2002

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From left, clockwise: the 2002 Winter Olympics are held in Salt Lake City, Utah; Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother and her daughter Princess Margaret, Countess of Snowdon die; East Timor gains independence from Indonesia and is admitted to the UN; the 2002 FIFA World Cup is held in South Korea and Japan and is won by Brazil; a bombing in Kuta killed 202 people; the Uberlingen mid-air collision kills 71 people; Vladimir Putin visiting hospitalized hostages of the Moscow theater hostage crisis; the Euro becomes the official currency of the Eurozone. 2002 Events Collage.png
From left, clockwise: the 2002 Winter Olympics are held in Salt Lake City, Utah; Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother and her daughter Princess Margaret, Countess of Snowdon die; East Timor gains independence from Indonesia and is admitted to the UN; the 2002 FIFA World Cup is held in South Korea and Japan and is won by Brazil; a bombing in Kuta killed 202 people; the Überlingen mid-air collision kills 71 people; Vladimir Putin visiting hospitalized hostages of the Moscow theater hostage crisis; the Euro becomes the official currency of the Eurozone.
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2002 (MMII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2002nd year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 2nd year of the 3rd millennium and the 21st century, and the 3rd year of the 2000s decade.

Contents

After the September 11 attacks of the previous year, foreign policy and international relations were generally united in combatting al-Qaeda and other terrorist organizations. The United States especially was a leading force in combatting terrorist groups. 2002 also saw the signing and establishment of many international agreements and institutions, most notably the International Criminal Court, the African Union, the Russian-American Strategic Offensive Reductions Treaty, and the Eurozone.

The global economy, partly due to the September 11 attacks, generally stagnated or declined. Stock indices, such as the American Dow Jones Industrial Average and the Japanese Nikkei 225 both ended the year lower than they had started. In the later parts of 2002, the world saw the beginning of a SARS epidemic, which would go on to affect mostly China, Europe, and North America. [1] [2]

Population

The world population on January 1, 2002, was estimated to be 6.272 billion people, and it increased to 6.353 billion people by January 1, 2003. [3] An estimated 134.0 million births and 52.5 million deaths took place in 2002. [3] The average global life expectancy was 67.1 years, an increase of 0.3 years from 2001. [3] The rate of child mortality was 7.05%, a decrease of 0.27pp from 2001. [4] 26.85% of people were living in extreme poverty, a decrease of 1.40pp from 2000. [5]

The number of global refugees was approximately 12 million at the beginning of 2002, but it declined to 10.3 million by the end of the year. Approximately 2.4 million refugees were repatriated in 2002, of which 2 million were Afghan. 293,000 additional refugees were displaced in 2002, primarily from Liberia, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Burundi, Somalia, Ivory Coast, and the Central African Republic. [6]

Conflicts

There were 31 recognised armed conflicts in 2002, a net decrease from the previous year: seven conflicts ended in 2001, while conflicts in Angola, Congo, and Ivory Coast began or resumed in 2002. [7] The deadliest conflicts in 2002 were those in Burundi, Colombia, Kashmir, Nepal, and Sudan. [7] Among developed nations in 2002, national defense shifted toward counterterrorism after the September 11 attacks and the invasion of Afghanistan the previous year. Conflicts in Afghanistan, Chechnya, Israel, and the Philippines were directly related to countering Islamic terrorism. [8] :87

Internal conflicts

The Colombian conflict escalated after far-left insurgents occupied demilitarized zones and kidnapped Íngrid Betancourt, effectively ending peace talks. The insurgents began bombing cities, and over 200,000 Colombians were displaced by the conflict in 2002. [8] :91–92

The Nepalese Civil War escalated in 2002, with casualties approximately equaling the combined totals from 1996 to 2001; half of this increase was civilian casualties, as civilians were targeted by both the Nepali government and the communist insurgents. [8] :88–89 Chechen insurgents in Russia escalated their attacks during the Second Chechen War, destroying a Russian Mil Mi-26 in August and causing a hostage crisis in Moscow. [8] :93–94 The Second Liberian Civil War also escalated, causing widespread displacement of civilians. [9] :90

Conflicts that saw some form of resolution in 2002 include the Eelam War III in Sri Lanka, which was halted with a ceasefire agreement on February 24, [8] :98 and the Angolan Civil War, which was resolved in April with a ceasefire between the Angolan government and UNITA. [9] :89 Internationally brokered peace talks advanced in the Second Sudanese Civil War, [8] :102 some factions of the Somali Civil War, [8] :106 and the Second Congo War, with the latter producing an agreement on December 17 to create a Congolese transitional government. [8] :100–101 Afghanistan underwent its first year without direct military conflict in over two decades, though sporadic attacks were carried out by the Taliban insurgency and Al-Qaeda. [9] :256 An agreement was reached with the government of Burundi and the CNDD-FDD on December 3, but the other major faction in Burundi, the Palipehutu-FNL, did not participate in peace talks. [7]

International conflicts

The only direct conflict between nations in 2002 was the India–Pakistan standoff in Kashmir, [7] beginning in late 2001. This conflict was primarily one of brinkmanship, with the threat of nuclear warfare. [8] :88 Riots in Gujarat and suicide bombings in Jammu further escalated tensions. [10] :87 The two countries stood down in May. [8] :88

The Second Intifada continued in 2002 between the Israel Defense Forces and Palestinian paramilitary groups with an escalation in violence. Palestinian suicide bombings became coordinated to maximize the number of civilian casualties, while the Israeli military killed approximately twice as many Palestinians in retaliation. [10] :73 In response to the suicide bombings, Israel carried out Operation Defensive Shield in March. [9] :413 Under this operation, Israel occupied much of West Bank, [9] :413 and it and briefly held Palestinian president Yasser Arafat under house arrest. [8] :95 The Battle of Jenin was particularly destructive, with the United Nations finding both parties to be irresponsible regarding collateral damage. [8] :96

Culture

Art and architecture

Economic downturn and aftermath the September 11 attacks limited the art industry in 2002. Organizations were less willing to give patronage, and tourists were less willing to visit art exhibitions and museums, particularly in New York and the Middle East. [11] :502 The Documenta11 exhibition took place in Kassel, Germany, contributing to the early movement of art globalization with its focus on experimental and documentary works from developing nations. Traditional visual art was mostly replaced by film and photography at the exhibition. [11] :503 [12] Critically acclaimed paintings in 2002 include The Upper Room, a collection of paintings by Chris Ofili based on a drawing of a monkey by Andy Warhol, [13] and Dispersion, an abstract work by Julie Mehretu. [14]

New structures in 2002 included The Gherkin in London and the Cathedral of Our Lady of the Angels in Los Angeles. The Bibliotheca Alexandrina formally opened in Alexandria. [11] :506

Media

The highest-grossing films globally in 2002 were The Lord of the Rings: The Two Towers , Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets, and Spider-Man. The highest-grossing non-English film was Hero (Mandarin), the 28th highest-grossing film of the year. [15] Film was marked by several unexpected successes and failures in 2002, including the underwhelming performances of a Star Wars film, a James Bond film, and a Disney film, and the word-of-mouth success of My Big Fat Greek Wedding . [16] Critically acclaimed films from 2002 include Adaptation, [17] [18] [19] Far from Heaven , [18] [19] [20] and Talk to Her . [18] [19] [20]

Music sales in 2002 amounted to about 3 billion units, a decline of 8% from 2001. CD albums remained the dominant form of music, making up 89% of the market. DVD music sales increased by 40%, while cassette tape music sales decreased by 36%. [21] Pop music saw a major decline in 2002 as it was overtaken by country music and hip hop music. [22] Globally, the best-selling albums in 2002 were The Eminem Show by Eminem, Let Go by Avril Lavigne, and the Elvis Presley greatest hits album ELV1S: 30 No. 1 Hits. The best-selling non-English album was Mensch (transl.Human) by German singer Herbert Grönemeyer, the 29th best-selling album overall. [23]

Critically acclaimed video games released in 2002 include Eternal Darkness , Grand Theft Auto: Vice City , Metroid Prime , Metroid Fusion , and Super Mario Sunshine . [24] [25] [26] Medal of Honor: Allied Assault was influential in the war-based first-person shooter genre with its portrayal of grand cinematic battles. 2002 was the final year of traditional survival horror before it was overtaken by action-based survival horror games in franchises such as Resident Evil. [27]

Sports

The 2002 Winter Olympics were held in Salt Lake City, with Norway winning the most gold medals. Allegations that a figure skating judge was bribed to favor Russia in a figure skating event led to France and Russia both receiving gold medals in the event. [11] :515 [28] The Commonwealth Games were held in Manchester. [11] :516

The 2002 FIFA World Cup was held in Japan and South Korea, and it ended with a 2–0 victory by Brazil over Germany. The traditionally well-performing teams of Argentina, France, and Italy did not meet expectations, while Senegal, South Korea, Turkey, and the United States performed better than they had historically. [11] :513

In boxing, the Lennox Lewis vs. Mike Tyson was preceded by a scuffle during a press conference. Lennox Lewis went on to defeat Mike Tyson. [11] :520 [28] In American football, the Tuck Rule Game between the New England Patriots and the Oakland Raiders became a national controversy after officials cited the obscure tuck rule to challenge a pass by Tom Brady. [29] Bruno Peyron set the record for the fastest circumnavigation by sailing in 2002, making the trip in 64 days. [11] :521

Economy

International trade increased by 1.9% in 2002, correcting from a decrease in 2001. [30] :11 Most countries experienced only limited growth of output and employment in the year, and economic policy within the largest economies focused primarily on combating inflation. [30] :1 The gross world product increased by 1.7%, the second lowest growth in a decade after that of 2001. [30] :2 Most developed nations began 2002 in a budget surplus and ended in a deficit. [30] :8Growth was focused in the first half of the year before tapering in the second half [30] :35 as stock markets entered into a downturn. [31] The early 2000s recession began to stabilize in the final months of the year. [30] :1 Particularly affected was AOL-Time Warner, with its stocks losing 65% of their value by the fall. [10] :100 The information technology industry began its recovery following the dot-com crash that had previously affected it. [11] :458 The Euro, a single official currency for the nations of the European Union, was introduced on January 1. [11] :6

The price drops associated with the September 11 attacks persisted for several months into 2002. [30] :7 Latin American economies with large deficits were severely affected by lower prices, limiting export growth and preventing capital from entering the region, requiring further increases to the deficit. [30] :3 The region overall saw a negative GDP in 2002. [30] :4 Imports grew significantly in East Asia, with China competing with the United States as one of the largest export markets for other countries in the region. [30] :12Imports in Latin America and Africa decreased compared to the previous year. [30] :13

The United States recovered in part from the recession that had affected the Western world, while Europe's recovery was more limited. [11] :10 South America saw significant economic challenges: Argentina's economic crisis continued from 2001, Brazil had low confidence in its economy, and Venezuela's economy suffered amid political upheaval. [11] :13 Unlike the Western world, Eastern Europe and Asia showed strong growth in 2002. [11] :11 Africa did not share this growth, as it also experienced a weak economy during the year. [11] :14

Several companies in the United States underwent major scandals in 2002, including the WorldCom scandal that led to what was then the largest bankruptcy in American history, and accounting scandals emerging from the previous year's Enron scandal. [31] Others included the ImClone stock trading case and fraud cases at Adelphia and Tyco. These scandals brought the arrests of several high-profile executives. [10] :92–93

Environment and weather

Typhoon Rusa on August 27 Rusa 2002-08-27 0350Z.jpg
Typhoon Rusa on August 27

2002 was the second hottest year on record, exceeded only by 1998. [32] There was below average precipitation in 2002, with droughts in Australia, northern China, India, and western United States. [32] Heavy rains in late 2002 caused significant flooding in eastern Asia [32] and central Europe. [10] :77

The third Global Environment Outlook report was published in May. [11] :465 A major oil spill took place off the coast of Galicia, Spain, when the MV Prestige ruptured and sank. [10] :87 The deadliest earthquake in 2002 was a 6.1-magnitude earthquake that struck northern Afghanistan on March 25, killing approximately 1,000 people. [33]

The 2002 Atlantic hurricane season saw 12 named storms, a near-average number. Most of them were relatively minor, with only 4 four becoming hurricanes, of which two attained major hurricane status. The season's activity was limited to between July and October, a rare occurrence caused partly by El Niño conditions. The two major hurricanes, Hurricane Isidore and Hurricane Lili, both made landfall in Cuba and the United States, and combined were responsible for most of the season's damages and deaths. [34] The 2002 Pacific typhoon season entailed a typical number of typhoons, but they were above average in intensity with 46% of typhoons reaching "intense strength". Typhoon Rusa was the deadliest typhoon in 2002, killing at least 113 people in South Korea. [35]

Health

The World Health Organization (WHO) recognized "reducing risks" and "promoting healthy life" as its health concern of focus in the 2002 World Health Report. [36] Famines occurred in Ethiopia, Malawi, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. [11] :6

Politics

Hamid Karzai is elected president of Afghanistan Hamid Karzai became winner at the 2002 Loya Jirga.jpg
Hamid Karzai is elected president of Afghanistan

2002 saw the creation of a new sovereign nation in East Timor. [11] :1 Brazil, Lesotho, and Senegal established democracy in 2002 through the acceptance of fair elections, while Bahrain and Kenya moved toward democracy through the strengthening of political institutions. Democracy was disestablished in Ivory Coast and Togo following mass political violence and unfair elections, respectively. [37] :14 Afghanistan underwent significant liberalization under a transitional government following end of major fighting in the War in Afghanistan, particularly in the capital of Kabul, though distant regions of the country remained oppressed by warlords. [37] :15 Civil rights also increased following the end of conflicts in Angola, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Macedonia. [37] :15–16 Turkey lessened its restrictions on the country's Kurdish population in 2002. [37] :16

Terrorism dominated politics internationally in 2002, with both terrorist acts and attempts to declare groups as terrorist organizations being prevalent throughout the year. Islamic terrorism was widely seen as responsible for terrorist attacks throughout the year. In response, the United States began providing military assistance against terrorists in several countries as part of Operation Enduring Freedom. [11] :2 International law regarding these actions had yet to be settled, and international organizations spent the year debating how action against terrorist groups should be carried out. [11] :469

George W. Bush defined an "axis of evil" in an address in January, naming Iran, Iraq, and North Korea as foreign adversaries of the United States. Increasing tensions between Iraq and the United States became a major geopolitical issue in 2002 amid suspicions that Iraq had resumed its production of weapons of mass destruction. The United Nations delivered an ultimatum for Iraq to comply with weapons inspections in late 2002. [38] Because of this dispute, as well Hussein's involvement with terrorist groups amid the War on Terror, an invasion of Iraq by the United States was widely expected. [10] :66–71

The Rome Statute entered into force in July, establishing the International Criminal Court. [11] :469 The International Court of Justice ruled in three cases: it ruled that diplomatic immunity applied to all crimes, including crimes against humanity, and it settled two territorial disputes, ruling in favor of Cameroon over Nigeria and in favor of Malaysia over Indonesia. [11] :471–472 A lesser court was established by the United Nations in Sierra Leone prosecute figures associated with the nation's civil war. [39] :470 The prosecution of former Yugoslavian Slobodan Milošević was delayed, and the genocide portion of the charges against him was dropped. [10] :86

The Chinese Communist Party chose Hu Jintao as its next leader in a November meeting. [10] :87 The African Union formally came into existence in July. [11] :7 The United Kingdom held a Golden Jubilee celebration for Queen Elizabeth II, marking fifty years as the monarch. [10] :78 In Latin America, the great depression in Argentina continued into 2002, causing significant political turmoil. Venezuela also underwent political crisis with an attempted coup against President Hugo Chávez in April and a national strike against his administration later in the year. [38] Brazil elected the leftist president Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva in response to the economic instability. [10] :86

Religion

The Church of England determined in July that divorcees could marry in the church. Then in December, the church saw its first leader in centuries from outside its own membership when the Welsh Rowan Williams was confirmed as Archbishop of Canterbury. [11] :447 The Catholic Church sexual abuse scandal continued from 2001. The church adopted rules on how to address sexual abuse allegations on January 8, and Pope John Paul II made his second papal statement on the matter on March 22. [11] :448 Belarus made the Russian Orthodox Church in Belarus into the state's legally recognized religion, curtailing practice of other religions. [11] :449 Islam grappled with the aftermath of the September 11 attacks in 2002, facing both the expansion of Islamic terrorism and of United States military action in combating it. [11] :450

Science and technology

A 2002 Toyota Prius 2002 Toyota Prius (3).jpg
A 2002 Toyota Prius

Major biological advances in 2002 include the discovery of small RNA, the genome sequence for indica rice, the genome sequences for malaria carriers anopheles gambiae and plasmodium falciparum , the discovery of a potential human ancestor from millions of years before the present. [11] :456–457 [40] Developments were also made in understanding of TRP channels in taste, the role of light in a circadian rhythm, and the development of 3D imagery of cells. [40] Bavarian pine voles were discovered in Austria after being thought extinct in the 1960s. [11] :467

61 successful and four failed space launches took place in 2002. NASA launches included the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager, the Aqua research satellite, and a Polar Operational Environmental Satellite. [41] The European Space Agency launched the Meteosat 8 satellite in August and the INTEGRAL observatory in October. It also saw the launch of the Envisat satellite. [11] :453–454 China launched the Shenzhou 3 and Shenzhou 4 missions in March and December, respectively. [11] :454 Study with the Cosmic Background Imager revealed a more detailed image of cosmic background radiation, and telescopes were able to counteract the scattering effect of Earth's atmosphere through adaptive optics. [40]

Hybrid vehicles first saw widespread popularity in 2002. [10] :94–95

The open-source-software movement saw growth throughout the year, in part because of Microsoft's success in avoiding tighter regulations in court. [11] :458 New developments in peer-to-peer sharing allowed decentralized file sharing between computers, allowing for the proliferation of online piracy. Blogging also became a common practice in 2002. [11] :460

Events

January

A one euro coin Euro 1 coin.gif
A one euro coin

February

The Olympic flame during the 2002 Winter Olympics 2002 Winter Olympics flame.jpg
The Olympic flame during the 2002 Winter Olympics

March

A model of the Envisat satellite Envisatmod.jpg
A model of the Envisat satellite

April

Israel Defense Force soldiers during the Battle of Nablus Flickr - Israel Defense Forces - Standing Guard in Nablus.jpg
Israel Defense Force soldiers during the Battle of Nablus
Vladimir Putin and George W. Bush sign the Strategic Offensive Reductions Treaty Vladimir Putin 24 May 2002-9.jpg
Vladimir Putin and George W. Bush sign the Strategic Offensive Reductions Treaty

May

June

50000 Quaoar Quaoar-weywot hst.jpg
50000 Quaoar

July

The flag of the African Union Flag of the African Union.svg
The flag of the African Union

August

September

American and French soldiers in Operation Enduring Freedom - Horn of Africa Operation Enduring Freedom - djibouti2.jpg
American and French soldiers in Operation Enduring Freedom – Horn of Africa

October

November

Cleanup after the MV Prestige disaster S-vicente2-Prestige oil spill.jpg
Cleanup after the MV Prestige disaster

December

Births and deaths

Prominent deaths in 2002 included world leaders Hugo Banzer, John Gorton, Fernando Belaúnde and Ne Win. The British royal family in particular saw two major funerals, that of Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother and Princess Margaret. The year witnessed the passing of film figures Chuck Jones, Billy Wilder, María Félix and Rod Steiger; and musicians Layne Staley, John Entwistle and Joe Strummer. 2002 also marked the births of actors Jenna Ortega and Finn Wolfhard, as well as athletes Pedri and Emma Raducanu.

Nobel Prizes

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Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">2001</span> Calendar year

2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2001st year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 1st year of the 3rd millennium and the 21st century, and the 2nd year of the 2000s decade.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">2004</span> Calendar year

2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2004th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 4th year of the 3rd millennium and the 21st century, and the 5th year of the 2000s decade.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">2008</span> Calendar year

2008 (MMVIII) was a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2008th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 8th year of the 3rd millennium and the 21st century, and the 9th year of the 2000s decade.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">2009</span> Calendar year

2009 (MMIX) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2009th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 9th year of the 3rd millennium and the 21st century, and the 10th and last year of the 2000s decade.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">2003</span> Calendar year

2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2003rd year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 3rd year of the 3rd millennium and the 21st century, and the 4th year of the 2000s decade.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">2006</span> Calendar year

2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2006th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 6th year of the 3rd millennium and the 21st century, and the 7th year of the 2000s decade.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">2007</span> Calendar year

2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2007th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 7th year of the 3rd millennium and the 21st century, and the 8th year of the 2000s decade.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">2013</span> Calendar year

2013 (MMXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2013th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 13th year of the 3rd millennium and the 21st century, and the 4th year of the 2010s decade.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">2014</span> Calendar year

2014 (MMXIV) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2014th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 14th year of the 3rd millennium and the 21st century, and the 5th year of the 2010s decade.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">2015</span> Calendar year

2015 (MMXV) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2015th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 15th year of the 3rd millennium and the 21st century, and the 6th year of the 2010s decade.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">2016</span> Calendar year

2016 (MMXVI) was a leap year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2016th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 16th year of the 3rd millennium and the 21st century, and the 7th year of the 2010s decade.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">2017</span> Calendar year

2017 (MMXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2017th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 17th year of the 3rd millennium and the 21st century, and the 8th year of the 2010s decade.

2022 (MMXXII) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2022nd year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 22nd year of the 3rd millennium and the 21st century, and the 3rd year of the 2020s decade.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">September 11 attacks</span> 2001 Islamist terror attacks in the United States

The September 11 attacks, commonly known as 9/11, were four coordinated Islamist suicide terrorist attacks carried out by al-Qaeda against the United States in 2001. That morning, 19 terrorists hijacked four commercial airliners scheduled to travel from the New England and Mid-Atlantic regions of the East Coast to California. The hijackers crashed the first two planes into the Twin Towers of the World Trade Center in New York City, two of the world's five tallest buildings at the time, and aimed the next two flights toward targets in or near Washington, D.C., in an attack on the nation's capital. The third team succeeded in striking the Pentagon, the headquarters of the U.S. Department of Defense in Arlington County, Virginia, while the fourth plane went down in rural Pennsylvania during a passenger revolt. The September 11 attacks killed nearly 3,000 people, the most deadly terrorist attack in human history, and instigated the multi-decade global war on terror, fought in Afghanistan, Iraq, and elsewhere.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">War on terror</span> Military campaign following 9/11 attacks

The war on terror, officially the Global War on Terrorism (GWOT), is a global military campaign initiated by the United States following the September 11 attacks and is the most recent global conflict spanning multiple wars. The main targets of the campaign are militant Islamist movements like Al-Qaeda, Taliban and their allies. Other major targets included the Ba'athist regime in Iraq, which was deposed in an invasion in 2003, and various militant factions that fought during the ensuing insurgency. After its territorial expansion in 2014, the Islamic State militia has also emerged as a key adversary of the United States.

The 21stcentury is the current century in the Anno Domini or Common Era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. It began on 1 January 2001 and will end on 31 December 2100. It is the first century of the 3rd millennium.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Lashkar-e-Jhangvi</span> Jihadist militant organisation

The Lashkar-e-Jhangvi was a Deobandi supremacist, terrorist and Jihadist militant organisation based in Afghanistan. The organisation operates in Pakistan and Afghanistan and is an offshoot of anti-Shia party Sipah-e-Sahaba Pakistan (SSP). The LeJ was founded by former SSP activists Riaz Basra, Malik Ishaq, Akram Lahori, and Ghulam Rasool Shah.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Mass shooting</span> Incident involving multiple victims of firearm violence

A mass shooting is a violent crime in which one or more attackers kill or injure multiple individuals simultaneously using a firearm. There is no widely accepted definition of "mass shooting" and different organizations tracking such incidents use different definitions. Definitions of mass shootings exclude warfare and sometimes exclude instances of gang violence, armed robberies, familicides and terrorism. The perpetrator of an ongoing mass shooting may be referred to as an active shooter.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Rohingya genocide</span> Ongoing ethnic cleansing in Myanmar

The Rohingya genocide is a series of ongoing persecutions and killings of the Muslim Rohingya people by the military of Myanmar. The genocide has consisted of two phases to date: the first was a military crackdown that occurred from October 2016 to January 2017, and the second has been occurring since August 2017. The crisis forced over a million Rohingya to flee to other countries. Most fled to Bangladesh, resulting in the creation of the world's largest refugee camp, while others escaped to India, Thailand, Malaysia, and other parts of South and Southeast Asia, where they continue to face persecution. Many other countries consider these events ethnic cleansing.

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