1st millennium

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From left, clockwise: Depiction of Jesus, the central figure in Christianity; The Colosseum, a landmark of the once-mighty Roman Empire; Kaaba, the Great Mosque of Mecca, the holiest site of Islam, in China; Chess, a new board game, becomes popular around the globe; The Western Roman Empire falls, ushering in the Early Middle Ages; The skeletal remains of a young woman, known as the "ring lady", killed by the eruption of Mount Vesuvius in AD 79; Attila the Hun, leader of the Hunnic Empire, which takes most of Eastern Europe (Background: Reproduction of ancient mural from Teotihuacan, National Museum of Anthropology, Mexico City)

The first millennium of the anno Domini or Common Era was a millennium spanning the years 1 to 1000 (1st to 10th centuries; in astronomy: JD 1721425.52086667.5 [1] ). The world population rose more slowly than during the preceding millennium, from about 200 million in the year AD 1 to about 300 million in the year 1000. [2]

Contents

In Western Eurasia (Europe and Near East), the first millennium was a time of great transition from Classical Antiquity to the Middle Ages. The 1st century saw the peak of the Roman Empire, followed by its gradual decline during the period of Late Antiquity, the rise of Christianity and the Great Migrations. The second half of the millennium is characterized as the Early Middle Ages in Europe, and marked by the Viking expansion in the west, the rise of the Byzantine Empire in the east.

In East Asia, the first millennium was also a time of great cultural advances, notably the spread of Buddhism to East Asia. In China, the Han dynasty is replaced by the Jin dynasty and later the Tang dynasty until the 10th century sees renewed fragmentation in the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period. In Japan, a sharp increase in population followed when farmers' use of iron tools increased their productivity and crop yields. The Yamato court was established. The Indian subcontinent was divided among numerous kingdoms throughout the first millennium, until the formation of the Gupta Empire. Islam expanded rapidly from Arabia to western Asia, India, North Africa and the Iberian peninsula, culminating in the Islamic Golden Age (700–1200).

In Mesoamerica, the first millennium was a period of enormous growth known as the Classic Era (200–900). Teotihuacan grew into a metropolis and its empire dominated Mesoamerica. In South America, pre-Incan, coastal cultures flourished, producing impressive metalwork and some of the finest pottery seen in the ancient world. In North America, the Mississippian culture rose at the end of the millennium in the Mississippi and Ohio river valleys. Numerous cities were built; Cahokia, the largest, was based in present-day Illinois. The construction of Monks Mound at Cahokia was begun in 900–950.

In Sub-Saharan Africa, the Bantu expansion reaches Southern Africa by about the 5th century. The Arab slave trade spans the Sahara and the Swahili coast by the 9th century.

Civilizations, kingdoms and dynasties

Kingdoms and civilizations of the 1st millennium AD
AfricaAsia / OceaniaEuropePre-Columbian Americas
North Africa
East Africa
Sahara / West Africa
Central / Southern Africa
West Asia
East Asia
Central Asia
South Asia
Southeast Asia
Oceania
Southeastern Europe
Italy
Iberia
Western / Central Europe
Eastern Europe
Northern Europe
Mesoamerica
South America
North America

Events

The events in this section are organized according to the United Nations geoscheme

Events and trends of the 1st millennium AD
 AfricaAmericasAsiaEuropeOceania
1st century AD 70 Kandake Amanikhatashan sends Kushite cavalry to aid Roman Emperor in Jerusalem revolt [3]
AD 100 rise of the Aksum
AD 100 Khoekhoe reach southern coast of Africa [4]
AD 1 Cahuachi established [5]
AD 50 Pyramid of the Sun began [5]
AD 25 Han Dynasty reestablished under Guangwu
AD 33 Christianity begins
AD 70 Jewish diaspora
AD 9 Rhine established as boundary between Rome and Germany [6]
AD 47 London founded
AD 58 Alpes Cottiae becomes a Roman province [6]
AD 79 Pompeii destroyed
AD 1 Caroline Islands colonized [7]
2nd century 150 Rhapta, hint of pre-Swahili, Periplus of the Erythraean Sea
200 Bantu reach east Africa [8]
200 Nok culture ends
150 Cahuachi becomes dominant ceremonial site in southern Peru [5] 184 Yellow Turban Rebellion 106 Dacia becomes a Roman province [6]
166 Siege of Aquileia [6]
180 End of the Macromannic Wars [6]
 
 AfricaAmericasAsiaEuropeOceania
3rd century 212 Egyptians granted Roman citizenship [8]
230 Aksum wars with Himyar and Saba alliance
300 Aksum prints own coins
250 Rise of Laguna de los Cerros
292 Stela 29 inscribed [5]
300 Tikàl conquers El Mirador [5]
208 Battle of Red Cliffs during the decline of the Han Dynasty
280 Jin reunifies China
212 Roman citizenship extended to all free people in the empire [6]
214 Hispania divided into Gallaecia, Tarraconensis, Baetica and Lusitania [6]
286 Diocletian divides the empire East and West [6]
300 Eastern Polynesian culture develops [9]
4th century 333 Aksum converts to Christianity
350 Meroe comes to an end [8]
350 King of Anwar, Kaja Maja
378 Teotihuacan conquers Waka, Tikal, and Uaxactun, the beginning of its conquest of the Maya [10] 319 Rise of Gupta Empire in South Asia
383 Battle of Fei River
393 Last Olympic Games

313 Edict of Milan [6]
370 Huns invade Eastern Europe [6]
396 Alaric and the Visigoths invade Greece [6]

 
 AfricaAmericasAsiaEuropeOceania
5th century 401 c. camel main transport for trans-Sahara
429 Vandal invasion [8]
500 Nubia split into Nobadia, Makuria, Alodia
  420 Southern and Northern Dynasties period begins 407 Vandals enter Iberia [11]
421 Romans defeat Persians [11]
476 Fall of Roman Empire [11]
500 Settlement of Hawaii, Easter Island, Society Islands, Tuamotus and Mangareva [9]
6th century 520 Kaleb attacks Yemen
533 Belisarius invades Africa [8]
540 Nubia converts to monophysite Christianity
600 Wari' conquer Peru [12]
600 Construction of Palenque [5]
538 Buddhism introduced in Japan.
570 Birth of the Islamic prophet Muhammad
507 Battle of Vouillé [11]
535 Byzantine army invades Italy [11]
585 Visigoths conquer Suevi kingdom [11]
 
 AfricaAmericasAsiaEuropeOceania
7th century 641 Muslims invade Africa [13]
690 Za Dynasty founded
697 Carthage destroyed [13]
650 Settlement of Xochitecatl and Cacaxtla [12]
700 Teotihuacan destroyed [12]
618 Tang Dynasty established
632 Rise of Islam
651 Islamic conquest of Persia
c. 680 Bulgarian Empire was founded; 700 Settlement of the Cook Islands [9]
8th century 702 Aksum attacks Arabia [13]
706 Arabic in Egypt [13]
789 Independent Morocco [13]
738 Quiriguá becomes independent of Copan

750 Sacred Cenote built at Chichén Itzá [12]
780 Murals at Bonampak abandoned [12]

738 Caliphate campaigns in India and invasion of India by Umayyad Caliphate was averted
755 An Shi Rebellion
717 Siege of Constantinople
718 Islamic conquest of Spain
 
 AfricaAmericasAsiaEuropeOceania
9th century   801 c. Kanem Empire founded
801 c. Aksum declines, capital moved to interior
900 c. Igbo-Ukwu founded [14]
  835 Ganlu Incident 872 Norway unites
c. 874 Settlement of Iceland
896 Hungarians invade Carpathia
900 Settlement of New Zealand [9]
10th century 905 Tulunids ejected [13]
909 Fatimid established [13]
969 Fustat captured [13]
950 Great Serpent Mound constructed [12]
990 Toltecs conquer Chichén Itzá
907 Political upheaval of the Five Dynasties begins
960 Song dynasty established
958 Denmark unites
985 Erik the Red founds colony in Greenland
1000 Polynesians build stone temples [9]

Significant people

The people in this section are organized according to the United Nations geoscheme

Significant people of the 1st millennium AD
 AfricaAmericasAsiaEuropeOceania
1st century Natakamani
Zoskales
Amanikhatashan
  Jesus of Nazareth
Paul of Tarsus
Kanishka
Mary Magdalene
Caesar Augustus
Nero
Pliny the Elder
 
2nd century Gadarat
Septimius Severus [8]
Gärmat
Yax Moch Xoc [5] Cai Lun
Zhang Heng
Plutarch
Ptolemy
Commodus
 
 AfricaAmericasAsiaEuropeOceania
3rd century Macrinus [8]
King Aphilas of Aksum [8]
Endubis
Curl Snout [5] Mani
Cao Cao
Zhuge Liang
Diocletian [8]  
4th century Ezana
King Kaja Maja
Ousanas
Siyaj K'ak' [10] Empress Jingū
Samudragupta
Constantine I  
 AfricaAmericasAsiaEuropeOceania
5th century Augustine of Hippo
Nezool
Ouazebas
K'inich Yax K'uk' Mo' [5] Aryabhata Hypatia
Attila the Hun
Geiseric [8]
Hawaiiloa
6th century Saifu
Gelimer [8]
Saint Frumentius [8]
  Muhammad
Emperor Wen of Sui
Khosrau I
Clovis I
Theodoric the Great
Justinian I
 
 AfricaAmericasAsiaEuropeOceania
7th century Gregory the Patrician [13]
Bilal Ibn Rabah
Za Alieman
K'inich Janaab' Pakal [12]
Waxaklahùn Ubàh K'awìl [12]
Abu Bakr
Umar
Uthman
Ali
Saint Isidore of Seville
Kubrat
Asparukh
 
8th century Mai Sef of Saif
Ghana Majan Dyabe Cisse
Merkurios of Makuria
  Abū Ḥanīfa
Muḥammad ibn Idrīs al Shāfīʿī
Abi Ishaq
Li Bai
Saint Bede
Charles Martel
Tervel
 
 AfricaAmericasAsiaEuropeOceania
9th century Mai Fune
Bilikisu Sungbo
Georgios I
  Ahmad ibn Hanbal
Muhammad al-Bukhari
Abu Dawood
Muhammad Khwarizmi
Bayazid Bastami
Charlemagne
Alfred the Great
Krum
 
10th century Ubayd Allah al-Mahdi Billah
Georgios II
Rafael
Ce Acatl Topiltzin Abū Rayḥān al-Bīrūnī
Ḥasan ibn Alhazen
Al Battani
Emperor Taizu of Song
Simeon I
Otto the Great
Bjarni Herjólfsson
Erik the Red [12]
'Aho'eitu

Inventions, discoveries, introductions

Inventions, discoveries and introductions
CommunicationMath and ScienceAgricultureTransportationWarfare
  1. Woodblock printing
  2. Paper [15]
  1. Algebra
  2. Ptolemaic system
  3. Steel
  1. Coffee
  2. Hops
  1. Horseshoe
  2. Stirrup
  3. Magnetic compass
  1. Greek fire
  2. Gunpowder [15]

Centuries and decades

1st century 0s 10s 20s 30s 40s 50s 60s 70s 80s 90s
2nd century 100s 110s 120s 130s 140s 150s 160s 170s 180s 190s
3rd century 200s 210s 220s 230s 240s 250s 260s 270s 280s 290s
4th century 300s 310s 320s 330s 340s 350s 360s 370s 380s 390s
5th century 400s 410s 420s 430s 440s 450s 460s 470s 480s 490s
6th century 500s 510s 520s 530s 540s 550s 560s 570s 580s 590s
7th century 600s 610s 620s 630s 640s 650s 660s 670s 680s 690s
8th century 700s 710s 720s 730s 740s 750s 760s 770s 780s 790s
9th century 800s 810s 820s 830s 840s 850s 860s 870s 880s 890s
10th century 900s 910s 920s 930s 940s 950s 960s 970s 980s 990s

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References

  1. Julian Day Number from Date Calculator (casio.com)
  2. Klein Goldewijk, K. , A. Beusen, M. de Vos and G. van Drecht (2011). The HYDE 3.1 spatially explicit database of human induced land use change over the past 12,000 years, Global Ecology and Biogeography20(1): 73-86. doi : 10.1111/j.1466-8238.2010.00587.x (pbl.nl). Goldewijk et al. (2011) estimate 188 million as of the year 1, citing a literature range of 170 million (low) to 300 million (high). Out of the estimated 188 million, 116 million are estimated for Asia (East Asia, South Asia, Southeast Asia, and Central Asia, excluding Western Asia), 44 million for Europe and the Near East, 15 million for Africa (including Roman Egypt and Roman North Africa), 12 million for Mesoamerica and South America. North America and Oceania were at or below one million. For 1000, they estimate the world population at 295 million .
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