The 1st Uhlans Regiment of Polish Legions was a cavalry unit of the Polish Legions during World War I. Members of the unit were named "Beliniaki", after their original leader Władysław Zygmunt Belina-Prażmowski.
The regiment was created on August 13, 1914 from a squadron composed of 140 soldiers formed by Belina-Prażmowski. The unit was based on The Seven Lancers of Belina, the vanguard of the march of the First Cadre Company on August 6, 1914. The cavalry unit was composed of Janusz Głuchowski "Janusz", Antoni Jabłoński "Zdzisław", Zygmunt Karol Karwacki "Stanisław Bończa", Stefan Kulesza "Hanka", Stanisław Skotnicki "Grzmot", and Ludwik Kmicic-Skrzyński"Kmicic" under Prażmowski's command.
In February and March 1917, the regiment organized and implemented officer training (for officers and non-commissioned officers) and administrative courses.
On August 10, 1917, the leader of the Polish Legions handed over the command of the regiment to captain Albert Kordecki of the 2nd Cavalry Regiment.
The commanding staff in 1917 r.
From this regiment, three further were formed, namely:
The medal, designed by corporal Kajetan Stanowicz, was instated on the 5th of November 1916. It has a round shield of a 41 to 45mm diameter with a twisted-rope-like edge. On it is engraved the monogram "1PU" on the background of an Uhlan hat and two dates: "II VII 1914" the date on which Belina's patrol left Galicia for the kingdom; and "V XI 1916" the day the medal was instituted. The medal was approved by the Minister of Military Affairs on the 5th of May 1920. Bearing it required being part of the regiment for at least a year. All in all 800 medals were issued.
Stanisław Grzmot-Skotnicki was a Polish military commander and a general of the Polish Army. During the invasion of Poland of 1939 he commanded the Czersk Operational Group and was among the highest ranking Polish officers to be killed in action in that war.
The Polish Legions was a name of the Polish military force established in August 1914 in Galicia soon after World War I erupted between the opposing alliances of the Triple Entente on one side ; and the Central Powers on the other side, including the German Empire and Austria-Hungary. The Legions became "a founding myth for the creation of modern Poland" in spite of their considerably short existence; they were replaced by the Polish Auxiliary Corps formation on 20 September 1916, merged with Polish II Corps in Russia on 19 February 1918 for the Battle of Rarańcza against Austria-Hungary, and disbanded following the military defeat at the Battle of Kaniów in May 1918, against imperial Germany. General Haller escaped to France to form the Polish army in the West against the anti-Polish German-Bolshevik treaty.
15th Poznań Uhlans Regiment – unit of Polish cavalry, part of Greater Polands Army, Polish Army of Second Republic and Polish Armed Forces in the West during World War II.
Żurawiejka was a short, two-line facetious couplet, written specifically for cavalry regiments of the Polish Army in the interbellum period. It humorously and ironically presented history of a given regiment, as well as its contemporary fate. Żurawiejkas were also used in cavalry regiments of the Imperial Russian Army, as the tradition of writing them, as well as the very name of the couplet, comes from Russian cavalry, and was taken over by the Poles in the interbellum period. Famous Russian poet Mikhail Lermontov is considered the father of żurawiejka, as he wrote first couplets while serving as a junker in the Russian Army. Żurawiejkas were sung by Polish cavalrymen at several occasions, mostly during different parties, and were usually associated with dancing. Returning topics of most of them are the Polish–Soviet War, drinking, looting, and women. They described a military unit in black humor, using derogatory terms and swear words.
The Seven Lancers of Belina, also called Belina’s Seven and The Seven Uhlans was a name given to a mounted reconnaissance group of the Riflemen's Association. On August 2, 1914, upon order of Józef Piłsudski, the seven uhlans crossed the border between Austrian Galicia and Congress Poland, on a mission to gather information about Russian forces in the area of Miechów and Jędrzejów. Members of the group would later become elite of the cavalry forces of the Second Polish Republic.
Janusz Julian Głuchowski was a divisional general of the Polish Army in the Second Polish Republic. Born on August 6, 1888 in Bukowa, he fought in Polish Legions in World War I, Polish–Ukrainian War, Polish–Soviet War and the Invasion of Poland. Głuchowski died on June 11, 1964 in London.
The First Krechowce Uhlan Regiment was a mounted unit of the Polish Army, active in the Second Polish Republic. Its traditions were continued during World War II, by a regiment of the same name, which was part of Polish Armed Forces in the West. 1st Krechowce Uhlan Regiment was formed in 1915, as a unit of the Imperial Russian Army. It fought in World War I, Polish–Soviet War and the Invasion of Poland, as part of Suwalska Cavalry Brigade. Until 1939, the regiment was stationed in Augustów. It ceased to exist in 1947. First commandant of the regiment was a Tsarist officer of Polish ethnicity, Colonel Bolesław Mościcki, who was killed in 1918 near Łuniniec. Last commandant was Colonel Leon Strzelecki.
The 9th Lesser Poland Uhlan Regiment was a cavalry regiment of the Polish Army, formed on November 21, 1918. Its first commandant was Rittmeister (Rotmistrz) Józef Dunin-Borkowski. The regiment fought in the Polish–Ukrainian War, Polish–Soviet War and the Invasion of Poland. In the Second Polish Republic, it was garrisoned in the towns of Czortków and Trembowla, and in 1939, it was part of Podolska Cavalry Brigade. The 9th Regiment was named after historic Polish province of Lesser Poland.
7th Lublin Uhlan Regiment of General Kazimierz Sosnkowski was a cavalry unit of the Polish Army in the Second Polish Republic and in the Polish Armed Forces in the West. Until 1939, it was garrisoned in Minsk Mazowiecki. The day of the regiment was on March 23, the anniversary of the decoration of its flag with the Virtuti Militari.
8th Uhlan Regiment of Prince Jozef Poniatowski was a cavalry unit of the Polish Army in the Second Polish Republic. Until 1939, it was garrisoned in Krakow, and its traditions dated back to 1784, when a cavalry regiment of Prince Jozef Poniatowski was formed in Lwow. The Prince Poniatowski Regiment was part of the Imperial Austrian Army, and in the early 20th century was called 1st Regiment of Austrian Uhlans. Nevertheless, it was made of ethnic Poles, with Polish officers and Polish traditions. In late 1918 it was renamed into 1st Land of Krakow Uhlan Regiment, and after a few years it was renamed again, into 8th Uhlan Regiment of Prince Jozef Poniatowski.
11th Legions Infantry Regiment of Marshal Edward Smigly-Rydz was a cavalry unit of the Polish Army, which existed in 1918 - 1939. It fought in the Polish-Soviet War and the Invasion of Poland. In the Second Polish Republic, the regiment was garrisoned in Ciechanow, and in 1939, belonged to Mazowiecka Cavalry Brigade.
12th Podolian Uhlan Regiment was a cavalry unit of the Polish Army. It was officially formed in 1919, and existed in various forms until 1947. The regiment fought in Polish-Soviet War and World War II. In the Second Polish Republic, it was garrisoned in the village of Bialokrynica near Krzemieniec, Volhynia. The regiment was part of Wolynska Cavalry Brigade.
Edmund Wacław Heldut - Tarnasiewicz alias " Heldut ". He was the senior colonel and commander of the Polish Army cavalry, a senior military officer of the Polish Armed Forces in the West, who received Poland’s highest military award, the Virtuti Militari, one of the oldest military decorations in the world still in use. He was heavily involved in World War I, the Polish–Soviet War, and World War II. Heldut was promoted to General, but the promotion was never confirmed due to the outbreak of World War II.
20th Uhlan Regiment of King Jan III Sobieski was a cavalry unit of the Polish Army in the Second Polish Republic. Formed in 1920, it was stationed in the garrison of Rzeszów. During the 1939 Invasion of Poland, it was part of Kresowa Cavalry Brigade. The unit continued the traditions of the 20th Uhlan Regiment of the Duchy of Warsaw, which fought in the 1812 French invasion of Russia.
19th Volhynian Uhlan Regiment was a cavalry unit of the Polish Army in the Second Polish Republic. Formed in 1917, it fought in the Polish–Soviet War and the Invasion of Poland. In the interbellum period, the regiment was garrisoned in Ostrog, Volhynia.
23rd Grodno Uhlan Regiment was a cavalry unit of the Polish Army in the Second Polish Republic. Formed in 1920, it fought both in the Polish-Soviet War and the 1939 Invasion of Poland. The regiment was garrisoned in the town of Postawy, and belonged to Wilenska Cavalry Brigade.
22nd Carpathian Uhlan Regiment was a cavalry unit of the Polish Army in the Second Polish Republic. Formed in November 1920, it fought in the 1939 Invasion of Poland. The regiment was garrisoned in the town of Brody, and belonged to Kresowa Cavalry Brigade.
24th Uhlan Regiment of Crown Hetman Stanislaw Zolkiewski was a cavalry unit of the Polish Army in the Second Polish Republic. Formed in June 1920, it fought both in the Polish–Soviet War and the 1939 Invasion of Poland. The regiment was garrisoned in the town of Kraśnik, and belonged to the elite 10th Motorized Cavalry Brigade.
The 27th King Stefan Batory Uhlan Regiment was a cavalry unit of the Polish Army during the Second Polish Republic. Formed in July 1920, it fought in the Polish-Soviet War and the 1939 Invasion of Poland. The regiment was garrisoned first in Wloclawek, to be moved in August 1921 to Nieswiez. In 1939, it was part of the Nowogrodzka Cavalry Brigade. It fought in several battles in September 1939, capitulating to the Red Army near Wladypol, on September 27, 1939.