2008 Summer Paralympics

Last updated

XIII Paralympic Games
Beijing 2008 Paralympics logo.svg
Host city Beijing, China
MottoOne World, One Dream
(Chinese: 同一个世界 同一个梦想
pinyin
: Tóng yīge shìjìe tóng yīge mèngxiǎng)
Nations146
Athletes3,951
Events472 in 20 sports
Opening 6 September
Closing 17 September
Opened by
Cauldron
Stadium Beijing National Stadium
Summer
Iran v South Africa in wheelchair basketball at the 2008 Summer Paralympics. Wheelchair basketball at the 2008 Summer Paralympics.jpg
Iran v South Africa in wheelchair basketball at the 2008 Summer Paralympics.

The 2008 Summer Paralympic Games (Chinese :2008年夏季残疾人奥林匹克运动会; pinyin :2008 Nián Xiàjì Cánjí Rén Àolínpǐkè Yùndònghuì), the 13th Paralympics, took place in Beijing, China from September 6 to 17, 2008. As with the 2008 Summer Olympics, equestrian events were held in Hong Kong and sailing events in Qingdao.

Contents

3,951 athletes from 146 countries took part, [1] the largest number of nations ever (ten more than the 2004 Games in Athens). Five countries competed for the first time. [2] As host country, China fielded more athletes than any other country. The slogan for the 2008 Paralympics was the same as the 2008 Summer Olympics, "One World, One Dream" (simplified Chinese :同一个世界 同一个梦想; traditional Chinese :同一個世界 同一個夢想 Pinyin Tóng yīge shìjìe tóng yīge mèngxiǎng, lit. "One World, One Dream"). China dominated the medal count, finishing with 89 gold medals and 211 total medals, more than double the next-ranked NPC in both cases.

339 Paralympic records and 279 world records were broken. [1]

International Paralympic Committee (IPC) President Philip Craven declared the Games "the greatest Paralympic Games ever." [3]

Beijing has been selected to host the 2022 Winter Paralympics; it would then become the first city ever to host both a Summer and Winter Games.

It was first time the new Paralympic logo featured in the Summer Paralympics since its rebranding after the 2004 Summer Paralympics.

Venues

The Beijing National Stadium Birds Nest Cropped.jpg
The Beijing National Stadium

Nineteen competition venues were selected—seventeen in Beijing, one in Hong Kong, and one in Qingdao. [4]

  1. Beijing National Stadium (Birds Nest) - Athletics, Opening and closing ceremonies
  2. Beijing National Aquatics Center (Water Cube) - Swimming
  3. Beijing National Indoor Stadium (Fan) - Wheelchair basketball
  4. Fencing Gymnasium of Olympic Green Convention Centre - Boccia, Wheelchair fencing
  5. Olympic Green Archery Field - Archery
  6. Olympic Green Hockey Field - Football 5-a-side, Football 7-a-side
  7. Olympic Green Tennis Centre (Flowers) - Wheelchair tennis
  8. Peking University Gymnasium - Table tennis
  9. Beihang University Gymnasium - Powerlifting
  10. China Agricultural University Gymnasium - Sitting volleyball
  11. Beijing Science and Technology University Gymnasium - Wheelchair rugby
  12. Beijing Institute of Technology Gymnasium - Goalball
  13. Beijing Shooting Range Hall - Shooting
  14. Laoshan Velodrome - Cycling (track)
  15. Workers Gymnasium - Judo
  16. Shunyi Olympic Rowing-Canoeing Park - Rowing
  17. Triathlon Venue - Cycling (road)
  18. Hong Kong Equestrian Venues - Equestrian
  19. Qingdao International Sailing Centre - Sailing

Symbols

Emblem

The Games's emblem, "Sky, Earth, and Human Beings" (Chinese :天、地、人), was unveiled in July 2004, a multicolored Chinese character "之" (Chinese :zhī) stylized as an athletic figure in motion. Its red, blue and green colors represent sun, sky and earth. [5]

Slogan

The slogan was the same as the 2008 Summer Olympics, "One World, One Dream".

Fu Niu Lele, mascot of the 2008 Summer Paralympics Paralympic 2008 Mascot.svg
Fu Niu Lele, mascot of the 2008 Summer Paralympics

Mascots

The mascot was a cartoon cow named Fu Niu Lele (Chinese :福牛乐乐), roughly meaning "Lucky Ox 'Happy'". [6]

Theme song

The theme song was "Flying with the Dream" Chinese :和梦一起飞. [7] It was performed by Chinese-Tibetan singer Han Hong and Hong Kong singer and actor Andy Lau.

Torch relay

The torch relay of the 2008 Summer Paralympics started from Tian Tan (Temple of Heaven) on August 28. The flame then gathered before The Hall of Prayer for Good Harvests (祈年殿) and followed two routes (the "Route of Ancient China" and the "Route of Modern China"). Both routes returned to Beijing on September 5, and the torch was flamed at the National Stadium during the Opening Ceremony on September 6.

The Games

Opening ceremony

The opening ceremony took place on September 6, 2008. The pre-ceremony performance was a succession of various musical performances, ranging from military music to folk music and a performance of Ode to Joy . [8] Following a countdown, a fireworks display signalled the beginning of the ceremony proper. The national flag of China was then raised, in accordance with usual protocol, and the national anthem of China performed. [8] Performers wearing suits in bright colours paraded round the stadium, as a welcoming ceremony preceding the athletes' entry. [8] As with the 2008 Summer Olympics, the ceremony included a parade of nations, with a flag bearer for each national team. Contrary to Olympic tradition, the national team of Greece did not enter first, as the Paralympic Games traces its roots to Stoke Mandeville rather than Olympia; the host country, as is customary in both Olympic and Paralympic Games, came last. As Chinese is written in characters and not letters, the order of the teams' entry was determined by the number of strokes in the first character of their respective countries' Simplified Chinese names. [9] Countries with the same number of strokes in the first character are sorted by those of the next character. This made Guinea (几内亚) the first country to enter as it takes two strokes to write the first character in the country's name (几). Following the athletes' parade, a performance took place, divided into chapters and sub-chapters entitled the "Journey of Space" and "Journey of Life" [8] The sunbird performance entailed Yang Haitao (杨海涛), a singer with a visual impairment, singing about dreams while an acrobat in sunbird costume descended in simulated flight from the air and "awakened the blind singer from his sleep". [8] The ceremony concludes with Hou Bin, the first Chinese paralympian to be three-time champion consecutively in the same event, lifted himself and his wheelchair up on a rope by strength of arms to the top of Beijing National Stadium, where he lit the cauldron to mark the beginning of the Games. [10]

Closing ceremony

The 2008 Summer Paralympics closing ceremony was held at the Beijing National Stadium. It began at 8:00 pm China Standard Time (UTC+8) on September 17, 2008. [11]

Sports

Twenty sports were on the program:

Rowing made its first appearance in the Paralympics at these games.

Calendar

  Opening ceremony  Event competitions  Gold medal events  Closing ceremony
September6th
Sat
7th
Sun
8th
Mon
9th
Tue
10th
Wed
11th
Thu
12th
Fri
13th
Sat
14th
Sun
15th
Mon
16th
Tue
17th
Wed
Events
IPC logo black (2004-2019).svg Ceremonies OC CC N/A
Archery pictogram (Paralympics).svg Archery 4329
Athletics pictogram (Paralympics).svg Athletics 1020171016201819255160
Boccia pictogram (Paralympics).svg Boccia 437
Cycling Cycling (road) pictogram (Paralympics).svg Road cycling154446
Cycling (track) pictogram (Paralympics).svg Track cycling5774
Equestrian pictogram.svg Equestrian 242311
Football Football 5-a-side pictogram (Paralympics).svg 5-a-side 11
Football 7-a-side pictogram (Paralympics).svg 7-a-side 11
Goalball pictogram (Paralympics).svg Goalball 22
Judo pictogram (Paralympics).svg Judo 44513
Powerlifting pictogram (Paralympics).svg Powerlifting 342342220
Rowing pictogram (Paralympics).svg Rowing 44
Sailing pictogram.svg Sailing 33
Shooting pictogram (Paralympics).svg Shooting 22222212
Swimming pictogram (Paralympics).svg Swimming 161816121316141817140
Table tennis pictogram (Paralympics).svg Table tennis 5114424
Sitting volleyball pictogram (Paralympics).svg Volleyball 112
Wheelchair basketball pictogram (Paralympics).svg Wheelchair basketball 112
Wheelchair fencing pictogram (Paralympics).svg Wheelchair fencing 332210
Wheelchair rugby pictogram (Paralympics).svg Wheelchair rugby 11
Wheelchair tennis pictogram (Paralympics).svg Wheelchair tennis 1326
Daily medal events274161464552495651368472
Cumulative total2768129175220272321377428464472
September6th
Sat
7th
Sun
8th
Mon
9th
Tue
10th
Wed
11th
Thu
12th
Fri
13th
Sat
14th
Sun
15th
Mon
16th
Tue
17th
Wed
Events

Participating NPCs

The following National Paralympic Committees sent delegations to compete. [12] Macau and the Faroe Islands are members of the International Paralympic Committee, but not of the International Olympic Committee; hence they participate in the Paralympic Games but not in the Olympics.

Burundi, Gabon, Georgia, Haiti and Montenegro participated in the Paralympics for the first time. [1]

Botswana was due to take part, but its single athlete, defending Paralympic champion sprinter Tshotlego Morama, withdrew prior to the Games due to injury. The country's last-minute attempt to field other athletes in her place was rejected, as they did not meet the requirement of having participated in international events. [13]

Participating National Paralympic Committees

Medal count

This table is based on the medal count of the International Paralympic Committee (IPC).

The ranking is sorted primarily by the number of gold medals earned by a National Paralympic Committee. The number of silver medals is taken into consideration next and then the number of bronze medals. If countries are still tied, equal ranking is given and they are listed alphabetically by IPC Country Code.

  *   Host nation (China)

2008 Summer Paralympics medal table
RankNPCGoldSilverBronzeTotal
1Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  China  (CHN)*897052211
2Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  Great Britain  (GBR)422931102
3Flag of the United States.svg  United States  (USA)36352899
4Flag of Ukraine.svg  Ukraine  (UKR)24183274
5Flag of Australia.svg  Australia  (AUS)23292779
6Flag of South Africa.svg  South Africa  (RSA)213630
7Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada  (CAN)19102150
8Flag of Russia.svg  Russia  (RUS)18232263
9Flag of Brazil.svg  Brazil  (BRA)16141747
10Flag of Spain.svg  Spain  (ESP)15212258
11–76Remaining NPCs170219229618
Totals (76 NPCs)4734714871431

Events highlights

International television

In France, following the Games, Philippe Juvin, national secretary of the governing Union for a Popular Movement, accused national public television network France Télévisions of having practiced "segregation" by providing live coverage of the Beijing Olympics but only ten-minute daily summaries of events, outside prime time, for the Beijing Paralympics. France Télévisions replied that it would take Juvin to court for slander. [14] [15]

While the Games were not broadcast live in the United States, NBC broadcast a documentary featuring highlights and athlete profiles on November 9, 2008, followed by a week-long series of coverage shown by Universal Sports beginning the day after. [16]

See also

Related Research Articles

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2014 Winter Paralympics

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Great Britain at the 2008 Summer Paralympics Sporting event delegation

Great Britain competed at the 2008 Summer Paralympics in Beijing, People's Republic of China. Great Britain sent a delegation of around 400, of which 212 were athletes, to compete in eighteen sports at the Games. The team was made up of athletes from the whole United Kingdom; athletes from Northern Ireland, who may elect to hold Irish citizenship under the pre-1999 article 2 of the Irish constitution, are able to be selected to represent either Great Britain or Ireland at the Paralympics. Additionally some British overseas territories compete separately from Britain in Paralympic competition.

United States at the 2008 Summer Paralympics Sporting event delegation

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Australia at the 2008 Summer Paralympics Sporting event delegation

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France at the 2008 Summer Paralympics Sporting event delegation

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The 2008 Summer Paralympics closing ceremony was held at the Beijing National Stadium, also known as the Bird's Nest. It began at 8:00 pm China Standard Time (UTC+8) on September 17, 2008. The number 8 is associated with prosperity and confidence in Chinese culture.

Australia at the Paralympics Sporting event delegation

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Preceded by Summer Paralympics
Beijing

XIII Paralympic Summer Games (2008)
Succeeded by