2008

Last updated

Millennium: 3rd millennium
Centuries:
Decades:
Years:
2008 by topic:
Arts
Animation (Anime) – ArchitectureComicsFilm (Horror, Science fiction) – Home videoLiterature (Poetry) – Music (Classical, Country, Hip hop, Jazz, Latin, Metal, Rock, UK, US) – RadioPhotoTelevision (Italy, UK, Scotland, US) – Video games
Politics and government
ElectionsInternational leadersSovereign states
Sovereign state leadersTerritorial governors
Science and technology
ArchaeologyBiotechnologyComputingPalaeontologyQuantum computing and communicationSenescence researchSpace/AstronomySpaceflightSustainable energy research - Weather
Environment
Birding/Ornithology
Climate change
Transportation
AviationRail transport
Sports
American footballAssociation footballAthletics (sport)BadmintonBaseballBasketballChessCombat sportsCricketCyclingGolfIce hockeyRugby unionSwimmingTennisVolleyball
By place
AfghanistanAlbaniaAlgeriaAndorraAngolaAntarcticaArgentinaArmeniaAustraliaAustriaAzerbaijanBangladeshThe BahamasBahrainBarbadosBelarusBelgiumBeninBhutanBoliviaBosnia and HerzegovinaBotswanaBrazilBulgariaBurkina FasoBurundiCambodiaCameroonCanadaCape VerdeCentral African RepublicChadChileChinaColombiaCosta RicaComorosCroatiaCubaCyprusCzech RepublicDenmarkEcuadorEgyptEl SalvadorEritreaEstoniaEthiopiaEuropean UnionEswatiniFijiFinlandFranceGabonGeorgiaGermanyGhanaGreeceGuatemalaGuineaGuinea-BissauGuyanaHaitiHondurasHong KongHungaryIcelandIndiaIndonesiaIranIraqIrelandIsraelItalyIvory CoastJapanJordanKazakhstanKenyaKiribatiKosovoKuwaitKyrgyzstanLaosLatviaLebanonLesothoLiberiaLibyaLithuaniaLuxembourgMacauMadagascarMarshall IslandsMalawiMalaysiaMaliMaltaMauritaniaMexicoMicronesiaMoldovaMongoliaMontenegroMoroccoMozambiqueMyanmarNauruNamibiaNepalNetherlandsNew ZealandNicaraguaNigerNigeriaNorth KoreaNorth MacedoniaNorwayOmanPakistanPalauPalestinePanamaPapua New GuineaParaguayPeruPhilippinesPolandPortugalQatarRomaniaRussiaRwandaSamoaSaudi ArabiaSenegalSerbiaSeychellesSingaporeSlovakiaSloveniaSomaliaSouth AfricaSolomon IslandsSouth KoreaSouth SudanSpainSri LankaSudanSwedenSwitzerlandSyriaTaiwanTajikistanTanzaniaThailandTogoTongaTunisiaTurkeyTurkmenistanTuvaluUgandaUkraineUnited Arab EmiratesUnited KingdomUnited StatesUruguayUzbekistanVanuatuVenezuelaVietnamYemenZambiaZimbabwe
Other topics
Religious leaders
Birth and death categories
BirthsDeaths
Establishments and disestablishments categories
EstablishmentsDisestablishments
Works and introductions categories
WorksIntroductions
Works entering the public domain
2008 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar 2008
MMVIII
Ab urbe condita 2761
Armenian calendar 1457
ԹՎ ՌՆԾԷ
Assyrian calendar 6758
Bahá'í calendar 164–165
Balinese saka calendar 1929–1930
Bengali calendar 1415
Berber calendar 2958
British Regnal year 56  Eliz. 2   57  Eliz. 2
Buddhist calendar 2552
Burmese calendar 1370
Byzantine calendar 7516–7517
Chinese calendar 丁亥(Fire  Pig)
4704 or 4644
     to 
戊子年 (Earth  Rat)
4705 or 4645
Coptic calendar 1724–1725
Discordian calendar 3174
Ethiopian calendar 2000–2001
Hebrew calendar 5768–5769
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat 2064–2065
 - Shaka Samvat 1929–1930
 - Kali Yuga 5108–5109
Holocene calendar 12008
Igbo calendar 1008–1009
Iranian calendar 1386–1387
Islamic calendar 1428–1430
Japanese calendar Heisei 20
(平成20年)
Javanese calendar 1940–1941
Juche calendar 97
Julian calendar Gregorian minus 13 days
Korean calendar 4341
Minguo calendar ROC 97
民國97年
Nanakshahi calendar 540
Thai solar calendar 2551
Tibetan calendar 阴火猪年
(female Fire-Pig)
2134 or 1753 or 981
     to 
阳土鼠年
(male Earth-Rat)
2135 or 1754 or 982
Unix time 1199145600 – 1230767999

2008 (MMVIII) was a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2008th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 8th year of the 3rd millennium and the 21st century, and the 9th year of the 2000s decade.

Contents

2008 was designated as:

Events

January

February

March

May

June

July

August

September

October

November

December

Births

Deaths

Deaths
January  · February  · March  · April  · May  · June  · July  · August  · September  · October  · November  · December

January

Edmund Hillary Edmund Hillary, c. 1953, autograph removed.jpg
Edmund Hillary
Heath Ledger Heath Ledger (Berlin Film Festival 2006) revised.jpg
Heath Ledger
Suharto President Suharto, 1993.jpg
Suharto

February

Roy Scheider Roy Scheider 2007.jpg
Roy Scheider
Janez Drnovsek Janez Drnovsek.jpg
Janez Drnovšek

March

Giuseppe Di Stefano Giuseppe di Stefano - 1983.jpg
Giuseppe Di Stefano
Sir Arthur C. Clarke Clarke.jpg
Sir Arthur C. Clarke
Paul Scofield Paul Scofield Allan Warren.jpg
Paul Scofield

April

Charlton Heston Charlton Heston - 1953.jpg
Charlton Heston

May

Eddy Arnold Eddie Arnold 1969.JPG
Eddy Arnold
Irena Sendler Irena Sendlerowa 2005-02-13 zoom.jpg
Irena Sendler
Sydney Pollack Sydney Pollack.jpg
Sydney Pollack

June

Chinghiz Aitmatov Tschingis Ajtmatow.jpg
Chinghiz Aitmatov
Cyd Charisse Cyd Charisse - 1949.jpg
Cyd Charisse
George Carlin George Carlin 1975 (Little David Records) Publicity.jpg
George Carlin

July

Jesse Helms JesseHelms.jpg
Jesse Helms
Evelyn Keyes Evelyn keyes in 99 river street.jpg
Evelyn Keyes

August

Bernie Mac BernieMacSoulMenMarch08.jpg
Bernie Mac
Isaac Hayes Isaac Hayes 2.jpg
Isaac Hayes

September

Paul Newman Paul Newman - 1958.jpg
Paul Newman

October

Jorg Haider JoergHaider Sep07.JPG
Jörg Haider
Soeur Emmanuelle Soeur Emmanuelle.jpg
Sœur Emmanuelle

November

Michael Crichton MichaelCrichton 2.jpg
Michael Crichton

December

Horst Tappert Horst Tappert retouched.jpg
Horst Tappert
Leon Febres Cordero Leon Febres Cordero.jpg
León Febres Cordero
Eartha Kitt Eartha Kitt 2007.jpg
Eartha Kitt

Nobel Prizes

Nobel medal.png

New English words

Related Research Articles

Tom Cruise American actor and producer

Thomas Cruise Mapother IV is an American actor and producer. One of the world's highest-paid actors, he has received various accolades throughout his career, including three Golden Globe Awards, in addition to nominations for a British Academy Film Award and three Academy Awards. His films have grossed over $4 billion in North America and over $10.1 billion worldwide, making him one of the highest-grossing box office stars of all time.

2000 (MM) was a century leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2000th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 1000th and last year of the 2nd millennium, the 100th and last year of the 20th century, and the 1st year of the 2000s decade.

2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2001st year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 1st year of the 3rd millennium and the 21st century, and the 2nd year of the 2000s decade.

1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar, the 1982nd year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 982nd year of the 2nd millennium, the 82nd year of the 20th century, and the 3rd year of the 1980s decade.

1985 (MCMLXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 1985th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 985th year of the 2nd millennium, the 85th year of the 20th century, and the 6th year of the 1980s decade.

2002 (MMII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2002nd year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 2nd year of the 3rd millennium and the 21st century, and the 3rd year of the 2000s decade.

2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2004th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 4th year of the 3rd millennium and the 21st century, and the 5th year of the 2000s decade.

2009 (MMIX) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2009th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 9th year of the 3rd millennium and the 21st century, and the 10th and last year of the 2000s decade.

2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2005th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 5th year of the 3rd millennium and the 21st century, and the 6th year of the 2000s decade.

2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2003rd year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 3rd year of the 3rd millennium and the 21st century, and the 4th year of the 2000s decade.

2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2006th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 6th year of the 3rd millennium and the 21st century, and the 7th year of the 2000s decade.

2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2007th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 7th year of the 3rd millennium and the 21st century, and the 8th year of the 2000s decade.

2011 (MMXI) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2011th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 11th year of the 3rd millennium and the 21st century, and the 2nd year of the 2010s decade.

2010 (MMX) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2010th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 10th year of the 3rd millennium and the 21st century, and the 1st year of the 2010s decade.

2013 (MMXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2013th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 13th year of the 3rd millennium and the 21st century, and the 4th year of the 2010s decade.

2012 (MMXII) was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2012th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 12th year of the 3rd millennium and the 21st century, and the 3rd year of the 2010s decade.

2014 (MMXIV) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2014th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 14th year of the 3rd millennium and the 21st century, and the 5th year of the 2010s decade.

2016 (MMXVI) was a leap year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2016th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 16th year of the 3rd millennium and the 21st century, and the 7th year of the 2010s decade.

2017 (MMXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2017th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 17th year of the 3rd millennium and the 21st century, and the 8th year of the 2010s decade.

References

  1. "General Assembly Proclaims 2008 International Year of Languages, in Effort to Promote Unity in Diversity, Global Understanding". United Nations. Archived from the original on November 1, 2008. Retrieved November 2, 2008.
  2. Cyprus and Malta set to join eurozone in 2008 Archived January 30, 2009, at the Wayback Machine , EurActiv
  3. Akrotiri and Dhekelia adopt the euro, EUbusiness (ISO 4217 code: VEF). Archived July 6, 2009, at the Wayback Machine
  4. "Mercury Flyby 1". Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory. Archived from the original on May 16, 2008. Retrieved January 12, 2008.
  5. Landler, Mark; Timmons, Heather (January 21, 2008). "Stocks Plunge Worldwide on Fears of a U.S. Recession". The New York Times. Archived from the original on December 11, 2008. Retrieved November 21, 2008.
  6. "Hackers Declare War on Scientology - Science News | Science & Technology | Technology News - FOXNews.com". Fox News . May 10, 2011. Archived from the original on May 10, 2011. Retrieved March 12, 2021.
  7. "From The Magazine : Radar Online : Scientology is under attack from a faceless cabal of online activists. Has America's most controversial religion finally met its match?". March 23, 2008. Archived from the original on March 23, 2008. Retrieved March 12, 2021.
  8. ""Anonymous" threatens to "dismantle" Church of Scientology via intern…". archive.ph. September 21, 2012. Archived from the original on September 21, 2012. Retrieved March 12, 2021.
  9. "Hacker Group Declares War On Scientology - News Story - KNBC | Los Angeles". August 21, 2008. Archived from the original on August 21, 2008. Retrieved March 12, 2021.
  10. MAR. "Online group declares war on Scientology". National Post. ISSN   1486-8008. Archived from the original on January 28, 2008. Retrieved March 12, 2021.
  11. "War Breaks Out Between Hackers and Scientology -- There Can Be Only One". Wired. ISSN   1059-1028. Archived from the original on October 14, 2021. Retrieved March 12, 2021.
  12. "Anonymous Versus Scientology: Cyber Criminals or Vigilante Justice? | The Legality". July 5, 2008. Archived from the original on July 5, 2008. Retrieved March 12, 2021.
  13. "Group Lines Road To Protest Church Of Scientology - Orlando News Story - WKMG Orlando". March 28, 2008. Archived from the original on March 28, 2008. Retrieved March 12, 2021.
  14. "Eastern Congo peace deal signed". BBC. January 23, 2008. Archived from the original on December 17, 2008. Retrieved August 25, 2016.
  15. "BU.S., Europeans at Security Council Back Kosovo's Independence". Bloomberg L.P. February 17, 2008. Retrieved November 5, 2008.
  16. "Il Kosovo proclama l'indipendenza Serbia: "Non lo riconosceremo mai"". repubblica.it (in Italian). February 17, 2008. Archived from the original on July 4, 2018. Retrieved July 4, 2018.
  17. "Cayman Islands Bank Gets Wikileaks Taken Offline in U.S. -- Updated with Links". Wired. ISSN   1059-1028. Archived from the original on October 14, 2021. Retrieved March 9, 2021.
  18. Gollner, Philipp (February 29, 2008). "Judge reverses ruling in Julius Baer leak case". Reuters. Archived from the original on October 14, 2021. Retrieved March 9, 2021.
  19. James, Ian (March 3, 2008). "Venezuela, Ecuador sending troops to border with Colombia after rebel leader killed". The Seattle Times. Archived from the original on March 10, 2008. Retrieved March 15, 2009.
  20. Goodman, Joshua (March 1, 2008). "Colombian Rebel Leader Raul Reyes Killed By Army, Minister Says". Bloomberg L.P. Archived from the original on March 12, 2010. Retrieved March 15, 2009.
  21. "Europe launches its first resupply ship to the ISS". European Space Agency. March 9, 2008. Archived from the original on April 30, 2009. Retrieved March 15, 2009.
  22. Schilling, Govert (March 21, 2008). "Universe's most powerful blast visible to the naked eye". New Scientist . Archived from the original on August 2, 2013. Retrieved August 28, 2017.
  23. Sengupta, Somini (March 25, 2008). "Heavy Turnout in First Bhutan Election". The New York Times. ISSN   0362-4331. Archived from the original on March 1, 2013. Retrieved January 13, 2017.
  24. "BBC NEWS | Africa | 'Deadly clashes' in the Comoros". news.bbc.co.uk. March 18, 2008. Archived from the original on March 19, 2008. Retrieved January 13, 2017.
  25. "BBC NEWS | UK | UK Politics | Cameron urges aid drops for Burma". news.bbc.co.uk. May 12, 2008. Archived from the original on December 28, 2016. Retrieved January 13, 2017.
  26. "Sichuan 2008: A disaster on an immense scale". BBC News. May 9, 2013. Archived from the original on April 29, 2018. Retrieved January 13, 2017.
  27. "BBC NEWS | Americas | South America nations found union". news.bbc.co.uk. May 23, 2008. Archived from the original on January 23, 2017. Retrieved January 13, 2017.
  28. migration (June 10, 2015). "The Asian way to settle disputes". The Straits Times. Archived from the original on January 16, 2017. Retrieved January 13, 2017.
  29. "Phoenix Mars Mission". Archived from the original on February 28, 2008.
  30. "BBC NEWS | South Asia | Nepal votes to abolish monarchy". news.bbc.co.uk. May 28, 2008. Archived from the original on January 7, 2017. Retrieved January 13, 2017.
  31. United Nations Treaty Collection: Convention on Cluster Munitions. Retrieved on March 28, 2009. [ dead link ]
  32. MSFC, Jennifer Wall (May 21, 2015). "What Is the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope?". NASA. Archived from the original on October 25, 2016. Retrieved January 13, 2017.
  33. "Harper apologizes for residential school abuse". CTV. June 11, 2008. Archived from the original on July 9, 2008. Retrieved January 13, 2017.
  34. "Spain's Expo 2008 on world water opens". Reuters. June 14, 2017. Archived from the original on August 8, 2017. Retrieved January 13, 2017.
  35. Kraul, Chris (July 4, 2008). "The ultimate fake-out". Los Angeles Times. ISSN   0458-3035. Archived from the original on January 16, 2017. Retrieved January 13, 2017.
  36. "North Korea issues warning over Mount Kumgang tour ban". BBC News . March 25, 2010. Archived from the original on October 14, 2021.
  37. "BBC News: Serbia captures fugitive Karadzic". July 22, 2008. Archived from the original on September 22, 2008. Retrieved January 1, 2010.
  38. "BBC NEWS | Africa | Troops stage coup in Mauritania". news.bbc.co.uk. August 6, 2008. Archived from the original on August 7, 2008. Retrieved January 13, 2017.
  39. Finn, Peter (August 17, 2008). "A Two-Sided Descent Into Full-Scale War". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on November 6, 2012. Retrieved January 13, 2017.
  40. "Beijing 2008 – It's a wrap". The Boston Globe. August 25, 2008. Archived from the original on August 27, 2008. Retrieved July 8, 2011.
  41. "Biography - The Honourable Dame Quentin Bryce AD CVO". The Governor-General of the Commonwealth of Australia. Archived from the original on August 19, 2021. Retrieved August 19, 2021.
  42. "First beam in the LHC – accelerating science". Archived from the original on November 12, 2016. Retrieved November 20, 2016.
  43. "Large Hadron Collider fired up in 'God particle' hunt". CNN. September 10, 2008. Archived from the original on August 1, 2009. Retrieved April 14, 2010.
  44. "The Financial Crisis: This Day—One Year Ago, Sept. 15, 2008". CNBC. September 14, 2009. Archived from the original on October 14, 2021.
  45. "At Least 40 Killed in Huge Explosion at Pakistan Hotel". The New York Times. Retrieved July 8, 2011.[ dead link ]
  46. "Deadly blast targets Marriott Hotel in Islamabad". CNN. September 21, 2008. Archived from the original on April 23, 2009. Retrieved April 14, 2010.
  47. "Dozens killed in Pakistan attack". BBC News. September 20, 2008. Archived from the original on September 21, 2008. Retrieved January 1, 2010.
  48. "Space Exploration Technologies Corporation – Falcon 1 Flight 4". Archived from the original on July 25, 2011. Retrieved July 8, 2011.
  49. "Falcon rocket success for SpaceX". BBC News. September 29, 2008. Archived from the original on September 29, 2009. Retrieved January 1, 2010.
  50. Raum, Tom (October 3, 2008) Bush signs $700 billion bailout bill Archived October 28, 2008, at the Wayback Machine Associated Press. Retrieved October 3, 2008.
  51. "Oil contract scandal shakes Peru". October 7, 2008. Archived from the original on October 14, 2021. Retrieved March 11, 2021.
  52. "Bloomberg Politics - Bloomberg". Bloomberg.com. Archived from the original on October 14, 2021. Retrieved March 11, 2021.
  53. "Protesters decry Peru corruption". October 8, 2008. Archived from the original on October 14, 2021. Retrieved March 11, 2021.
  54. "Oil row brings down Peru cabinet". October 10, 2008. Archived from the original on October 14, 2021. Retrieved March 11, 2021.
  55. "CERN inaugurates the LHC". CERN. October 21, 2008. Archived from the original on November 10, 2016. Retrieved November 20, 2016.
  56. "LHC to be inaugurated on 21 October 2008". Archived from the original on November 20, 2016. Retrieved November 20, 2016.
  57. "Final LHC Synchronization Test a Success". Archived from the original on August 30, 2008. Retrieved July 8, 2011.
  58. Lynn, Jonathan (October 21, 2008). "Big Bang experiment inaugurated despite glitch". Reuters. Archived from the original on January 14, 2015. Retrieved September 29, 2012.
  59. "India launches first Moon mission". BBC News. October 22, 2008. Archived from the original on October 22, 2008. Retrieved October 22, 2008.
  60. "Chandrayaan-1". Archived from the original on June 28, 2011. Retrieved July 8, 2011.
  61. Bitcoin: A peer-to-peer Electronic Cash System http://themonetaryfuture.blogspot.hu/2010/03/bitcoin-peer-to-peer-electronic-cash.html Archived December 24, 2017, at the Wayback Machine 20171223
  62. Nagourney, Adam (November 4, 2008). "Obama Elected President as Racial Barrier Falls". The New York Times. Archived from the original on December 9, 2008. Retrieved November 5, 2008.
  63. "Obama wins historic US election". BBC News. November 5, 2008. Archived from the original on November 6, 2008. Retrieved November 5, 2008.
  64. "Obama inspires historic victory". CNN. November 5, 2008. Archived from the original on December 17, 2008. Retrieved November 5, 2008.
  65. Roberts, Michelle (November 19, 2008). "FWindpipe transplant breakthrough". BBC News. Archived from the original on January 15, 2010. Retrieved January 1, 2010.
  66. "Mumbai Terror Attacks Fast Facts". CNN. November 24, 2016. Archived from the original on November 5, 2017. Retrieved October 24, 2017.
  67. "Sark Election: the candidates". BBC Guernsey . December 9, 2008. Archived from the original on December 12, 2008. Retrieved December 11, 2008.
  68. "Trio found guilty of Rwandan genocide". CNN . December 18, 2008. Archived from the original on December 19, 2008. Retrieved December 18, 2008.
  69. "Coup fear as Guinea president dies". CNN . December 24, 2008. Archived from the original on December 24, 2008. Retrieved December 24, 2008.
  70. "Ilene R. Prusher, 'Hamas remains defiant despite pounding' Christian Science Monitor 13 January 2009". Csmonitor.com. January 13, 2009. Archived from the original on February 20, 2009. Retrieved June 5, 2010.
  71. Bright, Arthur. Israel set to launch ‘limited operation’ in Gaza Archived August 5, 2011, at the Wayback Machine , The Christian Science Monitor, December 26, 2008.
  72. Rory McCarthy in Jerusalem (September 16, 2009). "Israel rejects war crimes findings of UN Gaza inquiry - World news - guardian.co.uk". The Guardian. London. Archived from the original on January 18, 2017. Retrieved May 8, 2010.
  73. "Princess Eléonore". monarchie.be. Archived from the original on October 14, 2021. Retrieved August 10, 2020.
  74. "These pictures of birthday girl Harshaali Malhotra prove that she is a born star". Bollywood Life. June 3, 2020. Archived from the original on October 14, 2021. Retrieved August 10, 2020.
  75. Douglas Johnson (February 19, 2008). "Alain Robbe-Grillet obituary". The Guardian. Archived from the original on October 14, 2021. Retrieved April 23, 2010.
  76. "Arthur C. Clarke | Biography, Works, & Facts". Encyclopædia Britannica. Archived from the original on October 14, 2021. Retrieved December 13, 2020.
  77. Douglas Messerli (May 2, 2008). "Hugo Claus". The Guardian. Archived from the original on October 14, 2021. Retrieved August 19, 2021.
  78. "Arpad ORBAN - Olympic Football | Hungary". International Olympic Committee. June 13, 2016. Archived from the original on October 14, 2021.
  79. "Arpad Orban - Stats - titles won". www.footballdatabase.eu. Archived from the original on October 14, 2021.
  80. Jensen, Trevor (June 11, 2008). "Tapped human side of science fiction". Chicago Tribune. Archived from the original on June 12, 2008. Retrieved 2008-06-11.
  81. Kaufman, Michael T; Barnard, Anne (August 4, 2008). "Solzhenitsyn, Literary Giant Who Defied Soviets, Dies at 89". The New York Times. p. 1. Archived from the original on October 14, 2021. Retrieved February 11, 2013.
  82. Max, D. T. (2012). Every Love Story Is a Ghost Story: A Life of David Foster Wallace. p. 301. ISBN   978-1-84708-494-1.
  83. Litsky, Frank (November 7, 2008). "G. Larry James, Olympic Gold Medalist, Dies at 61". The New York Times. Archived from the original on October 14, 2021. Retrieved October 3, 2018.
  84. "Actor Robert Prosky dies at age 77". WTOP-FM . December 9, 2008. Archived from the original on December 17, 2008. Retrieved September 22, 2018.
  85. Jack, Adrian (December 26, 2008). "Obituary: Eartha Kitt". the Guardian. Archived from the original on October 14, 2021. Retrieved December 10, 2020.
  86. "Time Traveler by Merriam-Webster: Words from 2008". merriam-webster.com. Archived from the original on May 7, 2018. Retrieved May 6, 2018.