1993–94 Australian region cyclone season

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1993–94 Australian region cyclone season
1993-1994 Australian cyclone season summary.jpg
Season summary map
Seasonal boundaries
First system formed14 December 1993
Last system dissipated1 May 1994
Strongest storm
NameTheodore
  Maximum winds200 km/h (125 mph)
(10-minute sustained)
  Lowest pressure910 hPa (mbar)
Seasonal statistics
Tropical lows14
Tropical cyclones12
Severe tropical cyclones7
Total fatalities22
Total damageUnknown
Related articles
Australian region tropical cyclone seasons
1991–92, 1992–93, 1993–94, 1994–95, 1995–96

The 1993–94 Australian region cyclone season was a slightly above average Australian cyclone season. It was also an event in the ongoing cycle of tropical cyclone formation. It ran from 1 November 1993 to 30 April 1994. The regional tropical cyclone operational plan also defines a tropical cyclone year separately from a tropical cyclone season, and the "tropical cyclone year" ran from 1 July 1993 to 30 June 1994.

Tropical cyclone Is a rotating storm system

A tropical cyclone is a rapidly rotating storm system characterized by a low-pressure center, a closed low-level atmospheric circulation, strong winds, and a spiral arrangement of thunderstorms that produce heavy rain. Depending on its location and strength, a tropical cyclone is referred to by different names, including hurricane, typhoon, tropical storm, cyclonic storm, tropical depression, and simply cyclone. A hurricane is a tropical cyclone that occurs in the Atlantic Ocean and northeastern Pacific Ocean, and a typhoon occurs in the northwestern Pacific Ocean; in the south Pacific or Indian Ocean, comparable storms are referred to simply as "tropical cyclones" or "severe cyclonic storms".

Contents

Tropical cyclones in this area were monitored by four Tropical Cyclone Warning Centres (TCWCs): the Australian Bureau of Meteorology in Perth, Darwin, and Brisbane; and TCWC Port Moresby in Papua New Guinea.

Darwin, Northern Territory City in the Northern Territory, Australia

Darwin is the capital city of the Northern Territory of Australia, situated on the Timor Sea. It is the largest city in the sparsely populated Northern Territory, with a population of 145,916. It is the smallest, wettest and most northerly of the Australian capital cities, and acts as the Top End's regional centre.

Port Moresby Place in National Capital District, Papua New Guinea

Port Moresby, also referred to as Pom City or simply Moresby, is the capital and largest city of Papua New Guinea and the largest city in the South Pacific outside of Australia and New Zealand. It is located on the shores of the Gulf of Papua, on the south-western coast of the Papuan Peninsula of the island of New Guinea. The city emerged as a trade centre in the second half of the 19th century. During World War II it was a prime objective for conquest by the Imperial Japanese forces during 1942–43 as a staging point and air base to cut off Australia from Southeast Asia and the Americas.

Papua New Guinea constitutional monarchy in Oceania

Papua New Guinea, officially the Independent State of Papua New Guinea, is an Oceanian country that occupies the eastern half of the island of New Guinea and its offshore islands in Melanesia, a region of the southwestern Pacific Ocean north of Australia. Its capital, located along its southeastern coast, is Port Moresby. The western half of New Guinea forms the Indonesian provinces of Papua and West Papua.

Seasonal Summary

Tropical cyclone scales#Comparisons across basins1993-94 Australian region cyclone season

Systems

Severe Tropical Cyclone Naomi

Category 3 severe tropical cyclone (Australian scale)
Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Naomi dec 16 1993 2317Z.jpg   Naomi 1993 track.png
Duration14 December – 18 December
Peak intensity140 km/h (90 mph) (10-min)  960  hPa  (mbar)

Naomi was the first cyclone of the 1993/94 season. Forming early on 15 December 1993, the storm moved south and strengthened into a Category 3 before making landfall. [1] There was moderate damage and a fishing boat was disabled during the storm. There were no deaths.

Severe Tropical Cyclone Rewa

Category 5 severe tropical cyclone (Australian scale)
Category 4 tropical cyclone (SSHWS)
Rewa jan 16 1994 0555Z.jpg   Rewa 1993 track.png
Duration26 December – 21 January
Peak intensity205 km/h (125 mph) (10-min)  920  hPa  (mbar)

Cyclone Rewa formed on 26 December 1993. It looped around the Coral Sea for almost a month, crossed New Caledonia and the Solomon Island, and dissipated on 21 January. Rewa was the longest-lived South Pacific tropical cyclone on record, lasting 25 days, from 26 December to 21 January.

Tropical Cyclone Oscar

Category 1 tropical cyclone (Australian scale)
Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Temporary cyclone south.svg   Oscar 1993 track.png
Duration28 December – 9 January
Peak intensity65 km/h (40 mph) (10-min)  995  hPa  (mbar)

Cyclone Oscar was a weak system, and only barely reached cyclone strength on 3 January 1994 for about a 12-hour period. It moved on a generally west-southwest course parallel to the Kimberley and Pilbara coasts. [2]

Pilbara Place in Western Australia, Australia

The Pilbara is a large, dry, thinly populated region in the north of Western Australia. It is known for its Aboriginal peoples; its ancient landscapes; the red earth; its vast mineral deposits, in particular iron ore; and as a global biodiversity hotspot for subterranean fauna.

Severe Tropical Cyclone Pearl-Farah

Category 3 severe tropical cyclone (Australian scale)
Category 2 tropical cyclone (SSHWS)
Farah Jan 18 1994 1036Z.png   Pearl 1994 track.png
DurationJanuary 10 – January 21
Peak intensity155 km/h (100 mph) (10-min)  960  hPa  (mbar)

On January 11, a tropical low formed northwest of Broome, Western Australia. It was named Pearl a few hours later by the Bureau of Meteorology. [3] The cyclone continued westward and reached a peak intensity of 155 km/h (100 mph). [3] As the system moved west of 90°E, MFR took over warning responsibility on January 18 and renamed the cyclone Farah. [4] At that time, MFR estimated winds of about 120 km/h (75 mph). [5] After having moved westward due to a ridge to the south, Farah turned to the south upon entering the basin due to an approaching trough, which previously absorbed Edmea. High wind shear caused rapid weakening, and by January 19, there was little remaining convection. The next day, Farah weakened to tropical depression status and turned to the southeast. The ridge built behind the trough, causing the depression to stall and drift northward, and by February 22, Farah dissipated. [4]

Broome, Western Australia Town in Western Australia

Broome is a coastal, pearling and tourist town in the Kimberley region of Western Australia, 2,240 km (1,390 mi) north of Perth. The urban population was 13,984 at the 2016 Census growing to over 45,000 per month during the peak tourist season.

The Bureau of Meteorology (BOM) is an Executive Agency of the Australian Government responsible for providing weather services to Australia and surrounding areas. It was established in 1906 under the Meteorology Act, and brought together the state meteorological services that existed before then. The states officially transferred their weather recording responsibilities to the Bureau of Meteorology on 1 January 1908.

Severe Tropical Cyclone Quenton

Category 3 severe tropical cyclone (Australian scale)
Category 1 tropical cyclone (SSHWS)
Temporary cyclone south.svg   Quenton 1994 track.png
Duration22 January – 29 January
Peak intensity150 km/h (90 mph) (10-min)  955  hPa  (mbar)

Tropical Cyclone Quenton began as a tropical low to the east of Christmas Island on 22 January 1994. The low moved slowly west, then on 25 January intensified to cyclone strength and moved southward across the Indian Ocean. By early on the 29th the cyclone had dissipated. [2]

Christmas Island Australian external territory

The Territory of Christmas Island is an Australian external territory comprising the island of the same name. Christmas Island is located in the Indian Ocean, around 350 kilometres (220 mi) south of Java and Sumatra and around 1,550 kilometres (960 mi) north-west of the closest point on the Australian mainland. It has an area of 135 square kilometres (52 sq mi).

Tropical Cyclone Sadie

Category 1 tropical cyclone (Australian scale)
Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Temporary cyclone south.svg   Sadie 1994 track.png
Duration29 January – 31 January
Peak intensity85 km/h (50 mph) (10-min)  985  hPa  (mbar)

Early on 29 January, the BoM reported that a tropical low had developed within the monsoon trough about 50 km (30 mi) to the north of the Gove Peninsula in the Northern Territory. [6] [7] During that day the low rapidly developed further as it moved south-eastwards, before early on 29 January TCWC Brisbane reported that the low had developed into a category 1 tropical cyclone and named it Sadie as the system started to move southwards. [6] Later that day the JTWC initiated advisories on Cyclone Sadie and designated it as Tropical Cyclone 14P, while the system started to move towards the east and was near its peak 1-minute maximum sustained windspeeds of 85 km/h (50 mph). [6] [8] [9] Early the next day Cyclone Sadie made landfall to the north of near Normanton, after TCWC Brisbane had reported that the system had peaked with 10-minute maximum sustained winds of 85 km/h (50 mph). [6] [7] After making landfall, the system moved towards the south-southeast before weakening and degenerating into a tropical low/rain depression later that day. [6]

Severe Tropical Cyclone Theodore

Category 5 severe tropical cyclone (Australian scale)
Category 4 tropical cyclone (SSHWS)
Theodore Feb 26 1994 0556Z.png   Theodore 1994 track.png
Duration22 February – 28 February
Peak intensity215 km/h (130 mph) (10-min)  910  hPa  (mbar)

Severe Tropical Cyclone Theodore existed from 22 February to 28 February.

Severe Tropical Cyclone Sharon

Category 4 severe tropical cyclone (Australian scale)
Category 3 tropical cyclone (SSHWS)
Sharon Mar 15 1994 0913Z.png   Sharon Aus 1994 track.png
Duration12 March – 22 March
Peak intensity195 km/h (120 mph) (10-min)  930  hPa  (mbar)

Tropical Cyclone Sharon was the most intense cyclone in the Western Australian region during the 1993/94 season. It formed about 1100 km north of Northwest Cape on 12 March 1994, then rapidly intensified during the 14th while moving on a south-southwest path towards the west Pilbara coast. During the 16th the cyclone rapidly weakened due to movement into a region of strong westerly wind shear. Cyclone warnings were issued for the west Pilbara and upper west coast on the 16th but were cancelled on the morning of the 17th Continued shearing and subsequent movement over cooler waters weakened the storm to below cyclone strength by the morning of the 18th. [2]

Tropical Cyclone Tim

Category 1 tropical cyclone (Australian scale)
Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Temporary cyclone south.svg   Tim Aus 1994 track.png
Duration28 March – 3 April
Peak intensity65 km/h (40 mph) (10-min)  995  hPa  (mbar)

Tropical Cyclone Tim was a very small weak system that moved on a generally westward path from south of Sumatra to the Cocos Islands from 28 March to 3 April 1994. It passed about 100 km to the south of Christmas Island but its effects, other than a wind shift, were barely recognizable on the Island. [2]

Severe Tropical Cyclone Vivienne

Category 3 severe tropical cyclone (Australian scale)
Category 1 tropical cyclone (SSHWS)
Temporary cyclone south.svg   Vivienne 1994 track.png
Duration5 April – 13 April
Peak intensity150 km/h (90 mph) (10-min)  955  hPa  (mbar)

Tropical Cyclone Vivienne formed from a tropical low that had moved westward across the Timor Sea. It intensified rapidly during the afternoon and night of 5 April 1994, reaching maximum intensity on 8 April when it was located 550 km to the north-northwest of Broome. Its development from here on was hampered by vertical wind shear and Vivienne moved on a generally west-southwest path parallel to, but well offshore from, the Western Australian coastline. It dissipated on 13 April and no watches or warnings were issued. [2]

Tropical Depression 29P

Tropical depression (SSHWS)
Tropical Cyclone 29P 1993-94.png   29P 1994 track.png
Duration24 April – 25 April
Peak intensity55 km/h (35 mph) (1-min)  1000  hPa  (mbar)

On 20 April, the JTWC started to monitor an area of low pressure that located over the Solomon Islands about 155 km (95 mi) to the north of Honiara. [10] During that day the disturbance moved towards the southeast and passed over several of the Solomon Islands, before emerging into the Australian basin. [10] Over the next couple of days the disturbance gradually developed further while moving towards the southwest before re-curving and moving southeastwards. [10] On 24 April, as it moved back into the South Pacific basin, the JTWC initiated advisories on the disturbance, designating it as Tropical Cyclone 29P, with peak windspeeds equivalent to a tropical depression. [10] [11] As the system was classified, it recurved again and started to move slowly towards the northwest, and started to feel the effects of a high amount of vertical windshear. [10] [11] As a result of the windshear, the center became exposed and displaced from the deep convection before the JTWC issued their final advisory on 25 April as 29P weakened into an area of low pressure, before dissipating later that day about 600 km (375 mi) to the southwest of Honiara. [10] [11]

Tropical Cyclone Willy

Category 2 tropical cyclone (Australian scale)
Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Temporary cyclone south.svg   Willy 1994 track.png
Duration26 April – 1 May
Peak intensity95 km/h (60 mph) (10-min)  985  hPa  (mbar)

Willy was a Category 1 cyclone lasting from 26 April to 1 May 1994 that passed about 80 km west of the Cocos Islands. [2]

Other systems

During March 23, a weak tropical low developed within the South Pacific Convergence Zone near Papua New Guinea's Louisiade Archipelago, within an area of favourable surface and upper air conditions for further development. [6] [12] Over the next day the system moved eastwards and gradually developed further, before TCWC Port Moresby reported that the system had developed into a category 1 tropical cyclone on the Australian scale and named it Usha during the next day as it moved out of the Australian region. [6] [12] [13]

Season effects

NameDates active Peak
classification
Sustained
wind speeds
PressureAreas affectedDamages
(AUD)
Damages
(USD)
DeathsRefs
Naomi14 December – 18 DecemberCategory 3 severe tropical cyclone140 km/h (85 mph)960 hPa (28.34 inHg)Western AustraliaMinimalMinimal0
Rewa26 December – 23 JanuaryCategory 5 severe tropical cyclone205 km/h (125 mph)920 hPa, (27.17 inHg)Melanesia, Eastern Australia, New ZealandUnknownUnknown22
Oscar28 December – 9 JanuaryCategory 1 tropical cyclone65 km/h (40 mph)995 hPa (29.38 inHg)Northern Territory, Western AustraliaNoneNoneNone
Pearl-Farah10 – 21 JanuaryCategory 3 severe tropical cyclone120 km/h (75 mph)960 hPa (28.34 inHg)Western AustraliaNoneNoneNone
Quenton22 – 29 JanuaryCategory 3 severe tropical cyclone150 km/h (90 mph)955 hPa (28.20 inHg)NoneNoneNoneNone
Sadie29 - 31 JanuaryCategory 1 tropical cyclone85 km/h (50 mph)985 hPa (29.08 inHg)Northern Territory, QueenslandNoneNoneNone
Tropical Low17–22 FebruaryTropical LowUnknownUnknownNoneNoneNoneNone
Theodore22 – 28 FebruaryCategory 5 severe tropical cyclone200 km/h (125 mph)910 hPa (26.87 inHg)NoneNoneNoneNone
Sharon12 – 22 MarchCategory 4 severe tropical cyclone190 km/h (115 mph)930 hPa (27.46 inHg)Western AustraliaNoneNoneNone
Usha24 MarchCategory 1 tropical cyclone65 km/h (40 mph)995 hPa (29.39 inHg)Solomon Islands
Tim28 March – 3 AprilCategory 1 tropical cyclone65 km/h (40 mph)995 hPa (29.38 inHg)NoneNoneNoneNone
Vivienne5 – 13 AprilCategory 3 severe tropical cyclone150 km/h (90 mph)955 hPa (28.20 inHg)NoneNoneNoneNone
29P24 – 25 AprilTropical Depression55 km/h (35 mph)1000 hPa (29.53 inHg)Solomon IslandsNoneNoneNone
Willy26 April – 2 May 1994Category 1 tropical cyclone85 km/h (55 mph)985 hPa (29.09 inHg)Cocos IslandsNoneNone [14]
Season Aggregates
14 systems14 December - 1 May205 km/h (125 mph)920 hPa, (27.17 inHg)MinorMinor22

See also

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