1993–94 South Pacific cyclone season

Last updated
1993–94 South Pacific cyclone season

1993-1994 South Pacific cyclone season summary.jpg

Season summary map
Seasonal boundaries
First system formed December 26, 1993
Last system dissipated April 25, 1994
Strongest storm
Name Theodore
  Maximum winds 175 km/h (110 mph)
(10-minute sustained)
  Lowest pressure 930 hPa (mbar)
Seasonal statistics
Total depressions 7
Tropical cyclones 5
Severe tropical cyclones 4
Total fatalities None reported
Total damage Unknown
Related articles
South Pacific tropical cyclone seasons
1991–92, 1992–93, 1993–94, 1994–95, 1995–96

The 1993–94 South Pacific cyclone season was a near average tropical cyclone season with five tropical cyclones occurring within the South Pacific to the east of 160°E. The season officially ran from November 1, 1993, to April 30, 1994, with the first disturbance of the season forming on December 26 and the last disturbance dissipating on April 25.

160th meridian east

The meridian 160° east of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, Asia, the Pacific Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.

Contents

During the season, tropical cyclones were officially monitored by the Regional Specialized Meteorological Center (RSMC) in Nadi, Fiji, and the Tropical Cyclone Warning Centers (TCWC) in Brisbane, Australia and Wellington, New Zealand. [1] Throughout the season the United States Navy also monitored the basin and issued unofficial warnings, through its Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) and Naval Western and Oceanography Center (NWOC). [2] Tropical cyclones that were located between 160°E and 120°W as well as the Equator and 25°S were monitored by RSMC Nadi while any that were located to the south of 25°S between 160°E and 120°W were monitored by TCWC Wellington. [1] During the season the JTWC issued warnings on any tropical cyclone that was located between 160°E and 180° while the NPMOC issued warnings for tropical cyclones forming between the 180° and the American coast. RSMC Nadi and TCWC Wellington both used the Australian Tropical Cyclone Intensity Scale, and measured windspeeds over a 10-minute period during the season, while the JTWC and the NPMOC measured sustained windspeeds over a 1 -minute period. [1] [2]

A Regional Specialized Meteorological Centre is responsible for the distribution of information, advisories, and warnings regarding the specific program they have a part of, agreed by consensus at the World Meteorological Organization as part of the World Weather Watch.

Fiji Meteorological Service meteorological service of Fiji

The Fiji Meteorological Service (FMS) is a Department of the government of Fiji responsible for providing weather forecasts and is based in Nadi. The current director of Fiji Meteorological Service is Ravind Kumar. Since 1985, FMS has been responsible for naming and tracking tropical cyclones in the Southwest Pacific region. Current Meteorologists working at FMS have a Graduate Diploma in Meteorology from the Australian Bureau of Meteorology.

The Bureau of Meteorology (BOM) is an Executive Agency of the Australian Government responsible for providing weather services to Australia and surrounding areas. It was established in 1906 under the Meteorology Act, and brought together the state meteorological services that existed before then. The states officially transferred their weather recording responsibilities to the Bureau of Meteorology on 1 January 1908.

Seasonal summary

Tropical cyclone scales#Comparisons across basins1993%E2%80%9394 South Pacific cyclone season

Systems

Severe Tropical Cyclone Rewa

Category 3 severe tropical cyclone (Australian scale)
Category 2 tropical cyclone (SSHWS)
Rewa jan 16 1994 0555Z.jpg   Rewa 1993 track.png
Duration December 26 – January 23
Peak intensity 150 km/h (90 mph) (10-min)  950  hPa  (mbar)

Early on December 26, the JTWC started to monitor a tropical disturbance that had developed about 575 km (355 mi) to the south-east of Nauru. [3] Over the next couple of days the disturbance gradually developed as it moved towards the south-southwest under the influence of a north-easterly flow. [4] Early on December 28, TCWC Nadi started to monitor the disturbance as a tropical depression. [5] Later that day, the JTWC classified the depression as Tropical Cyclone 05P, before TCWC Nadi reported that the system had intensified into a category 1 tropical cyclone on the Australian tropical cyclone intensity scale and named it Rewa. [5] [6] [7] Over the next few days, the system gradually intensified under the influence of favourable upper-level winds while it moved towards the south-southwest, passing through the Solomon Islands on December 29 and affecting the southeastern islands of Papua New Guinea. [4] [8] As it moved through the Solomon Islands, Rewa moved out of the South Pacific basin and into the Australian region. [5]

Nauru Republic in Oceania

Nauru, officially the Republic of Nauru and formerly known as Pleasant Island, is an island country in Micronesia, a subregion of Oceania, in the Central Pacific. Its nearest neighbour is Banaba Island in Kiribati, 300 kilometres (190 mi) to the east. It further lies northwest of Tuvalu, north of the Solomon Islands, east-northeast of Papua New Guinea, southeast of the Federated States of Micronesia and south of the Marshall Islands. With only a 21-square-kilometre (8.1 sq mi) area, Nauru is the third-smallest state on the list of countries and dependencies by area behind Vatican City and Monaco, making it the smallest state in the South Pacific Ocean, the smallest island state, and the smallest republic. Its population is 11,347, making it the third smallest on the list of countries and dependencies by population, after the Vatican and Tuvalu.

Papua New Guinea constitutional monarchy in Oceania

Papua New Guinea, officially the Independent State of Papua New Guinea, is an Oceanian country that occupies the eastern half of the island of New Guinea and its offshore islands in Melanesia, a region of the southwestern Pacific Ocean north of Australia. Its capital, located along its southeastern coast, is Port Moresby. The western half of New Guinea forms the Indonesian provinces of Papua and West Papua.

After affecting New Caledonia, Rewa weakened into a tropical depression and moved towards the northwest over the next few days, before re-entering the Australian basin during January 10 and started to show signs of reintensification. Over the next few days the cyclone moved towards the north north-west and started to affect Papua New Guinea for the second time before it was renamed Rewa during January 13 while it recurved and started to move towards the south-west. Over the next few days the cyclone continued to move to the south-east towards the South Pacific basin, before as it peaked in intensity on January 16 as a category 5 severe tropical cyclone, Rewa turned and started to move towards the south-west. Over the next few days, the cyclone gradually weakened while it moved towards the south-west and a predicted landfall near Mackay in Queensland. However, during January 18, Rewa interacted with an upper level trough and as a result turned and started to move towards the south-east along the Queensland coast. Rewa then degenerated into an extratropical cyclone during January 20, with its remnants last noted bringing heavy rain to New Zealand on January 23.

Extratropical cyclone type of cyclone

Extratropical cyclones, sometimes called mid-latitude cyclones or wave cyclones, are low-pressure areas which, along with the anticyclones of high-pressure areas, drive the weather over much of the Earth. Extratropical cyclones are capable of producing anything from cloudiness and mild showers to heavy gales, thunderstorms, blizzards, and tornadoes. These types of cyclones are defined as large scale (synoptic) low pressure weather systems that occur in the middle latitudes of the Earth. In contrast with tropical cyclones, extratropical cyclones produce rapid changes in temperature and dew point along broad lines, called weather fronts, about the center of the cyclone.

Tropical Cyclone 07P

Tropical depression (SSHWS)
Temporary cyclone south.svg   07P 1994 track.png
Duration January 6 – January 8
Peak intensity 55 km/h (35 mph) (1-min)  1002  hPa  (mbar)

On January 6, the NPMOC reported that Tropical Cyclone 07P, had developed out of an area of low pressure, that had persisted for several days near Fiji with peak windspeeds of 55 km/h (35 mph) equivalent to a tropical depression. During the next day the depression remained broad and poorly organized as it moved towards the southeast. Later that day 07P moved across Tonga's northern islands, before the NPMOC issued their final advisory on January 8 as the system weakened into a remnant low. [9] [10]

Severe Tropical Cyclone Sarah

Category 4 severe tropical cyclone (Australian scale)
Category 3 tropical cyclone (SSHWS)
Sarah Jan 25 1994 0546Z.png   Sarah 1994 track.png
Duration January 22 – February 4
Peak intensity 165 km/h (105 mph) (10-min)  945  hPa  (mbar)

On January 18, a weak low pressure area developed to the north of Fiji, within a trough of low pressure that extended from a weakening Cyclone Rewa to the northwest of Fiji. Over the next few days the low moved towards the west and passed between the Vanuation islands of Vila and Santo on January 21. Once the low had moved into the Coral Sea it started to rapidly develop further, with both RSMC Nadi and the JTWC reporting early on January 22, that the low had developed into a tropical cyclone, with the latter naming it Sarah.

Severe Tropical Cyclone Theodore

Category 4 severe tropical cyclone (Australian scale)
Category 4 tropical cyclone (SSHWS)
Theodore Feb 26 1994 0556Z.png   Theodore 1994 track.png
Duration February 26 – March 3
Peak intensity 185 km/h (115 mph) (10-min)  933  hPa  (mbar)

Severe Tropical Cyclone Theodore existed from February 26 to March 3.

Severe Tropical Cyclone Tomas

Category 3 severe tropical cyclone (Australian scale)
Category 3 tropical cyclone (SSHWS)
Thomas Mar 25 1994 0525Z.png   Tomas 1994 track.png
Duration March 19 – March 27
Peak intensity 155 km/h (100 mph) (10-min)  955  hPa  (mbar)

Severe Tropical Cyclone Tomas existed from March 19 to March 27.

Tropical Cyclone Usha

Category 2 tropical cyclone (Australian scale)
Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Temporary cyclone south.svg   Usha 1994 track.png
Duration March 25 – April 4
Peak intensity 95 km/h (60 mph) (10-min)  980  hPa  (mbar)

Late on March 24, the newly developed Tropical Cyclone Usha, moved into the South Pacific basin as a category 1 tropical cyclone. [6]

Tropical Depression 29P

Tropical depression (SSHWS)
Tropical Cyclone 29P 1993-94.png   29P 1994 track.png
Duration April 24 – April 25
Peak intensity 55 km/h (35 mph) (1-min)  1000  hPa  (mbar)

On April 20, the JTWC started to monitor an area of low pressure that located over the Solomon Islands about 155 km (95 mi) to the north of Honiara. [11] During that day the disturbance moved towards the southeast and passed over several of the Solomon Islands, before emerging into the Australian basin. [11] Over the next couple of days the disturbance gradually developed further while moving towards the southwest before re-curving and moving southeastwards. [11] On April 24, as it moved back into the South Pacific basin, the JTWC initiated advisories on the disturbance, designating it as Tropical Cyclone 29P, with peak windspeeds equivalent to a tropical depression. [11] [12] As the system was classified, it recurved again and started to move slowly towards the northwest, and started to feel the effects of a high amount of vertical windshear. [11] [12] As a result of the windshear, the center became exposed and displaced from the deep convection before the JTWC issued their final advisory on April 25 as 29P weakened into an area of low pressure, before dissipating later that day about 600 km (375 mi) to the southwest of Honiara. [11] [12]

Season effects

This table lists all the storms that developed in the South Pacific basin during the 1993–94 season. It includes their intensity on the Australian Tropical cyclone intensity scale, duration, name, areas affected, deaths, and damages. For most storms the data is taken from TCWC Nadi and Wellingtons archives, however data for 07P and 29P has been taken from the JTWC and the NPMOC archives as opposed to TCWC Nadi, Brisbane and Wellingtons, and thus the winds are over 1-minute as opposed to 10-minutes.

NameDates active Peak classification Sustained
wind speeds
PressureAreas affectedDamage
(USD)
DeathsRefs
Melanesia, Australia, New Zealand Unknown 22
January 6–8 Solomon Islands None None
165 km/h (105 mph)
February 26 – March 3 Category 4 severe tropical cyclone 185 km/h (115 mph) 933 hPa (27.55 inHg)
March 19 – 27 Category 3 severe tropical cyclone 955 hPa (28.20 inHg)
March 22 – April 4 Category 2 tropical cyclone 980 hPa (28.94 inHg)
April 24–25 Solomon Islands None None
Season aggregates
7 systems December 26 – April 25 185 km/h (115 mph) 933 hPa (27.55 inHg)

See also

Notes

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