympics 20th edition of Winter Olympics, held in Turin (Italy) in 2006

The 2006 Winter Olympics, officially known as the XX Olympic Winter Games and commonly known as Torino 2006 or Turin 2006, were a winter multi-sport event held from 10 to 26 February 2006 in Turin, Piedmont, Italy. This marked the second time Italy had hosted the Winter Olympic Games, the first being in Cortina d'Ampezzo in 1956. Italy also hosted the Summer Olympics in 1960 in Rome. Turin was selected as the host city for the 2006 Games in June 1999.

1998 Winter Olympics 18th edition of Winter Olympics, held in Nagano (Japan) in 1998

The 1998 Winter Olympics, officially known as the XVIII Olympic Winter Games and commonly known as Nagano 1998, were a winter multi-sport event held from 7 to 22 February 1998, mainly in Nagano, Japan. The Winter Games also took place in the nearby mountain communities of Hakuba, Karuizawa, Nozawa Onsen, and Yamanouuchi. The city of Nagano had previously been a candidate to host the 1940 Winter Olympics, as well as the 1972 Winter Olympics, but each time Nagano was eliminated at the national level by Sapporo.

1994 Winter Olympics 17th edition of Winter Olympics, held in Lillehammer (Norway) in 1994

The 1994 Winter Olympics, officially known as the XVII Olympic Winter Games and commonly known as Lillehammer '94, were a winter multi-sport event held from 12 to 27 February 1994 in and around Lillehammer, Norway. Having lost the bid for the 1992 Winter Games to Albertville, Lillehammer was awarded the 1994 Winter Games in 1988, after beating Anchorage, United States; Östersund, Sweden; and Sofia, Bulgaria. Lillehammer is the northernmost city to ever host the Winter Games and the Olympic Games overall. The Games were the first to be held in a different year from the Summer Olympics, the first and only one to be held two years after the previous winter games. The Games were the second Winter Olympics hosted in Norway, after the 1952 Winter Olympics in Oslo, and the fourth Olympics in the Nordic countries, after the 1912 Summer Olympics in Stockholm, Sweden, and the 1952 Summer Olympics in Helsinki, Finland.

1984 Winter Olympics 14th edition of Winter Olympics, held in Sarajevo (Yugoslavia) in 1984

The 1984 Winter Olympics, officially known as the XIV Olympic Winter Games and commonly known as Sarajevo '84, were a winter multi-sport event which took place from 8 to 19 February 1984 in Sarajevo, Yugoslavia, in what is now Bosnia and Herzegovina. It was the first Winter Olympic Games held in a socialist state and in a Slavic language-speaking country. It was also the second Olympics overall, as well as the second consecutive Olympics, to be held in a socialist and in a Slavic language-speaking country, after the 1980 Summer Olympics Moscow, Soviet Union. Furthermore, it was the first Olympics held in the Balkans after the first Olympic Games in Athens.

1952 Winter Olympics 6th Winter Olympics, held in Oslo, Norway

The 1952 Winter Olympics, officially known as the VI Olympic Winter Games, were a winter multi-sport event held from 14 to 25 February 1952 in Oslo, Norway.

Olympic sports Type of sport with events contested at the Olympic Games

Olympic sports are contested in the Summer Olympic Games and Winter Olympic Games. The 2016 Summer Olympics included 28 sports, with five additional sports due to be added to the 2020 Summer Olympics program; the 2014 Winter Olympics included seven sports. The number and types of events may change slightly from one Olympiad to another. Each Olympic sport is represented by an international governing body, namely an International Federation (IF). The International Olympic Committee (IOC) establishes a hierarchy of sports, disciplines, and events. According to this hierarchy, each Olympic sport can be subdivided into multiple disciplines, which are often mistaken as distinct sports. Examples include swimming and water polo, which are in fact disciplines of the sport of aquatics, and figure skating and speed skating, which are both disciplines of the sport of ice skating. In turn, disciplines are subdivided into events, for which Olympic medals are awarded. A sport or discipline is included in the Olympic program if the IOC determines it to be widely practiced around the world, that is, the popularity of a given sport or discipline is indicated by the number of countries that compete in it. The IOC's requirements also reflect participation in the Olympic Games – more stringent conditions are applied to men's sports/disciplines and to summer sports/disciplines.

The 1992 Winter Olympics, officially known as the XVI Olympic Winter Games, were a winter multi-sport event held in Albertville, France, from February 8 to February 23. A total of 1,801 athletes representing 64 National Olympic Committees (NOCs) participated in 57 events from 12 different sports and disciplines. In a break from tradition, the medals were primarily made of crystal rather than metal: gold, silver, or bronze was used only on the border.

Alpine Skiing at the 1992 Winter Olympics at Albertville, France, consisted of ten alpine skiing events, held 9–22 February. The men's races were held at Val d’Isère, except for the slalom, which was at Les Menuires. All five women's events were conducted at Méribel.

Australia at the Winter Olympics Participation of Australia in the Winter Olympics

Australia first competed in the Winter Olympic Games in 1936 in Garmisch-Partenkirchen, and has participated in every games since, with the exception of the 1948 Games in St. Moritz.

Australia at the 1992 Winter Olympics country entered in olympic winter games

Australia competed at the 1992 Winter Olympics in Albertville, France. 23 athletes competed, participating in alpine skiing, biathlon, bobsleigh, cross-country skiing, figure skating, freestyle skiing, luge, short track speed skating and speed skating. Freestyle skiing and short-track speed skating were medal events for the first time, and Australia has competed in these events in every games since, accounting for five of Australia's six medals. Australia's best result at these games was seventh in the 5000 metres short-track relay.

Luxembourg at the 1994 Winter Olympics Sporting event delegation

Luxembourg sent a delegation to compete at the 1994 Winter Olympics in Lillehammer, Norway from 12–27 February 1994. The nation was making its fifth appearance at a Winter Olympic Games. The Luxembourgian delegation to Lillehammer consisted of a single athlete, alpine skier Marc Girardelli. His best performance in any event was fourth in the Super-G; he also finished fifth in the downhill and ninth in the combined. As well, he failed to finish the giant slalom, and was disqualified from the slalom.

2022 Winter Olympics 24th Olympic Winter Games, to be held in Beijing, China

The 2022 Winter Olympics, officially known as the XXIV Olympic Winter Games, and commonly known as Beijing 2022, is an international winter multi-sport event that is scheduled to take place from 4 to 20 February 2022, in Beijing and towns in the neighboring Hebei province, China.

Finland at the Olympics Sporting event delegation

Finland first participated at the Olympic Games in 1908, and has sent athletes to compete in every Summer Olympic Games and every Winter Olympic Games since then. Finland was also the host nation for the 1952 Summer Olympics in Helsinki. Finnish athletes have won a total of 302 medals at the Summer Games, mostly in athletics and wrestling. Finland has also won 162 medals at the Winter Games, mostly in nordic skiing events.

2016 Winter Youth Olympics 2016 edition of the Winter Youth Olympics

The 2016 Winter Youth Olympics, officially known as the II Winter Youth Olympic Games, took place in and around Lillehammer, Norway, between 12 February and 21 February 2016. They were the fourth Youth Olympic Games and the second winter edition. Lillehammer was awarded the games on 7 December 2011 as the only candidate. The games reused venues from the 1994 Winter Olympics; this made Lillehammer the first city to host both regular and Youth Olympics. In addition to Lillehammer, sports were contested in Hamar, Gjøvik and Øyer.

Nicolas Bochatay was a Swiss speed skier who died during the 1992 Winter Olympics. Bochatay was killed when he collided with a snow grooming vehicle on the morning of the speed skiing finals. He was the nephew of Olympic skier Fernande Bochatay.

Australia at the 1992 Winter Paralympics

Australia competed at the 1992 Winter Paralympics in Tignes and Albertville in France. They were the first winter Paralympics to be celebrated concurrently with the Olympic Games. The official logo of the Games was designed by Jean-Michel Folon. It depicts a bird with broken wings, soaring high across the peak of a mountain. This was used to reflect the sporting abilities of the athletes at the Games. The official mascot, Alpy, designed by Vincent Thiebaut, represented the summit of the Grande Motte mountain in Tignes. Alpy was shown on a mono-ski to demonstrate its athleticism and the colours of white, green and blue were used to represent purity/snow, hope/nature and discipline/the lake. The 1992 Games were where Australia won their first winter medals at the Paralympics. Michael Milton won Australia's first gold with a win in the Men's Slalom LW2. Milton also won a silver medal in the Men's Super G LW2. At these Games, Australia was represented by 5 male athletes. Australia was placed 12th in the overall medal tally for the Winter Games winning a total of 4 medals: 1 gold, 1 silver and 2 bronze.

Australia at the 1994 Winter Paralympics

The 1994 Winter Paralympics were held in Lillehammer, Norway. Australia sent six male skiers, who won three gold, two silver and four bronze medals. Australia, at the time, achieved their best ever performance at a Winter Paralympics, finishing 5th overall in the alpine skiing competition, 9th in the medal standings, and 11th in the total medal count out of 31 nations.