2005 Atlantic hurricane season

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2005 Atlantic hurricane season
2005 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png
Season summary map
Seasonal boundaries
First system formedJune 8, 2005
Last system dissipatedJanuary 6, 2006
(record latest, tied with 1954)
Strongest storm
Name Wilma
(Most intense hurricane in the Atlantic basin)
  Maximum winds185 mph (295 km/h)
(1-minute sustained)
  Lowest pressure882 mbar (hPa; 26.05 inHg)
Seasonal statistics
Total depressions31 (record high)
Total storms28 (record high)
Hurricanes15 (record high)
Major hurricanes
(Cat. 3+)
7 (record high, tied with 1961)
Total fatalities3,960 total
Total damage$180.7 billion (2005 USD)
(Second-costliest tropical cyclone season on record)
Related articles
Atlantic hurricane seasons
2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007

The 2005 Atlantic hurricane season was the most active Atlantic hurricane season in recorded history, shattering numerous records. The impact of the season was widespread and catastrophic. Its storms caused an estimated total of 3,960 deaths and approximately $180.7 billion in damage, making it the second costliest season on record, surpassed only by the 2017 season.

Atlantic hurricane season tropical cyclone season

The Atlantic hurricane season is the period in a year when hurricanes usually form in the Atlantic Ocean. Tropical cyclones in the North Atlantic are called hurricanes, tropical storms, or tropical depressions. In addition, there have been several storms over the years that have not been fully tropical and are categorized as subtropical depressions and subtropical storms. Even though subtropical storms and subtropical depressions are not technically as strong as tropical cyclones, the damages can still be devastating.

Recorded history historical narrative based on a written record or other documented communication

Recorded history or written history is a historical narrative based on a written record or other documented communication. It contrasts with other narratives of the past, such as mythological, oral or archeological traditions. For broader world history, recorded history begins with the accounts of the ancient world around the 4th millennium BC, and coincides with the invention of writing. For some geographic regions or cultures, written history is limited to a relatively recent period in human history because of the limited use of written records. Moreover, human cultures do not always record all of the information relevant to later historians, such as the full impact of natural disasters or the names of individuals. Recorded history for particular types of information is therefore limited based on the types of records kept. Because of this, recorded history in different contexts may refer to different periods of time depending on the topic.

2017 Atlantic hurricane season hurricane season in the Atlantic Ocean

The 2017 Atlantic hurricane season was a hyperactive and catastrophic hurricane season that, with a damage total of at least $282.28 billion (USD), was the costliest tropical cyclone season on record. With over 3,300 deaths, 2017 was the deadliest season since 2005 and also featured the highest total accumulated cyclone energy (ACE) since the same year. Most of the season's damage was due to three major hurricanes – Harvey, Irma, and Maria. Another notable hurricane, Nate, was the worst natural disaster in Costa Rican history; Harvey, Irma, Maria, and Nate had their names retired due to their high damage costs and loss of life. Featuring 17 named storms, 10 hurricanes, and 6 major hurricanes, the 2017 season ranks alongside 1936 as the fifth-most active season since reliable records began in 1851. The 2017 season had the most major hurricanes since 2005. This season is also one of only six years on record to feature multiple Category 5 hurricanes and the only season other than 2007 with two hurricanes making landfall at that intensity. All ten of the season's hurricanes occurred in a row, the greatest number of consecutive hurricanes in the satellite era, and tied for the highest number of consecutive hurricanes ever observed in the Atlantic basin. Additionally, this season is the only season on record in which three hurricanes each had an ACE of over 40: Irma, Jose, and Maria.

Contents

Of the storms that made landfall, five of the season's seven major hurricanesDennis, Emily, Katrina, Rita, and Wilma—were responsible for the majority of the destruction. Stan was the most destructive storm that was not a major hurricane. The Mexican states of Quintana Roo and Yucatán and the U.S. states of Florida and Louisiana were each struck twice by major hurricanes; Cuba, the Bahamas, Haiti, Mississippi, Texas, Alabama, and Tamaulipas were each struck once and brushed by at least one more.

Hurricane Dennis Category 4 Atlantic hurricane in 2005

Hurricane Dennis was an early-forming major hurricane in the Caribbean and Gulf of Mexico during the record-breaking 2005 Atlantic hurricane season. Dennis was the fourth named storm, second hurricane, and first major hurricane of the season. Forming in July, the hurricane became the strongest Atlantic hurricane ever to form before August at the time, a title it held for only six days before being surpassed by Hurricane Emily.

Hurricane Emily (2005) Category 5 Atlantic hurricane in 2005

Hurricane Emily was the earliest forming Category 5 Atlantic hurricane on record in a season and the most intense to form before August. A powerful, early season and Cape Verde tropical cyclone that caused significant damage across the Caribbean Sea to Mexico, the storm formed on July 10, 2005, in the central Atlantic Ocean before passing through the Windward Islands on July 14. Tracking generally towards the west-northwest, the storm gradually intensified as it traversed the Caribbean, peaking as a Category 5 hurricane on July 16, marking the earliest date for a storm to do so during the course of a given year. The system subsequently made landfall in the Yucatán Peninsula as a Category 4. Quickly crossing the peninsula, Emily emerged into the Gulf of Mexico and reorganized. On July 20, the storm struck Tamaulipas as a major hurricane and rapidly dissipated within 24 hours. The storm caused significant damage along its path, with up to $1.01 billion in damages recorded, as well as causing 17 fatalities. Emily is the latest Category 5 storm to not have its name retired.

Hurricane Katrina Category 5 Atlantic hurricane in 2005

Hurricane Katrina was an extremely destructive and deadly Category 5 hurricane that made landfall on Florida and Louisiana in August 2005, causing catastrophic damage; particularly in the city of New Orleans and the surrounding areas. Subsequent flooding, caused largely as a result of fatal engineering flaws in the flood protection system known as levees around the city of New Orleans, precipitated most of the loss of lives. The storm was the third major hurricane of the record-breaking 2005 Atlantic hurricane season, as well as the fourth-most intense Atlantic hurricane on record to make landfall in the contiguous United States, behind only the 1935 Labor Day hurricane, Hurricane Camille in 1969, and Hurricane Michael in 2018.

The most devastating effects of the season were felt on the United States' Gulf Coast, where a 30-foot (9.1 m) storm surge from Hurricane Katrina caused severe flooding that destroyed most structures on the Mississippi coastline; subsequent levee failures in New Orleans, Louisiana caused by the storm crippled the city. Furthermore, Hurricane Stan combined with an extratropical system to cause deadly mudslides across Central America, with Guatemala being hardest-hit.

United States Federal republic in North America

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States or America, is a country comprising 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is slightly smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U.S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D.C., and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico. The State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U.S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The extremely diverse geography, climate, and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.

Gulf Coast of the United States Coastline in the United States

The Gulf Coast of the United States is the coastline along the Southern United States where they meet the Gulf of Mexico. The coastal states that have a shoreline on the Gulf of Mexico are Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, and Florida, and these are known as the Gulf States.

A storm surge, storm flood, tidal surge or storm tide is a coastal flood or tsunami-like phenomenon of rising water commonly associated with low pressure weather systems, the severity of which is affected by the shallowness and orientation of the water body relative to storm path, as well as the timing of tides. Most casualties during tropical cyclones occur as the result of storm surges. It is a measure of the rise of water beyond what would be expected by the normal movement related to tides.

The 2005 season was the first to observe more tropical storms and cyclones in the Atlantic than in the West Pacific; on average, the latter experiences 26 tropical storms per year while the Atlantic only averages 12. This event was repeated in the 2010 season; however, the 2010 typhoon season broke the record for the fewest storms observed in a single year, while the 2005 typhoon season featured near-average activity.

2005 Pacific typhoon season typhoon season in the Pacific Ocean

The 2005 Pacific typhoon season was the least active typhoon season since 2000, featuring only 24 tropical storms, 13 typhoons and three super typhoons. The season ran throughout 2005, though most tropical cyclones typically develop between May and October. The season's first named storm, Kulap, developed on January 15, while the season's last named storm, Bolaven, dissipated on November 20.

2010 Atlantic hurricane season hurricane season in the Atlantic Ocean

The 2010 Atlantic hurricane season was the first in a group of three very active Atlantic hurricane seasons. It is tied alongside 1887, 1995, 2011, and 2012 with 19 tropical storms, the third highest count in recorded history. It featured 12 hurricanes, tied with 1969 for the second highest total. Only the quintessential 2005 season saw more activity. The overall tropical cyclone count in the Atlantic exceeded that in the West Pacific for only the second time on record. The season officially began on June 1 and ended on November 30, dates that conventionally delimit the period during each year when tropical cyclone formation is most likely. The first cyclone, Alex intensified into the first June hurricane since Allison in 1995. The month of September featured eight named storms, tying 2002 and 2007 for the record. October featured five hurricanes, just short of the record set in 1870. Finally, Hurricane Tomas became the latest hurricane on record to move through the Windward Islands in late October. Activity was represented with an accumulated cyclone energy (ACE) value of 165 units, which was the eleventh highest value on record at the time.

2010 Pacific typhoon season typhoon season in the Pacific Ocean

The 2010 Pacific typhoon season was the least active Pacific typhoon season on record, featuring only 14 named storms; seven of them strengthened into typhoons while one reached super typhoon intensity. The Pacific typhoon season during 2010 was in fact less active than the 2010 Atlantic hurricane season, the only such occurrence other than 2005. In the same year, the Pacific hurricane season broke the same record being the least active season on record. During the season no storms have made landfall in mainland Japan, the only second such occurrence since 1988. Also, all of the 14 named storms developed west of 150°E. Moreover, the season had an index total Accumulated Cyclone Energy (ACE) of 115, which is the second lowest in the basin after 1999. It was also the fourth consecutive year with a below average ACE index.

The season officially began on June 1, 2005, and lasted until November 30, although it effectively persisted into January 2006 due to continued storm activity. A record twenty-eight tropical and subtropical storms formed, of which a record fifteen became hurricanes. Of these, a record-tying seven strengthened into major hurricanes, a record-tying five became Category 4 hurricanes and a record four reached Category 5 strength, the highest categorization for hurricanes on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale. Among these Category 5 storms were hurricanes Katrina and Wilma, respectively the second costliest and the most intense (by lowest barometric pressure) Atlantic hurricanes on record. The 2005 season was also notable because the annual pre-designated list of storm names was used up and six Greek letter names had to be used.

Tropical cyclone Is a rotating storm system

A tropical cyclone is a rapidly rotating storm system characterized by a low-pressure center, a closed low-level atmospheric circulation, strong winds, and a spiral arrangement of thunderstorms that produce heavy rain. Depending on its location and strength, a tropical cyclone is referred to by different names, including hurricane, typhoon, tropical storm, cyclonic storm, tropical depression, and simply cyclone. A hurricane is a tropical cyclone that occurs in the Atlantic Ocean and northeastern Pacific Ocean, and a typhoon occurs in the northwestern Pacific Ocean; in the south Pacific or Indian Ocean, comparable storms are referred to simply as "tropical cyclones" or "severe cyclonic storms".

Subtropical cyclone

A subtropical cyclone is a weather system that has some characteristics of a tropical and an extratropical cyclone.

Hurricane Wilma Category 5 Atlantic hurricane in 2005

Hurricane Wilma was the most intense tropical cyclone ever recorded in the Atlantic basin, and the second-most intense tropical cyclone recorded in the Western Hemisphere, after Hurricane Patricia in 2015. Part of the record-breaking 2005 Atlantic hurricane season, which included three of the ten most intense Atlantic hurricanes ever, Wilma was the twenty-second storm, thirteenth hurricane, sixth major hurricane, fourth Category 5 hurricane, and the second-most destructive hurricane of the 2005 season. A tropical depression formed in the Caribbean Sea near Jamaica on October 15, headed westward, and intensified into a tropical storm two days later, which abruptly turned southward and was named Wilma. Wilma continued to strengthen, and eventually became a hurricane on October 18. Shortly thereafter, explosive intensification occurred, and in only 24 hours, Wilma became a Category 5 hurricane with wind speeds of 185 mph (298 km/h).

Seasonal forecasts

Predictions of tropical activity in the 2005 season
SourceDateTropical
storms
HurricanesMajor
hurricanes
CSU Average (1950–2000) [1] 9.65.92.3
NOAA Average [2] 1162
CSUDecember 3, 20041163
CSUApril 1, 20051373
NOAAMay 16, 200512–157–93–5
CSUMay 31, 20051584
NOAAAugust 2, 200518–219–115–7
CSUAugust 5, 200520106
Actual activity28157

Forecasts of hurricane activity are issued before each hurricane season by noted hurricane expert William M. Gray and his associates at Colorado State University (CSU), and separately by forecasters with the U.S. Government's National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). Prior to and during the 2005 season, Gray issued four forecasts, each time increasing the predicted level of activity. The NOAA issued two forecasts, one shortly before the season and one two months into the season, drastically increasing the predicted level of activity in the second release. Nonetheless, all forecasts fell far short of the actual activity of the season.

William M. Gray American meteorologist

William "Bill" Mason Gray was emeritus professor of atmospheric science at Colorado State University (CSU), and the head of the Tropical Meteorology Project at CSU's Department of Atmospheric Sciences. He is widely regarded as a pioneer in the science of tropical cyclone forecasting and one of the world's leading experts on tropical storms. After retiring as a faculty member at CSU in 2005, Gray remained actively involved in both climate change and tropical cyclone research until his death.

Colorado State University public research university in Fort Collins, Colorado, USA

Colorado State University is a public research university in Fort Collins, Colorado. The university is the state's land grant university and the flagship university of the Colorado State University System.

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration An American scientific agency within the US Department of Commerce that focuses on the oceans and the atmosphere

The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration is an American scientific agency within the United States Department of Commerce that focuses on the conditions of the oceans, major waterways, and the atmosphere.

Preseason forecasts

On December 3, 2004, Gray's team issued its first extended-range forecast for the 2005 season, predicting a slightly above-average season. Additionally, the team predicted a greatly increased chance of a major hurricane striking the East Coast of the United States and the Florida peninsula. Though the forecast predicted above-average activity, the level predicted was significantly less than the 2004 season. [1] On April 1, 2005, after confirming that El Niño conditions would not develop, Gray and his team revised the December forecast upward, expecting thirteen tropical storms instead of eleven and seven hurricanes instead of six. In addition, the chance of a storm impacting the United States was raised slightly. [3] On May 16, 2005, 16 days before the season began, NOAA issued its outlook for the 2005 season, forecasting a 70% chance of above-normal activity. The accumulated cyclone energy (ACE) value for the season was predicted to be 120–190% of the median ACE of 87.5 × 104 kt 2. [4] Shortly thereafter, on May 31, the day before the season officially began, Gray's team revised its April forecast upwards to 15 named storms, 8 hurricanes, and 4 major hurricanes. [5]

Midseason outlook

On August 2, after an extraordinarily active early season, the NOAA released an updated outlook on the remainder of the season, significantly raising the expected level of activity to numbers about double those of a normal season. The ACE value was now forecast to be 180 to 270% of the median. The NOAA also noted a higher than normal confidence in the forecast of above-normal activity. [6] On August 5, 2005, Gray and his associates followed suit and issued their updated forecast; it was consistent with NOAA's update. [7] Although neither the NOAA nor Gray had ever forecast such high levels of activity, even the midseason outlooks fell far short of the actual level of activity. The actual ACE would prove to be 248 × 104 kt2 [8]  — 277% of the median.

Systems

Tropical Storm ZetaHurricane Epsilon (2005)Tropical Storm Delta (2005)Tropical Storm Gamma (2005)Hurricane Beta (2005)Tropical Storm Alpha (2005)Hurricane WilmaHurricane Vince (2005)List of storms in the 2005 Atlantic hurricane season#Subtropical Depression Twenty-twoTropical Storm Tammy (2005)2005 Azores subtropical stormHurricane StanList of storms in the 2005 Atlantic hurricane season#Tropical Depression NineteenHurricane RitaHurricane Philippe (2005)Hurricane Ophelia (2005)Hurricane Nate (2005)Hurricane Maria (2005)List of storms in the 2005 Atlantic hurricane season#Tropical Storm LeeHurricane KatrinaTropical Storm Jose (2005)Tropical Depression Ten (2005)Hurricane Irene (2005)List of storms in the 2005 Atlantic hurricane season#Tropical Storm HarveyTropical Storm Gert (2005)Tropical Storm Franklin (2005)Hurricane Emily (2005)Hurricane DennisHurricane Cindy (2005)Tropical Storm Bret (2005)Tropical Storm Arlene (2005)Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale2005 Atlantic hurricane season

June and July

Hurricane Dennis making landfall on the Gulf Coast Dennis-7-10-05-1915z.jpg
Hurricane Dennis making landfall on the Gulf Coast

On June 8, nearly two months earlier than when the 2004 season started, Tropical Storm Arlene formed in the western Caribbean, crossing Cuba before making landfall on the Florida Panhandle on June 11. Arlene caused only moderate damage, although one swimmer was caught in a riptide and drowned in Miami Beach, Florida. [9] [10]

Tropical Storm Bret formed in the Bay of Campeche on June 28 and made landfall in Veracruz the next morning. The storm damaged hundreds of homes and caused flooding which killed two people. [11]

Hurricane Cindy formed in the Gulf of Mexico on July 4. Originally thought to be a tropical storm, Cindy made landfall in Louisiana on July 5 as a minimal hurricane, dropping up to five in (130 mm) of rain, spawning several tornadoes, flooding some coastal areas including Coden, Alabama, and killing three people. Cindy was upgraded to a hurricane in the post-storm analysis. [12] [13]

Satellite photo of Hurricane Emily near peak intensity Hurricane Emily.jpg
Satellite photo of Hurricane Emily near peak intensity

On July 5, Hurricane Dennis formed in the eastern Caribbean; it crossed Grenada before intensifying into a Category 4 hurricane, the strongest ever recorded in July with a pressure of 930 mbar (hPa). Dennis struck Cuba at full force, then made a final landfall on the Florida Panhandle. The hurricane killed 89 people (mostly in Haiti) and caused $3.98 billion (2005 USD) in damage in Cuba and the United States. [14] [15]

Soon thereafter, Hurricane Emily formed in the Atlantic on July 11. It entered the Caribbean Sea and quickly intensified to a Category 4 storm, breaking Dennis's record for July intensity when its pressure reached 929 mbar (hPa). Emily then briefly reached Category 5 intensity—the earliest such storm ever recorded in the Atlantic. Emily crossed the Yucatán Peninsula at Category 4 strength before hitting Tamaulipas at Category 3 strength. Emily killed at least 14 people over the course of its path. An estimated $400 million (2005 USD; $513 million2019 USD) in damage was reported. [16]

Tropical Storm Franklin formed off the Bahamas on July 18. The storm moved northeast and became extratropical off the coast of Atlantic Canada without ever having threatened land. [17]

Tropical Storm Gert followed soon after on July 24. Gert struck Veracruz near where Emily had hit a few days before; roughly 1,000 people were evacuated for fear of flooding, but no damage or deaths were reported. [18]

August

Like July, August also got off to a fast start: Tropical Storm Harvey formed southwest of Bermuda on August 3. Harvey dropped some rain on Bermuda as it moved to the northeast; it became extratropical on August 8 in the open Atlantic Ocean. [19]

The tropical depression that would become Hurricane Irene formed west of the Cape Verde Islands on August 4. The system moved west and north and did not reach hurricane strength until August 14, at which point it became the second Cape Verde-type hurricane of the season. Irene turned northeast and briefly reached Category 2 status before weakening and becoming extratropical on August 18. It never posed a threat to land. [20]

Eye of Hurricane Katrina as seen from a NOAA Hurricane Hunter P-3 aircraft Hurricane Katrina Eye viewed from Hurricane Hunter.jpg
Eye of Hurricane Katrina as seen from a NOAA Hurricane Hunter P-3 aircraft

Tropical Depression Ten formed east of the Lesser Antilles on August 13. The system dissipated the next day. Its remnants soon merged with another system and eventually contributed to the formation of Hurricane Katrina. [21]

Tropical Storm Jose followed, forming in the Bay of Campeche on August 22. It strengthened rapidly but quickly reached the coast and made landfall in the Mexican state of Veracruz on August 23, preventing further strengthening. Jose forced 25,000 people to evacuate their homes in Veracruz and killed six people in the state of Oaxaca; two more were reported missing. [22] In all, damage in Mexico amounted to $45 million (2005 USD; $57.7 million2019 USD). [23]

In Katrina's Wake – short film about Hurricane Katrina by NASA

Hurricane Katrina formed in mid-August over the Bahamas. It became a tropical storm on August 24 and reached hurricane intensity before making landfall in south Florida as a minimal hurricane. A few hours later, the storm entered the Gulf of Mexico and intensified rapidly into a Category 5 hurricane while crossing the Loop Current on August 28. Katrina made landfall shortly after 06:00 CST on August 29 near the mouth of the Mississippi River as an extremely large Category 3 hurricane. Category 5-level storm surges (as the storm had weakened only in the previous several hours) caused catastrophic damage along the coastlines of Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama. Within hours, levees separating Lake Pontchartrain from New Orleans, Louisiana were breached by the surge, ultimately flooding about 80% of the city. Wind damage was reported well inland, impeding relief efforts. Katrina is estimated to be responsible for at least $125 billion (2005 USD) in damage, breaking Hurricane Andrew's record in 1992 and making it the costliest natural disaster in U.S. history until Harvey tied it in 2017. It was the deadliest U.S. hurricane since the 1928 Okeechobee Hurricane, killing at least 1,836 people. The 1900 Galveston Hurricane remains the deadliest natural disaster in United States history, with a death toll of approximately 6,000. [24] [25]

On August 24, a vigorous tropical wave developed off the coast of Africa which eventually spawned an area of low pressure. The low gradually became better organized and was designated Tropical Depression Thirteen on August 28, about midway between the Lesser Antilles and Africa. However, northerly wind shear prevented the depression from strengthening and it degenerated into a broad low-pressure area the next day. After traveling rapidly towards the north the low regenerated into a tropical depression and shortly after was declared Tropical Storm Lee on August 31. Lee was only briefly a tropical storm before it weakened back to a tropical depression. The depression degenerated into a broad low-pressure area again before being absorbed by a cold front on September 4. [26]

September

Hurricane Ophelia off the coast of North Carolina Hurricane Ophelia September 15 2005.jpg
Hurricane Ophelia off the coast of North Carolina

Hurricane Maria led off the month of September, and formed into a tropical storm well east of the Leeward Islands on September 2. Maria reached its peak as a Category 3 hurricane on September 5, turning northeast and weakening before becoming extratropical on September 10. Unusually, this extratropical storm strengthened as it moved toward Iceland; its remnants struck Norway where one person was killed in a landslide. [27]

Hurricane Nate formed southwest of Bermuda on September 5 and moved northeast as it strengthened into a strong Category 1 hurricane. Nate became extratropical on September 10; the storm never approached land, although it did interfere with Canadian naval vessels en route to the Gulf Coast to help in Katrina relief efforts. [28]

Hurricane Ophelia formed as a tropical depression in the Bahamas on September 6 and almost immediately made landfall on Grand Bahama. It became a tropical storm off the coast of Florida before strengthening into a large Category 1 storm and raking a long stretch of the southern North Carolina coast with heavy winds and storm surge on September 12 and September 13. The hurricane's eye never made landfall and moved back out to sea before becoming extratropical on September 17 and striking Atlantic Canada. Total damage estimates were around $70 million (2005 USD). [29]

Hurricane Philippe formed east of the Leeward Islands on September 17. It moved northwards, reaching Category 1 intensity before weakening and dissipating on September 23. No landmasses were affected, although Bermuda's lowest pressure of September was recorded after Philippe passed near the island. [30]

Image of Hurricane Rita near peak strength Rita 2005-09-22 0730Z.jpg
Image of Hurricane Rita near peak strength

Hurricane Rita formed as a tropical storm over the Turks and Caicos Islands on September 18. The storm reached Category 2 intensity as it moved south of the Florida Keys on September 20. Rapid intensification ensued as Rita moved into the Gulf of Mexico, and Rita became a Category 5 hurricane on September 21, becoming the third (now fourth) most intense hurricane ever recorded in the Atlantic Basin. Rita made landfall near the Texas-Louisiana border on September 24. Major flooding was reported in Port Arthur and Beaumont, Texas, while Cameron and Calcasieu parishes in Louisiana were devastated. Offshore oil platforms throughout Rita's path also suffered significant damage. Six people were killed by Rita's direct effects, and total damage from the storm was estimated at about $18.5 billion (2005 USD). One hundred and thirteen indirect deaths were reported, mostly from the exodus from Houston, Texas and surrounding counties. [31] [32]

Tropical Depression Nineteen formed west of the Cape Verde Islands on September 30 but dissipated on October 2 without having threatened land. [33]

October

Hurricane Stan shortly before landfall in Veracruz Hurricane Stan on October 4 2005.jpg
Hurricane Stan shortly before landfall in Veracruz

Hurricane Stan was the first October storm, reaching tropical storm status on October 2 just before crossing the Yucatán Peninsula. In the Bay of Campeche, Stan briefly reached hurricane strength before making landfall south of Veracruz, Veracruz, on October 4. Stan was a part of a large system of rainstorms, which dropped torrential rainfall that caused catastrophic flooding and mudslides over southern Mexico and Central America. Well over 1,000 total deaths were caused by the flooding, of which 80–100 are directly attributed to Stan. [34]

An initially unnoticed Unnamed Subtropical Storm was discovered by the NHC during the postseason analysis. This short-lived subtropical storm formed on October 4 south of the Azores and was absorbed by an extratropical low the next day, after passing over those islands. [35]

Tropical Storm Tammy led a brief existence before making landfall in northeastern Florida on October 5. Tammy dropped heavy rains over portions of the southeast United States before merging with a frontal system that would eventually cause the Northeast U.S. flooding of October 2005. [36] [37]

Subtropical Depression Twenty-two formed southeast of Bermuda on October 8. It dissipated the next day, although its remnants approached New England and contributed to the Northeast U.S. flooding of October 2005. [38]

Hurricane Vince formed over unfavorably cold water in the East Atlantic near the Madeira Islands on October 8 as a subtropical storm. This Hurricane was first recorded by the NHC on October 9 when it became tropical, and shortly thereafter, it briefly strengthened into a hurricane. The storm made an even more unusual landfall in Spain on October 11, making it the first tropical cyclone to impact Spain since the 1842 Spain hurricane. [39]

Hurricane Wilma near peak intensity of 882 mbar (26.0 inHg) Wilma 2005-10-19 1315Z.png
Hurricane Wilma near peak intensity of 882 mbar (26.0 inHg)

Hurricane Wilma formed on October 17 in the western Caribbean southwest of Jamaica and rapidly strengthened. On October 19 it became the strongest tropical cyclone on record in the Atlantic basin, with 185 mph (295 km/h) winds and a central pressure of 882 millibars (26.0 inHg). It then moved slowly and struck Quintana Roo on October 22 as a Category 4 hurricane, causing very heavy damage to Cancún and Cozumel. Likewise, after emerging into the Gulf of Mexico, Wilma sharply changed directions and passed north of Cuba before striking southern Florida on the 24th as a Category 3 storm, then moving into the Atlantic Ocean and becoming extratropical. Wilma is directly credited with 23 deaths; total damage is estimated at around $27.4 billion (2005 USD; $35.1 billion2019 USD), mostly in the United States, Mexico, and Cuba. [40]

Tropical Storm Alpha formed in the eastern Caribbean on October 22 and crossed Hispaniola, causing major flooding before merging with Hurricane Wilma. A total of 42 people were reported dead from the storm in Haiti and the Dominican Republic. [41]

Hurricane Beta formed in the southern Caribbean on October 26 and strengthened into a Category 3 hurricane before making landfall in the Colombian islands of San Andrés & Providencia and in Nicaragua on October 30. [42] As of 2012, Hurricane Beta was responsible for nine fatalities and more than $15.5 million in damage across four countries.

November, December, and January 2006

Hurricane Epsilon viewed from the International Space Station Epsilon ISS012-E-10097.jpg
Hurricane Epsilon viewed from the International Space Station

Tropical activity declined very slowly as the season wound down. Tropical Storm Gamma initially formed on November 15 in the central Caribbean, and degenerated into a tropical wave before reforming. Although the storm dissipated on November 20 after having made landfall in northern Honduras, rainfall from Gamma caused 41 deaths in Honduras and Belize. [43]

Tropical Storm Delta formed in the eastern Atlantic on November 23; it approached but never attained hurricane strength. Delta became extratropical on November 28 shortly before striking the Canary Islands at full force, causing seven deaths and toppling El Dedo de Dios, a famous land formation on Gran Canaria. [44]

Hurricane Epsilon formed as a tropical storm on November 29 in a hostile environment in the middle of the Atlantic. It reached hurricane strength on December 2 and defied forecasting by persisting for over a week before dissipating. [45]

Tropical Storm Zeta became the final storm of the season when it formed on December 30, six hours short of tying the record of Hurricane Alice of 1954 as the latest-forming named storm in a season. Zeta dissipated on January 6, 2006, having become the longest-lived January tropical cyclone in Atlantic basin history. [46]

Deaths and damage

Damage in Navarre Beach, Florida from Hurricane Dennis Beach front home damaged by hurricane dennis 2005.jpg
Damage in Navarre Beach, Florida from Hurricane Dennis

The storms of the season were extraordinarily damaging and were responsible for significant loss of life. Total damage is estimated to be about $180.7 billion (2005 US$), and an estimated 2,067 people were confirmed dead. However, due to uncertainties in the death toll caused by Stan, the death toll from the season could be as high as 4,000 people. [47]

The hardest-hit area was the United States Gulf Coast from eastern Texas to the Florida Panhandle. First to strike the area was Hurricane Dennis, which caused $2.23 billion in damage along the Florida Panhandle. [14] Hurricane Katrina caused catastrophic damage to the Gulf Coast, devastating a long stretch of coast along Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama with a 30-foot (9 m) storm surge. Wind damage was reported well inland, slowing down recovery efforts. Storm surge also breached levees in the city of New Orleans, Louisiana, flooding about 80% of the city. Total damage has been estimated at $125 billion, and at least 1,836 people were killed by the storm; Katrina is the second costliest hurricane in U.S. history, surpassing 1992's Hurricane Andrew, and the deadliest hurricane in the U.S. since 1928. [24] [48] [49] Hurricane Rita struck near the same area, re-flooded New Orleans (though to a far less degree than Katrina), and caused extensive damage along the coastlines of Louisiana and Texas; total damage is estimated at about $18.5 billion. [50] Tropical Storm Arlene and Hurricane Cindy also struck the Gulf Coast but caused much lighter damage. [9] [12]

Flooding in New Orleans from Hurricane Katrina KatrinaNewOrleansFlooded edit2.jpg
Flooding in New Orleans from Hurricane Katrina

The Mexican state of Quintana Roo was also heavily hit, suffering billions of dollars in damage when Hurricanes Emily and Wilma both made landfall between Cozumel and Cancún. Wilma was particularly devastating, lashing the area with major hurricane-force winds for over a full day, and was possibly the most damaging hurricane in Mexican history. [40]

Wilma caused widespread heavy damage in south Florida, causing $19 billion in damage total in the United States. [51] Hurricanes Katrina and Rita had struck the same area earlier, causing lesser (but still significant) damage, and Tropical Storm Arlene killed one person caught in a rip current. [9] Hurricane Dennis also brushed the area on its track northward. [14]

In October the remnants of Tropical Storm Tammy and Subtropical Depression Twenty-two met over the Northeastern United States, causing intense flooding. [38]

Southeastern North Carolina suffered some damage from the slow-moving Hurricane Ophelia; damage from that storm were originally estimated at $1.6 billion, but finalized at only $70 million. The remainder of the Atlantic coast escaped the major storms, although some regions were affected by the remnants of several storms (including Katrina, Ophelia, Tammy, Subtropical Depression Twenty-two, and Wilma). [29]

Northeastern Mexico, including Veracruz and Tamaulipas, was struck repeatedly. Hurricane Emily struck Tamaulipas directly, causing severe damage. Tropical Storms Bret, Gert, and Jose also made landfall in the area but caused minimal damage, although they did cause 12 deaths. [22]

Southern Mexico, along with portions of Central America, suffered heavy flooding and mudslides from Hurricane Stan and nearby nontropical rains. Over 1,600 people were confirmed dead in total, with some towns completely wiped out, though most of these deaths were not directly related to the hurricane. Central America also suffered flooding from Tropical Storm Gamma and Hurricane Wilma, and Nicaragua was struck directly by Hurricane Beta. Gamma caused $13–18 million (2005 USD) in damage to crops; no damage figures are available for any of the other storms. [47]

The island of Hispaniola escaped the worst storms; however, at least 89 people were killed in Haiti from the effects of Hurricanes Dennis and Wilma and Tropical Storm Alpha. The Leeward Islands were generally spared all the storms, [47] although Dennis and Emily caused significant damage in the Windward Islands. [47]

Cuba was struck by Hurricane Dennis at peak strength, causing $1.4 billion in damage; it was the worst hurricane to hit Cuba in over 40 years. Some areas of Cuba also suffered heavy damage from Hurricanes Rita and Wilma. [14]

Unusual impacts were felt in Europe and nearby islands from four storms. Hurricane Maria intensified and affected northern Europe as a vicious extratropical storm, while Hurricane Vince maintained tropical characteristics onto the Iberian Peninsula as a weak tropical depression. Tropical Storm Delta struck the Canary Islands just after becoming extratropical, causing extensive damage before reaching Morocco as a weak extratropical system. In addition, the Azores were affected by the unnamed subtropical storm at its peak strength. Eight people were killed by those storms, and significant damage was reported as a result of Maria and Delta, although no figures are available. [47]

Economic impact

Hurricane Rita at landfall, along with the location of several refineries Hurricane Rita's Path at Landfall.gif
Hurricane Rita at landfall, along with the location of several refineries

The damage had far-reaching economic consequences due to vulnerability of both oil extracting and refining capacity in the Gulf of Mexico, storms led to speculative spikes in the price of crude oil whereas, the damage to refinery capacity in the United States caused gasoline to soar to record prices (even adjusted for inflation). Governments in Europe and the United States tapped strategic reserves of gasoline and petroleum, and shortages were reported in the days after Katrina in areas heavily dependent on the Gulf of Mexico for refined gasoline. Even weeks after the storm, prices remained elevated as the shortage in production remained over 1 million barrels (160,000 m3) per day. [24]

Rita damaged wells in the western Gulf of Mexico which were primarily exploratory, leading to concerns that future production would be damped for some time to come. Additionally, as the storm churned in the Gulf, forecasters predicted that it would strike Houston, Texas, the location of many major oil refineries that survived Katrina, leading to additional spikes in oil prices before the predictions changed. In Georgia, Governor Sonny Perdue declared "snow days" on September 26 and September 27, 2005, at all Georgia public schools to conserve fuel for school buses in anticipation of Rita's impact. However, as the storm veered away from Houston shortly before landfall, damage to refining capacity was not as great as feared. [31]

Agriculture in multiple countries was hard hit by extremely heavy rains from severe storms during the season. Early in the season, Hurricane Dennis caused significant damage to various citrus and vegetable crops in Cuba, though the damage was not crippling. [14] In Central America, Hurricane Stan and associated nontropical storms dropped upwards of 20 inches (500 mm) of rain, causing, in addition to severe flash floods and mud slides, heavy damage to crops, especially to the banana and coffee crops, which were nearly ready to be harvested. This caused significant economic disruption in Guatemala and surrounding nations, as the rural economies are highly dependent on the coffee and banana crops. [34] When Hurricane Beta struck Nicaragua later in the season, it also caused heavy damage to the banana crop, but the harvests had already ended, mitigating economic disruption. [42]

Katrina also had significant political consequences, as President George W. Bush, Louisiana governor Kathleen Blanco, and New Orleans mayor Ray Nagin all came under heavy criticism for what were considered sluggish or inappropriate responses to Hurricane Katrina. On December 14, 2005, congressional hearings began to investigate whether these claims had any merit. In addition, Michael Brown, head of the United States Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), was forced to resign from his post after the organization came under fire for what was perceived as an insufficient response to Katrina. [52]

Forecasting uncertainty

Hurricane Vince formed in cold waters in the northeast Atlantic. Hurricane Vince on 2005-10-09, 1200.jpg
Hurricane Vince formed in cold waters in the northeast Atlantic.

A number of storms that formed in 2005 exhibited unusual behavior and challenged forecasters' ability to make correct predictions. Hurricane Vince formed farther northeast in the Atlantic than any other tropical cyclone on record at the time—only 2009's Grace has formed farther north—and then unexpectedly reached hurricane strength over waters considered too cold to support a hurricane. [39] Hurricane Wilma became the fastest-intensifying hurricane on record, and later strengthened unexpectedly in the face of strong wind shear. [53] Tropical Storm Delta, Hurricane Epsilon and Tropical Storm Zeta all formed over the cold waters of the late-season eastern Atlantic, much like Hurricane Vince (though at lower latitudes). All three persisted in the face of heavy wind shear, and Epsilon managed to reach hurricane strength over waters well below the temperatures previously thought necessary for hurricane formation. Epsilon became the longest-lasting December hurricane [45] while Zeta became the longest-lasting storm in January. [46]

Records and notable events

The 2005 season broke numerous records for tropical cyclone activity, [54] though it might not actually be the most active season in history, since records before 1944 are incomplete. [55]

Storm formation during the 2005 season
SystemsAverage
Old
Record
2005
Storms10 21 28
Hurricanes6 12 15
Category 3+ Hurricanes2 7 7
Category 5 Hurricanes0.3 2 4
Most intense Atlantic
hurricane seasons
(since 1850) [nb 1]
Rank Season ACE
1 1933 259
2 2005 250
3 1893 231
4 1926 230
5 1995 228
6 2004 227
7 2017 223
8 1950 211
9 1961 205
10 1998 182

During the season, 28 storms were named, more than in any previously recorded Atlantic season. The season's activity was reflected with a very high cumulative accumulated cyclone energy (ACE) rating of 250. This total ranks it as the second-most active season on record, with only the 1933 season having a higher ACE value. [58] ACE is, broadly speaking, a measure of the power of the hurricane multiplied by the length of time it existed, so storms that last a long time, as well as particularly strong hurricanes, have high ACEs. ACE is only calculated for full advisories on tropical systems at or exceeding 34  knots (39 mph, 63 km/h) or tropical storm strength. Although officially, subtropical cyclones are excluded from the total, [59] the figure above includes periods when storms were in a subtropical phase.

Three out of the six most intense Atlantic hurricanes (by central pressure) on record occurred in 2005, topped off by Hurricane Wilma's 882 mbar (26.0 inHg) minimum pressure, shattering the 17-year-old record set by Hurricane Gilbert. [40] Hurricanes Emily, Katrina and Rita also attained Category 5 intensity, and Hurricanes Rita and Katrina became the fourth- and sixth-most intense recorded Atlantic storms, respectively. Hurricane Emily was not originally recorded as a Category 5 storm, but it was upgraded into the post-storm status by the National Hurricane Center. [16] The 2005 season is the only season on record with four Category 5 storms on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale; the previous record was only two. In addition, Hurricane Dennis reached Category 4 status, tying the record set by the 1999 season with five Category 4 storms.

Storm names

The following is a list of names used for tropical storms and hurricanes that formed in the North Atlantic in 2005.

This was the same list used for the 1999 season, with the exceptions of Franklin and Lee, which replaced Floyd and Lenny. The names not retired from this list were used again in the 2011 Atlantic hurricane season. Storms were named Franklin, Lee, Maria, Nate, Ophelia, Philippe, Rita, Stan, Tammy, Vince, Wilma, Beta, Gamma, Epsilon, and Zeta for the first (and only, in the cases of Rita, Stan, and Wilma) time in 2005 (the names Alpha and Delta had been previously used in 1972 for two subtropical storms, but this is the first time they have been used in this way). This season used fifteen previously unused names, the most ever in an Atlantic season. Additionally, a subtropical storm that formed in early October was not recognized as such at the time and so did not receive a name. Vince and Wilma were the first, and, so far, only, named "V" and "W" storms ever in the Atlantic basin. On April 6, 2006, the World Meteorological Organization retired five hurricane names: Dennis, Katrina, Rita, Stan, and Wilma. Their replacements for the 2011 season were Don, Katia, Rina, Sean, and Whitney, respectively. [60] It was also decided it "was not practical to 'retire into hurricane history' a letter in the Greek Alphabet." [61] This surpassed the previous record for the number of hurricane names retired after a single season, four (held by the 1955, 1995, 2004, and 2017 seasons). [62]

Season effects

This is a table of all of the storms that have formed during the 2005 Atlantic hurricane season. It includes their names, duration, peak strength, areas affected, damage, and death totals. Deaths in parentheses are additional and indirect (an example of an indirect death would be a traffic accident), but were still related to that storm. Damage and deaths include totals while the storm was extratropical, a wave, or a low, and all of the damage figures are in 2005 USD.

2005 North Atlantic tropical cyclone season statistics
Storm
name
Dates activeStorm category

at peak intensity

Max 1-min
wind
mph (km/h)
Min.
press.
(mbar)
Areas affectedDamage
(USD)
DeathsRefs
Arlene June 8 – 13Tropical storm70 (110)989 Cayman Islands, Cuba, Southeast United States, Midwest United States $11.8 million1
Bret June 28 – 30Tropical storm40 (65)1002Central Mexico $9.3 million1
Cindy July 3 – 7Category 1 hurricane75 (120)991 Yucatan Peninsula, Southeastern US, East Coast of the United States $320 million1 (4)
Dennis July 4 – 13Category 4 hurricane150 (240)930 Windward Islands, Greater Antilles, Southeastern US, Great Lakes Region $3.98 billion76 (12)
Emily July 11 – 21Category 5 hurricane160 (260)929 Lesser Antilles, Greater Antilles, South America, Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico, Texas $1.014 billion17
Franklin July 21 – 29Tropical storm70 (110)997 Bahamas, Bermuda, Newfoundland NoneNone
Gert July 23 – 25Tropical storm45 (75)1005Central Mexico$6 million1
HarveyAugust 2 – 8Tropical storm65 (100)994BermudaNoneNone
Irene August 4 – 18Category 2 hurricane105 (165)970East Coast of the USNone1
Ten August 13 – 14Tropical depression35 (55)1008NoneNoneNone
Jose August 22 – 23Tropical storm60 (95)998Central Mexico$45 million6 (2)
Katrina August 23 – 30Category 5 hurricane175 (280)902Bahamas, South Florida, Cuba, Southeastern US, Eastern US$125 billion1,836
LeeAugust 28 – September 2Tropical storm40 (65)1006NoneNoneNone
Maria September 1 – 10Category 3 hurricane115 (185)962 Iceland, Scotland $3.1 million1 (3)
Nate September 5 – 10Category 1 hurricane90 (150)979Bermuda, Azores None2
Ophelia September 6 – 17Category 1 hurricane85 (140)976Bahamas, Florida, The Carolinas, East Coast of the US, Atlantic Canada, Europe $70 million1 (2)
Philippe September 17 – 23Category 1 hurricane80 (130)985BermudaMinimalNone
Rita September 18 – 26Category 5 hurricane180 (285)895 Hispaniola, Bahamas, Cuba, Florida, Gulf Coast of the United States, Midwestern United States $18.5 billion125
NineteenSeptember 30 – October 2Tropical depression35 (55)1006NoneNoneNone
Stan October 1 – 5Category 1 hurricane80 (130)977 Central America, Mexico$3.96 billion1,668
Unnamed October 4 – 5Subtropical storm50 (85)997AzoresNoneNone
Tammy October 5 – 6Tropical storm50 (85)1001Bahamas, Southeastern US$30 million10
Twenty-twoOctober 8 – 10Subtropical depression35 (55)1008Bermuda, New England Minimal10
Vince October 8 – 11Category 1 hurricane75 (120)988 Portugal, Spain MinimalNone
Wilma October 15 – 26Category 5 hurricane185 (295)882Bahamas, Jamaica, Central America, Yucatan Peninsula, Cuba, South Florida, Bahamas, Atlantic Canada$27.4 billion87
Alpha October 22 – 24Tropical storm50 (85)998Hispaniola, BahamasUnknown26
Beta October 26 – 31Category 3 hurricane115 (185)962Central America, Colombia $15.5 million9
Gamma November 14 – 21Tropical storm50 (85)1002Lesser Antilles, Central America$18 million39
Delta November 22 – 28Tropical storm70 (110)980 Canary Islands, North Africa $364 million19
Epsilon November 29 – December 8Category 1 hurricane85 (140)981NoneNoneNone
Zeta December 30 – January 6Tropical storm65 (100)994NoneNoneNone
Season Aggregates
31 systemsJune 8, 2005 – January 6, 2006 185 (295)882$180.747 billion3,960 

See also

Notes

  1. There is an undercount bias of zero to six tropical cyclones per year between 1851 and 1885 and zero to four per year between 1886 and 1910, due to the lack of modern observation techniques, see Tropical cyclone observation. This may have led to significantly lower ACE ratings for hurricane seasons prior to 1910. [56] [57]

Related Research Articles

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2002 Atlantic hurricane season Summary of the relevant tropical storms

The 2002 Atlantic hurricane season was a borderline-average Atlantic hurricane season. It officially started on June 1, 2002 and ended on November 30, dates which conventionally limit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones develop in the Atlantic Ocean. The season produced fourteen tropical cyclones, of which twelve developed into named storms; four became hurricanes, and two attained major hurricane status. While the season's first cyclone did not develop until July 14, activity quickly picked up; the 2002 season tied with 2010 in which a record number of tropical storms, eight, developed in the month of September. It ended early however, with no tropical storms forming after October 6—a rare occurrence caused partly by El Niño conditions. The most intense hurricane of the season was Hurricane Isidore with a minimum central pressure of 934 mbar, although Hurricane Lili attained higher winds and peaked at Category 4 whereas Isidore only reached Category 3. The season's low activity is reflected in the low cumulative accumulated cyclone energy (ACE) rating of 67. ACE is, broadly speaking, a measure of the power of the hurricane multiplied by the length of time it existed, so low number reflects the small number of strong storms and preponderance of tropical storms.

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2000 Atlantic hurricane season hurricane season in the Atlantic Ocean

The 2000 Atlantic hurricane season was the first Atlantic hurricane season without a tropical cyclone in the month of July since 1993. The hurricane season officially began on June 1, and ended on November 30. It was slightly above average due to a La Niña weather pattern although most of the storms were weak. The first cyclone, Tropical Depression One, developed in the southern Gulf of Mexico on June 7 and dissipated after an uneventful duration. However, it would be almost two months before the first named storm, Alberto, formed near Cape Verde; Alberto also dissipated with no effects on land. Several other tropical cyclones—Tropical Depression Two, Tropical Depression Four, Chris, Ernesto, Nadine, and an unnamed subtropical storm—did not impact land. Five additional storms—Tropical Depression Nine, Florence, Isaac, Joyce, and Leslie—minimally affected land areas.

1988 Atlantic hurricane season Summary of the relevant tropical storms

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2006 Atlantic hurricane season Summary of the relevant tropical storms

The 2006 Atlantic hurricane season was the least active since 1997 as well as the first season since 2001 in which no hurricanes made landfall in the United States, and was the first since 1994 in which no tropical cyclones formed during October. Following the intense activity of 2005, forecasters predicted that the 2006 season would be only slightly less active. Instead activity was slowed by a rapidly forming moderate El Niño event, the presence of the Saharan Air Layer over the tropical Atlantic, and the steady presence of a robust secondary high-pressure area to the Azores high centered on Bermuda. There were no tropical cyclones after October 2.

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Timeline of the 2006 Atlantic hurricane season timeline

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The 2009 Atlantic hurricane season was a below-average Atlantic hurricane season that produced eleven tropical cyclones, nine named storms, three hurricanes, and two major hurricanes. It officially began on June 1 and ended on November 30, dates that conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones develop in the Atlantic basin. The season's first tropical cyclone, Tropical Depression One, developed on May 28, while the final storm, Hurricane Ida, dissipated on November 10. The most intense hurricane, Bill, was a powerful Cape Verde-type hurricane that affected areas from the Leeward Islands to Newfoundland. The season featured the lowest number of tropical cyclones since the 1997 season, and only one system, Claudette, made landfall in the United States. Forming from the interaction of a tropical wave and an upper level low, Claudette made landfall on the Florida Panhandle with maximum sustained winds of 45 mph (75 km/h) before quickly dissipating over Alabama. The storm killed two people and caused $228,000 in damage.

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Further reading