2008 East Timorese assassination attempts

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Jose Ramos-Horta Ramos-Horta.png
José Ramos-Horta

Rebel East Timorese soldiers invaded the homes of the President and Prime Minister of East Timor on 11 February 2008, leading to the shooting and serious wounding of President José Ramos-Horta, the shooting up of the car of Prime Minister Xanana Gusmão, and the fatal shooting of rebel leader Alfredo Reinado. The attacks have been variously interpreted as attempted assassinations, attempted kidnappings and an attempted coup d'état. The rebels' intentions remain unknown. [1]

President of East Timor Position

The President of East Timor, officially the President of the Democratic Republic of Timor Leste, is the head of state in East Timor, elected by popular vote for a five-year term. Their executive powers are somewhat limited, though he or she is able to veto legislation. Following elections, the president usually appoints as the prime minister, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition. As head of government the prime minister presides over the cabinet.

Prime Minister of East Timor position

The Prime Minister of Timor-Leste is the head of government in East Timor. The President is the head of state. The President of East Timor appoints the Prime Minister, after parliamentary elections and have listened to all parties represented in the National Assembly, who is usually the leader of the large party or coalition. The Prime Minister oversees the activities of the government and chairs the Council of Ministers.

East Timor Country in Maritime Southeast Asia

East Timor or Timor-Leste, officially the Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste, is a country in Maritime Southeast Asia. It comprises the eastern half of the island of Timor, the nearby islands of Atauro and Jaco, and Oecusse, an exclave on the northwestern side of the island surrounded by Indonesian West Timor. Australia is the country's southern neighbour, separated by the Timor Sea. The country's size is about 15,007 km2.


After being hospitalised in Darwin, Northern Territory, Australia, for more than a month, Ramos-Horta was discharged from hospital on 19 March but remained in Darwin until April for continued treatment. [2]

Darwin, Northern Territory City in the Northern Territory, Australia

Darwin is the capital city of the Northern Territory of Australia, situated on the Timor Sea. It is the largest city in the sparsely populated Northern Territory, with a population of 145,916. It is the smallest, wettest and most northerly of the Australian capital cities, and acts as the Top End's regional centre.

Australia Country in Oceania

Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous smaller islands. It is the largest country in Oceania and the world's sixth-largest country by total area. The neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea, Indonesia, and East Timor to the north; the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu to the north-east; and New Zealand to the south-east. The population of 25 million is highly urbanised and heavily concentrated on the eastern seaboard. Australia's capital is Canberra, and its largest city is Sydney. The country's other major metropolitan areas are Melbourne, Brisbane, Perth, and Adelaide.


Events began before dawn when rebel soldiers led by Alfredo Reinado entered the residential compound of President José Ramos-Horta in the capital Dili. They disarmed the security detail on duty and entered the compound. Ramos-Horta was not there, being out jogging on the beach. The second security team, arriving to relieve the night team, saw Renaido in the house and opened fire, killing him with a shot to the head. Another rebel, Leopoldino Mendonça Exposto, was also killed. [3]

Alfredo Reinado East Timorese military commander

Alfredo Alves Reinado, sometimes spelled Reinhado, was a major in the military of Timor-Leste, the Timor Leste Defence Force (F-FDTL). He deserted on 4 May 2006 to join approximately 600 former soldiers who had been sacked in March 2006 after complaining of regional discrimination in promotions, sparking the 2006 East Timor crisis. Reinado was one of the leaders of the rebel soldiers, and the highest-ranking deserter.

José Ramos-Horta former president and prime minister of East Timor

José Manuel Ramos-Horta is an East Timorese politician who was the President of East Timor from 20 May 2007 to 20 May 2012. Previously he was Minister of Foreign Affairs from 2002 to 2006 and Prime Minister from 2006 to 2007. He is a co-recipient of the 1996 Nobel Peace Prize along with Carlos Filipe Ximenes Belo, for working "towards a just and peaceful solution to the conflict in East Timor".

Dili City in East Timor

Dili, also known as “City of Peace”, is the capital, largest city, chief port, and commercial centre of East Timor (Timor-Leste). Dili is part of a free trade zone, the Timor Leste–Indonesia–Australia Growth Triangle (TIA-GT).

Ramos-Horta was alerted of the gunfight but walked back up the hill to his home. Reinado's men opened fire on him as he approached his home. One of Ramos-Horta's guards pushed in front of him as a human shield. The guard was shot and taken to a hospital in serious condition. The surviving rebels fled the scene. [4]

Prime Minister Xanana Gusmão was alerted to the attack on the presidential home and left his home by car for Dili. A group of rebel soldiers under the command of Lieutenant Gastão Salsinha invaded Gusmão's home, finding Gusmão's wife Kirsty and children but not Gusmão. Another party of rebels shot out the tires of Gusmão's car on its way to Dili, but the car continued for some distance before Gusmão, unhurt, [5] abandoned it and ran into the bush to call for help. [1]

Xanana Gusmão former President and Prime Minister of East Timor

Kay Rala Xanana Gusmão, GColIH, GCL, GCMG is an East Timorese politician. A former militant, he was the first President of East Timor, serving from May 2002 to May 2007. He then became the fourth Prime Minister of East Timor, serving from 8 August 2007 to 16 February 2015. He has been Minister of Planning and Strategic Investment since February 2015.

Lieutenant Gastão Salsinha was the de facto leader of the East Timor rebel movement following the death of former leader Major Alfredo Reinado.

Kirsty Sword Gusmão East Timorese activist

Kirsty Sword Gusmão AO is an Australian-East Timorese activist who served as the First Lady of East Timor from 2002 until 2007. She is married to Xanana Gusmão, former Prime Minister and President of East Timor albeit separated in 2015. She is the founding director of the Alola Foundation, which seeks to improve the lives of women in Timor-Leste, a nation with one of the world's lowest per capita GDPs.

Gusmão declared a 48-hour state of emergency, including a curfew and a ban on conducting meetings or rallies, [6] and described the events as an attempted coup. Ramos-Horta was evacuated to Darwin, Australia, for emergency surgery. [7]

State of emergency Legal declaration or de facto acts by a government allowing assumption of extraordinary powers

A state of emergency is a situation in which a government is empowered to perform actions that it would normally not be permitted to do. A government can declare such a state during a disaster, civil unrest, or armed conflict. Such declarations alert citizens to change their normal behavior and orders government agencies to implement emergency plans. Justitium is its equivalent in Roman law—a concept in which the senate could put forward a final decree that was not subject to dispute.


A curfew is an order specifying a time during which certain regulations apply. Typically it refers to the time when individuals are required to return to and stay in their homes. Such an order may be issued by public authorities but also by the head of a household to those living in the household. For instance, an au pair is typically given a curfew, which regulates when they must return to the host family's home in the evening.

Ramos-Horta had met Reinado several times in the months before the attacks, trying to persuade him to surrender. [8] Their most recent meeting, on the preceding Sunday, was reported to have ended acrimoniously. [9]


11 February: [10] [11]

International reactions

International organisations


Aftermath of the attacks

Vicente Guterres, the Vice-President of Parliament, became acting President following the attacks; [28] he was soon replaced as acting President by Fernando de Araújo, the President of Parliament. [29] Lieutenant Gastão Salsinha said that he had taken over as head of the rebels after Reinado's death and claimed that the attacks were not assassination attempts. According to Salsinha, presidential security started the fighting. [18]

At Gusmão's request, Parliament extended the initial 48-hour state of emergency for ten days on 13 February, with 30 votes in favour and 14 abstaining. [30] On the same day, Prosecutor-General Longinhos Monteiro said that he was about to issue warrants for the arrest of 18 individuals in connection with the attacks, whom he did not name. [31]

Angelita Pires, said to have been Reinado's lawyer, was arrested in Dili on 17 February. Prosecutor-General Monteiro said that Pires was suspected of having information about the attacks because, according to Monteiro, she let Reinado (a wanted man) stay in her home on the night prior to the attacks without notifying the authorities. Three others were also thought to have been arrested in connection with the attacks by the time Pires was arrested, along with more than 200 arrested for violating the emergency laws put in place after the attacks. [29]

Prosecutor-General Monteiro said that Reinado's group had initially intended to merely kidnap Ramos-Horta and Gusmão, but that this plan had failed and that they had therefore switched to their backup plan. Meanwhile, Araújo said that the government would engage in no further dialogue with the rebels and that there was an arrest warrant for Salsinha. [29]

Strong disagreements regarding the events became increasingly visible in the East-Timorese political system: Mário Viegas Carrascalão (former Governor during the Indonesian rule and present President and Deputy of the Social Democratic Party), as well as Mari Alkatiri (former Prime-Minister and Secretary-General of the Revolutionary Front for an Independent East Timor - FRETILIN), have both voiced their doubts on the existence of an attack on Prime Minister Xanana Gusmão. [32] Likewise, Reinado's adoptive father declared to LUSA and to Portuguese television that he had spoken with Salsinha, after the death of his son, and that Salsinha denied that there had been an attack on Gusmão.

On 22 February, Parliament voted to extend the state of emergency by 30 days. [33]

Amaro da Silva Susar, who is said to have participated in the attack on Ramos-Horta, surrendered on 1 March at Turiscai without resistance, saying that he wanted "calm" to return to East Timor. According to da Silva, he participated in the attack but did not actually shoot Ramos-Horta. [34]

In early March, Araujo visited Ramos-Horta in Darwin. He said that Ramos-Horta had forgiven Reinado for the attack and did not understand why Reinado had wanted to kill him. According to Araujo, Ramos-Horta, who had started walking again, was "very lucid, showing his concern for the country and the responsibility of the head of state"; he wanted the people to remain calm and wanted a full investigation to take place. [35]

A message from Ramos-Horta, still recovering in Darwin Private Hospital, was broadcast on 12 March. In this message, he thanked his supporters and Australia and said that he had "been very well looked after". A spokesman said that his condition was improving and that he was taking short daily walks for exercise. [36] Meanwhile, his brother Arsenio Ramos-Horta said that President Ramos-Horta had identified Marcelo Caetano as the man who had shot him. Arsenio said that Caetano had been shot in the 2006 violence and that Ramos-Horta had taken Caetano into his home at that time to help him recover. [37] The President's office declined to confirm this identification due to the ongoing nature of the investigation. [38]

Ramos-Horta was discharged from Royal Darwin Hospital on 19 March, although he said that he would stay in Australia for physical therapy for "a few more weeks". He also said on this occasion that he had remained conscious following the shooting and "remember[ed] every detail", describing how he was taken for treatment. Thanking the hospital staff, he gave them Timorese coffee. The hospital's general manager that he was "inspired" by Ramos-Horta's recovery from such serious injuries, although he said that Ramos-Horta would probably continue to suffer pain from the injuries for a long time. [2]

On 23 March, Parliament extended the state of emergency for another month. [39] On the same day, Ramos-Horta went out in public for the first time since the shooting, visiting St Mary's Catholic Cathedral in Darwin. Meanwhile, Salsinha was reported to be negotiating his surrender in Maubesi. The authorities have placed a priority on obtaining his peaceful surrender, concerned that if he is killed, what he knew about the attacks would be "bur[ied] with him". Four other rebels surrendered on 22 March. [40]

Later in March, Ramos-Horta said in a television interview that it had taken a long time for an ambulance to arrive after he was shot. He also described how he had looked into his attacker's eyes and, seeing that the man was "determined to fire", he "turned and ran" immediately before being shot. According to Ramos-Horta, the UN wasted a critical opportunity to capture the rebels who participated in the attack by failing to surround Dili and close off the exits. Australian Defence Minister Joel Fitzgibbon said in response that Ramos-Horta was "in no position ... to properly judge the timing". [41]

On 17 April, Ramos-Horta returned to Dili from Darwin; he was greeted at the airport by politicians and dignitaries, tens of thousands of citizens lined the road to the airport. He gave an emotional press conference at the airport in which he urged Salsinha and the remaining rebels to surrender; however, despite Salsinha's insistence on surrendering only to Ramos-Horta in person, Ramos-Horta said that he would not go to meet with him for this purpose. He also said at the press conference that Reinado had not had a prearranged meeting at his house on the day of the attack, describing this as a "lie". [42] On his return, Ramos-Horta immediately resumed the Presidency from the acting President de Araújo.

Reinado death controversy

Some months after the attack, questions arose about the government's version of the death of Alfredo Reinado. An autopsy report concluded that Reinado had been shot at "very close range" in the back of the head. It has been suggested that Reinado was executed rather than shot in defence. [43] [44]

See also

Related Research Articles

History of East Timor aspect of history

East Timor is a country in Southeast Asia, officially known as Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste. The country comprises the eastern half of the island of Timor and the nearby islands of Atauro and Jaco. The first inhabitants are thought to be descendant of Australoid and Melanesian peoples. The Portuguese began to trade with Timor by the early 16th century and colonised it throughout the mid-century. Skirmishing with the Dutch in the region eventually resulted in an 1859 treaty for which Portugal ceded the western half of the island. Imperial Japan occupied East Timor during World War II, but Portugal resumed colonial authority after the Japanese surrender.

Mari Alkatiri Prime Minister of East Timor

Mari bin Amude Alkatiri, GCIH is a Timorese politician. He was Prime Minister of East Timor from May 2002 until his resignation on 26 June 2006 following weeks of political unrest in the country, and again from September 2017 until May 2018. He is the Secretary-General of the Fretilin party, as well as President of the Special Administrative Region of Oecusse.

Francisco Xavier do Amaral East Timorese politician

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2006 East Timorese crisis

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2007 East Timorese presidential election election

Presidential elections were held in East Timor in 2007. The first round on 9 April 2007 saw six of the eight candidates eliminated. The remaining two candidates, incumbent Prime Minister José Ramos-Horta and FRETILIN President Francisco Guterres, faced each other in a runoff election on 9 May 2007. Ramos-Horta won the second round with 69% of the vote.

2007 East Timorese parliamentary election election

A parliamentary election was held in East Timor on 30 June 2007. Although a narrow plurality was achieved by the Revolutionary Front for an Independent East Timor (FRETILIN), a coalition involving the next three largest groups formed a government. New Prime Minister Xanana Gusmão of the National Congress for Timorese Reconstruction (CNRT) was sworn in on 8 August 2007; Fernando de Araújo of the Democratic Party became President of the National Parliament.

National Congress for Timorese Reconstruction political party

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Francisco Guterres East Timorese politician

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National Council of Maubere Resistance

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Battle of Same

The Battle of Same was fought in the village of Same in Timor Leste, 50 kilometres (31 mi) south of the capital Dili, between Australian Special Forces and Petitioner rebels under the command of Alfredo Reinado. The operation occurred under the auspices of Operation Astute, being the deployment of Australian forces in the wake of 2006 East Timorese crisis, and resulted in the Australians successfully securing the target compound and defeating the small rebel force, before the assault was called off by the Timor Leste government. Reinado and nine other rebels subsequently evaded the Australian cordon, however, and made good their escape into the mountains.

The Minor Seminary of Our Lady of Fatima, the oldest Roman Catholic Seminary in East Timor was founded in 1936. The seminary was initially established in Manatutu district, south of Dili. In 1951 it was moved to Dare. In 1954 the Vatican canonically registered the seminary. It was taken over by the Jesuits in 1958.

The following lists events that happened during 2008 in East Timor.

Carrascalão is a surname of Portuguese origin for several personalities of Timor Leste of Indonesia, mainly politicians:


  1. 1 2 Ansley, Greg (16 February 2008). "Young nation on knife-edge". New Zealand Herald. Retrieved 16 February 2008. What the rebels' intention was remains unknown.
  2. 1 2 "East Timor president leaves Australian hospital after five weeks of treatment", Associated Press (International Herald Tribune), 19 March 2008.
  3. "Shot East Timor leader 'critical'", BBC News, 11 February 2008.
  4. "Brave Ramos Horta ignored warnings about assassination attempt". The Age. Melbourne. 13 February 2008. Retrieved 17 February 2008.
  5. "East Timor President Wounded in Attack". The New York Times. 10 February 2008. Retrieved 10 February 2008.[ dead link ]
  6. "Ramos-Horta 'out of danger'" Archived 12 February 2008 at the Wayback Machine , news.com.au, 12 February 2008.
  7. "Ramos Horta in Darwin for treatment", Australian Broadcasting Corporation, 11 February 2008.
  8. "Despite the outstanding charges, Ramos-Horta had met with Reinado on several occasions in recent months to try to persuade him to surrender" in "East Timor Declares State of Emergency". The New York Times. 12 February 2008. Retrieved 13 February 2008.[ dead link ]
  9. Jolliffe, Jill; Stephanie March and Brendan Nicholson (12 February 2008). "Horta in fight for life in Darwin". The Age. Melbourne. Retrieved 14 February 2008.[ dead link ]
  10. "Reinado morto quase uma hora antes de Ramos-Horta ser ferido". Público. 11 February 2008. Archived from the original on 14 February 2008. Retrieved 13 February 2008. (in Portuguese).
  11. "Destaque: Timor-Leste", in Público, 13 February 2008, particularly: Jorge Heitor, "O filme de uma acção golpista" and Pedro Bacelar de Vasconcelos, "Incompetência e inutilidade do aparato internacional". Público's online Portal (open to all) Archived 20 September 2006 at the Wayback Machine and Público's online version of the printed edition (only for subscribers) Archived 12 February 2008 at the Wayback Machine (in Portuguese).
  12. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Anthony Deutsch. "Timorese President Walked Into Gunfight", Associated Press. [ dead link ]
  13. ABEL COELHO DE MORAIS, FIRDIA LISNAWATI-AP, "ONU confirma ligação de ataques a Ramos-Horta e Xanana Gusmão" Archived 26 February 2008 at the Wayback Machine , Diário de Notícias online, 21 February 2008 (in Portuguese).
  14. "Ataques visavam matar Xanana e Ramos-Horta, diz a ONU", in Público, 21 February 2008. Público's online Portal (open to all) Archived 20 September 2006 at the Wayback Machine and Público's online version of the printed edition (only for subscribers) Archived 12 February 2008 at the Wayback Machine (in Portuguese).
  15. Murdoch, Lindsay (13 February 2008). "Ramos-Horta braved rebels". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 14 February 2008.
  16. Arsénio Ramos-Horta interviewed by Ben Doherty, Darwin- 14 February 2008 - 4:01PM The Age.
  17. Isabel Gourjão Santos, "Gastão Salsinha assume-se como novo líder dos rebeldes", in Público, 15 February 2008. Público's online Portal (open to all) Archived 20 September 2006 at the Wayback Machine and Público's online version of the printed edition (only for subscribers) Archived 12 February 2008 at the Wayback Machine (in Portuguese).
  18. 1 2 "E Timorese rebels deny murder bid". BBC. 14 February 2008. Archived from the original on 15 February 2008. Retrieved 14 February 2008.
  19. LUSA - official site Archived 18 December 2009 at WebCite
  20. 1 2 3 Condemnation for 'unspeakable' act The Age, 13 February 2008. Retrieved 24 January 2011.
  21. 1 2 Rudd pledges more troops for East Timor - ABC News (Australian Broadcasting Corporation)
  22. President Barroso condemns the attack against President Ramos Horta and PM Gusmão of Timor-Leste Scoop world, 12 February 2008. Retrieved 24 January 2011.
  23. 1 2 Greg Ansley (12 February 2008). "More NZ troops for Timor". The New Zealand Herald . Retrieved 11 February 2008.
  24. "Portugal empenhado e disponível para estabilizar democracia timorense". Público. 11 February 2008. Archived from the original on 16 February 2008. Retrieved 12 February 2008. (in Portuguese).
  25. "Russia concerned over attack on East Timor president". Moscow: RIA Novosti. 11 February 2008. Retrieved 22 July 2009.
  26. О покушении на Президента Восточного Тимора (in Russian). Russian Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 11 February 2008. Retrieved 22 July 2009.
  27. The Saharawi President "energetically" condemns the assassination attempt against Horta and Gusmao [ dead link ] Sahara Press Service, 14 February 2008. Retrieved 24 January 2011.
  28. Guido Goulart, "East Timor Declares State of Emergency", Associated Press, 12 February 2008. Archived 15 February 2008 at the Wayback Machine
  29. 1 2 3 "E Timor arrests Reinado 'lawyer'", BBC News, 18 February 2008.
  30. "East Timor emergency state extended" Archived 14 February 2008 at the Wayback Machine , Al Jazeera, 13 February 2008.
  31. Ahmad Pathoni, "East Timor seek arrests over assassination attempts", Reuters (International Herald Tribune), 13 February 2008.
  32. "Ramos-Horta teve quinta intervenção cirúrgica", in Público, 20 February 2008. Público's online Portal (open to all) Archived 20 September 2006 at the Wayback Machine and Público's online version of the printed edition (only for subscribers) Archived 12 February 2008 at the Wayback Machine (in Portuguese).
  33. "State of Emergency Extended in East Timor" Archived 25 February 2008 at the Wayback Machine , VOA News, 22 February 2008.
  34. "Suspect surrenders in East Timor", BBC News, 2 March 2008.
  35. Lauren Wilson, "Ramos Horta 'forgives Reinado'" Archived 9 March 2008 at the Wayback Machine , Reuters (The Australian), 4 March 2008.
  36. Ed Johnson, "East Timor's Ramos-Horta Thanks Supporters From Hospital Bed", Bloomberg.com, 12 March 2008.
  37. Lindsay Murdoch, "Ramos-Horta names gunman", smh.com.au, 13 March 2008.
  38. "Ramos-Horta knowing attacker unconfirmed", theage.com.au, 13 March 2008.
  39. "East Timor extends state of emergency", AAP (news.sbs.com.au), 24 March 2008. Archived 4 August 2009 at the Wayback Machine
  40. Lindsay Murdoch, "Ramos-Horta leaves hospital bed for service", smh.com.au, 24 March 2008.
  41. "Timor president accuses UN troops" Archived 2 April 2008 at the Wayback Machine , Al Jazeera, 28 March 2008.
  42. Lindsay Murdoch, "Emotional homecoming for Ramos Horta", theage.com.au, 17 April 2008.
  43. Simon Roughneen, "Who Shot J R Horta?", Asia Times Online, 4 September 2008.
  44. Lindsay Murdoch, Dili investigator called to Canberra as evidence of execution mounts, The Sydney Morning Herald, 4 September 2008.