2003

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From top left, clockwise: the crew of STS-107 perished when the Space Shuttle Columbia disintegrated during reentry into Earth's atmosphere; SARS became an epidemic in China, and was a precursor to SARS-CoV-2; Myspace launches becoming one of the first major social media platforms; protests in London against the invasion of Iraq; a drained river in France during the European heatwave; an earthquake in Bam, Iran kills 30,000 people; abuse and torture of Iraqi prisoners at Abu Ghraib prison by U.S. personnel; a statue of Saddam Hussein is toppled in Baghdad after his regime was deposed during the Iraq War. 2003 Events Collage V2.3.jpg
From top left, clockwise: the crew of STS-107 perished when the Space Shuttle Columbia disintegrated during reentry into Earth's atmosphere; SARS became an epidemic in China, and was a precursor to SARS-CoV-2; Myspace launches becoming one of the first major social media platforms; protests in London against the invasion of Iraq; a drained river in France during the European heatwave; an earthquake in Bam, Iran kills 30,000 people; abuse and torture of Iraqi prisoners at Abu Ghraib prison by U.S. personnel; a statue of Saddam Hussein is toppled in Baghdad after his regime was deposed during the Iraq War.
Millennium: 3rd millennium
Centuries:
Decades:
Years:
2003 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar 2003
MMIII
Ab urbe condita 2756
Armenian calendar 1452
ԹՎ ՌՆԾԲ
Assyrian calendar 6753
Baháʼí calendar 159–160
Balinese saka calendar 1924–1925
Bengali calendar 1410
Berber calendar 2953
British Regnal year 51  Eliz. 2   52  Eliz. 2
Buddhist calendar 2547
Burmese calendar 1365
Byzantine calendar 7511–7512
Chinese calendar 壬午年 (Water  Horse)
4700 or 4493
     to 
癸未年 (Water  Goat)
4701 or 4494
Coptic calendar 1719–1720
Discordian calendar 3169
Ethiopian calendar 1995–1996
Hebrew calendar 5763–5764
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat 2059–2060
 - Shaka Samvat 1924–1925
 - Kali Yuga 5103–5104
Holocene calendar 12003
Igbo calendar 1003–1004
Iranian calendar 1381–1382
Islamic calendar 1423–1424
Japanese calendar Heisei 15
(平成15年)
Javanese calendar 1935–1936
Juche calendar 92
Julian calendar Gregorian minus 13 days
Korean calendar 4336
Minguo calendar ROC 92
民國92年
Nanakshahi calendar 535
Thai solar calendar 2546
Tibetan calendar 阳水马年
(male Water-Horse)
2129 or 1748 or 976
     to 
阴水羊年
(female Water-Goat)
2130 or 1749 or 977
Unix time 1041379200 – 1072915199

2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2003rd year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 3rd year of the 3rd millennium and the 21st century, and the 4th year of the 2000s decade.

Contents

2003 was designated by the United Nations as the International Year of Freshwater [1]

In 2003, a United States-led coalition invaded Iraq, starting the Iraq War.

Demographics

The world population on January 1, 2003, was estimated to be 6.272 billion people and increased to 6.353 billion people by January 1, 2004. [2] An estimated 134.0 million births and 52.5 million deaths took place in 2003. [2] The average global life expectancy was 67.1 years, an increase of 0.3 years from 2002. [2] The rate of child mortality was 6.85%, a decrease of 0.27pp from 2002. [3] 25.54% of people were living in extreme poverty, a decrease of 1.31pp from 2002 [4]

There were approximately 10.6 million global refugees at the beginning of 2003, and the number was reduced to 9.7 million refugees by the end of the year. [5] Afghanistan was the largest source of refugees, with a total of 2.1 million at the end of the year. [5]

Conflicts

There were 29 armed conflicts affecting 22 countries in 2003. This was a net decrease from 31 conflicts in 2002. [6] :625 The deadliest conflicts were in Iraq, Kashmir, Liberia, Nepal, and Sudan. [6] :627

Internal conflicts

The Colombian conflict against two Marxist militant groups—the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia and the National Liberation Army—escalated in 2003. [7] :101 The government negotiated an agreement for the right-wing militant group United Self-Defense Forces of Colombia to disband as a means to deescalate the conflict. [7] :102

The First Ivorian Civil War was halted in 2003 amid a ceasefire while France and the states of ECOWAS intervened. Peace talks fell apart on March 7 until the ceasefire was restored on May 3, only to be broken again on September 23. The war was left in a frozen state at the end of 2003 with rebels controlling parts of the country. [7] :115–116 The Second Liberian Civil War against Liberians United for Reconciliation and Democracy escalated when the Movement for Democracy in Liberia split off as its own faction. [7] :116 President Charles Taylor resigned on August 2, allowing a peace agreement to take place on August 18. [7] :118

The Indonesian insurgency in Aceh escalated when a demilitarization agreement failed and the government renewed its offensive in May. [7] :126 The Moro conflict in the Philippines deescalated when the Philippine government agreed to peace talks with the Moro Islamic Liberation Front in July, though conflicts with other groups continued. [7] :129

The Sri Lankan Civil War continued in 2003 as peace talks failed, and long-running civil wars in Burundi and in Uganda both escalated. [7] :107–112 The Second Sudanese Civil War escalated as new militant groups joined the conflict, [6] :628 though a security agreement was reached between the National Islamic Front and the Sudan People's Liberation Movement on September 25. [7] :119 The Second Chechen War continued in Russia: the Russian government held a referendum for a new Chechen constitution and offered amnesty for Chechen rebels, but terror attacks continued. [7] :125

International conflicts

Only two inter-state conflicts took place in 2003: the Iraq War and the Kashmir conflict. The Kashmir conflict saw progress toward resolution in 2003 as negotiations began and a ceasefire took effect on November 23. [7] :95 A coalition of countries led by the United States, the United Kingdom, and Australia led an invasion of Iraq beginning on March 20, warning that Iraq had been operating a program to develop weapons of mass destruction. The subsequent Iraq War became the most publicized conflict in 2003. [6] :627–628

The Second Intifada continued into 2003 as conflict between Israel and Palestine killed 400 people in suicide bombings by Palestinians and military strikes by the Israel Defense Forces. [7] :104

Culture

Media

The highest-grossing films globally in 2003 were The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King , Finding Nemo , and The Matrix Reloaded . The highest-grossing non-English film was Bayside Shakedown 2 (Japanese), the 39th highest-grossing film of the year. [8] Critically acclaimed films from 2003 include Finding Nemo, [9] [10] [11] [12] Lost in Translation , [9] [11] [13] and Master and Commander. [9] [10] [13]

Music sales in 2003 amounted to about 2.7 billion units, a decline of 6.5% from 2002. DVD music video thrived in 2003 at the expense of singles and cassettes. [14] Globally, the best-selling albums of the year were Come Away with Me by Norah Jones, Get Rich or Die Tryin' by 50 Cent, and Meteora by Linkin Park. No non-English albums were among the global top fifty albums sold in 2003. [15]

Sports

Golf saw an upset when Ben Curtis defeated some of the sport's top players in his first major competition at the 2003 Open Championship. Tennis players Roger Federer and Andy Roddick won their first Grand Slams in 2003. [16]

Economy

The global economy improved in the second half of 2003 as it recovered from the early 2000s recession, brought about by low interest rates and expansionary fiscal policy. The United States led the recovery, while China and Japan also made significant contributions. The economic situation improved in Latin America and Africa, while Western Europe saw slower recovery. The gross world product increased by 2.5% in 2003, and international trade increased by 4.75%. The prices of non-fuel commodities, such as metal, minerals, and agricultural materials, increased during the year. [17]

Environment and weather

2003 tied with 2002 as the second hottest year on record, behind only 1998. The year began during an El Niño period that continued until April. A major heatwave occurred in Europe during the summer, causing approximately 70,000 deaths, 14,000 in France alone.

Severe cold weather affected Asia, North America, and Peru. 2003 saw low precipitation, causing droughts in Australia, the United States, and Zimbabwe. The previous year's droughts in Asia were alleviated by heavy precipitation in the region. [18]

Major earthquakes in 2003 included a magnitude 6.8 earthquake in Algeria on May 21 that killed over 2,200 people and a magnitude 6.6 earthquake in Iran on December 26 that killed about 50,000 people. [19]

The 2003 Atlantic hurricane season was above average in activity, including sixteen named storms of which seven were hurricanes. The most severe hurricanes were Hurricane Fabian, Hurricane Isabel, and Hurricane Kate. Tropical Storm Ana was the first recorded North Atlantic tropical storm to occur in April, and 2003 was the first year since 1887 to have two tropical storms occur in December. [20] The 2003 Pacific typhoon season was slightly more intense than average, though the overall number of tropical storms was below average with 23 total storms. The most destructive typhoons were Typhoon Dujuan, which made landfall in Guangdong, China, on September 2, and Typhoon Maemi, which made landfall in South Korea on September 12. [21]

Health

The World Health Organization set "shaping the future" as its health focus for 2003, seeking to improve health systems and primary health care for the poor. [22]

Events

January

February

March

April

May

June

July

August

September

October

November

December

Births and deaths

Nobel Prizes

Nobel medal.png

New English words and terms

Related Research Articles

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1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar, the 1993rd year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 993rd year of the 2nd millennium, the 93rd year of the 20th century, and the 4th year of the 1990s decade.

1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 1992nd year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 992nd year of the 2nd millennium, the 92nd year of the 20th century, and the 3rd year of the 1990s decade.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">1991</span> Calendar year

1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 1991st year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 991st year of the 2nd millennium, the 91st year of the 20th century, and the 2nd year of the 1990s decade.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">2002</span> Calendar year

2002 (MMII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2002nd year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 2nd year of the 3rd millennium and the 21st century, and the 3rd year of the 2000s decade.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">2004</span> Calendar year

2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2004th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 4th year of the 3rd millennium and the 21st century, and the 5th year of the 2000s decade.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">2009</span> Calendar year

2009 (MMIX) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2009th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 9th year of the 3rd millennium and the 21st century, and the 10th and last year of the 2000s decade.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">2006</span> Calendar year

2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2006th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 6th year of the 3rd millennium and the 21st century, and the 7th year of the 2000s decade.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">2014</span> Calendar year

2014 (MMXIV) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2014th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 14th year of the 3rd millennium and the 21st century, and the 5th year of the 2010s decade.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">2017</span> Calendar year

2017 (MMXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2017th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 17th year of the 3rd millennium and the 21st century, and the 8th year of the 2010s decade.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Timeline of the Iraq War</span> Sequence of events in the US invasion of Iraq

The following is a timeline of major events during the Iraq War, following the 2003 invasion of Iraq.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Improvised explosive device</span> Unconventionally produced bomb

An improvised explosive device (IED) is a bomb constructed and deployed in ways other than in conventional military action. It may be constructed of conventional military explosives, such as an artillery shell, attached to a detonating mechanism. IEDs are commonly used as roadside bombs, or homemade bombs.

The Moroccan Islamic Combatant Group, known by the French acronym GICM, was a Sunni Islamist militant organization that operated in Morocco, North Africa, and Western Europe. The organization's objective was to establish an Islamic government in Morocco.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Jama'at al-Tawhid wal-Jihad</span> Jordanian/Iraqi Salafi jihadist militant group (1999–2004)

Jama'at al-Tawhid wal-Jihad, abbreviated as JTJ or Jama'at, was a Salafi jihadist militant group. It was founded in Jordan in 1999, and was led by Jordanian national Abu Musab al-Zarqawi for the entirety of its existence. During the Iraqi insurgency (2003–11), the group became a decentralized network with foreign fighters with a considerable Iraqi membership.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Iraq War</span> War in Iraq from 2003 to 2011

The Iraq War was a protracted armed conflict in Iraq from 2003 to 2011. It began with the invasion of Iraq by the United States-led coalition that overthrew the Ba'athist government of Saddam Hussein. The conflict continued for much of the next decade as an insurgency emerged to oppose the coalition forces and the post-invasion Iraqi government. US troops were officially withdrawn in 2011.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Al-Qaeda in Iraq</span> Salafi jihadist militant group (2004–2006)

Tanzim Qaidat al-Jihad fi Bilad al-Rafidayn, more commonly known as Al-Qaeda in Iraq, was a Salafi jihadist organization affiliated with Al-Qaeda. It was founded on 17 October 2004, and was led by Abu Musab al-Zarqawi and Abu Ayyub al-Masri until its disbandment on 15 October 2006.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">War on terror</span> Military campaign following 9/11 attacks

The war on terror, officially the Global War on Terrorism (GWOT), is a global military campaign initiated by the United States following the September 11 attacks and is the most recent global conflict spanning multiple wars. The main targets of the campaign are militant Islamist movements like Al-Qaeda, Taliban and their allies. Other major targets included the Ba'athist regime in Iraq, which was deposed in an invasion in 2003, and various militant factions that fought during the ensuing insurgency. After its territorial expansion in 2014, the Islamic State militia has also emerged as a key adversary of the United States.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Islamic State of Iraq</span> Militant Salafist jihadist group in Iraq (2006–2013)

The Islamic State of Iraq, was a Salafi jihadist militant organization that fought the forces of the U.S.-led coalition during the Iraqi insurgency. The organization aimed to overthrow the Iraqi federal government and establish an Islamic state in Iraq.

Shia Muslims have been persecuted by the Islamic State, an Islamic extremist group, since 2014. Persecutions have taken place in Iraq, Syria, and other parts of the world.

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