2011

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WorksIntroductions
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2011 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar 2011
MMXI
Ab urbe condita 2764
Armenian calendar 1460
ԹՎ ՌՆԿ
Assyrian calendar 6761
Bahá'í calendar 167–168
Balinese saka calendar 1932–1933
Bengali calendar 1418
Berber calendar 2961
British Regnal year 59  Eliz. 2   60  Eliz. 2
Buddhist calendar 2555
Burmese calendar 1373
Byzantine calendar 7519–7520
Chinese calendar 庚寅(Metal  Tiger)
4707 or 4647
     to 
辛卯年 (Metal  Rabbit)
4708 or 4648
Coptic calendar 1727–1728
Discordian calendar 3177
Ethiopian calendar 2003–2004
Hebrew calendar 5771–5772
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat 2067–2068
 - Shaka Samvat 1932–1933
 - Kali Yuga 5111–5112
Holocene calendar 12011
Igbo calendar 1011–1012
Iranian calendar 1389–1390
Islamic calendar 1432–1433
Japanese calendar Heisei 23
(平成23年)
Javanese calendar 1943–1945
Juche calendar 100
Julian calendar Gregorian minus 13 days
Korean calendar 4344
Minguo calendar ROC 100
民國100年
Nanakshahi calendar 543
Thai solar calendar 2554
Tibetan calendar 阳金虎年
(male Iron-Tiger)
2137 or 1756 or 984
     to 
阴金兔年
(female Iron-Rabbit)
2138 or 1757 or 985
Unix time 1293840000 – 1325375999

2011 ( MMXI ) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar , the 2011th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 11th year of the 3rd millennium , the 11th year of the 21st century , and the 2nd year of the 2010s decade.

Roman numerals Numbers in the Roman numeral system

The numeric system represented by Roman numerals originated in ancient Rome and remained the usual way of writing numbers throughout Europe well into the Late Middle Ages. Numbers in this system are represented by combinations of letters from the Latin alphabet. Roman numerals, as used today, employ seven symbols, each with a fixed integer value, as follows:

A common year is a calendar year with 365 days, as distinguished from a leap year, which has 366. More generally, a common year is one without intercalation. The Gregorian calendar,, employs both common years and leap years to keep the calendar aligned with the tropical year, which does not contain an exact number of days.

A common year starting on Saturday is any non-leap year that begins on Saturday, 1 January, and ends on Saturday, 31 December. Its dominical letter hence is B. The most recent year of such kind was 2011 and the next one will be 2022 in the Gregorian calendar or, likewise, 2017 and 2023 in the obsolete Julian calendar, see below for more. Any common year that starts on Wednesday, Friday or Saturday has only one Friday the 13th; The only Friday the 13th in this common year occurs in May. Leap years starting on Friday share this characteristic.

Contents

2011 was designated as:

International Year of Forests world day

The year 2011 was declared the International Year of Forests by the United Nations to raise awareness and strengthen the sustainable management, conservation and sustainable development of all types of forests for the benefit of current and future generations.

International Year of Chemistry world day

The International Year of Chemistry 2011 was a year-long commemorative event for the achievements of chemistry and its contributions to humankind. The recognition for chemistry was made official by the United Nations in December 2008. Events for the year were coordinated by IUPAC, the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, and by UNESCO, the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization.

The United Nations General Assembly declared the year 2011 as International Year for People of African Descent. That year also marked the 10th anniversary of the World Conference Against Racism, which approved a resolution stating that slavery along with the colonization that sustained it were crimes against humanity.

Events

January

January 1 is the first day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. There are 364 days remaining until the end of the year. This day is known as New Year's Day since the day marks the beginning of the year. It is also the first day of the first quarter of the year and the first half of the year.

Estonia Republic in Northern Europe

Estonia, officially the Republic of Estonia, is a country in Northern Europe. It is bordered to the north by the Gulf of Finland with Finland on the other side, to the west by the Baltic Sea with Sweden on the other side, to the south by Latvia (343 km), and to the east by Lake Peipus and Russia (338.6 km). The territory of Estonia consists of a mainland and 2,222 islands in the Baltic Sea, covering a total area of 45,227 km2 (17,462 sq mi), water 2,839 km2 (1,096 sq mi), land area 42,388 km2 (16,366 sq mi), and is influenced by a humid continental climate. The official language of the country, Estonian, is the second most spoken Finnic language.

Euro European currency

The euro is the official currency of 19 of the 28 member states of the European Union. This group of states is known as the eurozone or euro area, and counts about 343 million citizens as of 2019. The euro is the second largest and second most traded currency in the foreign exchange market after the United States dollar. The euro is subdivided into 100 cents.

February

February 11 is the 42nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. There are 323 days remaining until the end of the year.

President of Egypt The President of the Arab Republic of Egypt is the head of state of Egypt.

The President of the Arab Republic of Egypt is the head of state of Egypt. Under the various iterations of the Constitution of Egypt, the president is also the Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces and head of the executive branch of the Egyptian government. The current president is Abdel Fattah el-Sisi, in office since 8 June 2014.

Hosni Mubarak 20th and 21st-century Egyptian president and politician

Muhammad Hosni El Sayed Mubarak is a former Egyptian military and political leader who served as the fourth President of Egypt from 1981 to 2011.

March

March 6 is the 65th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. There are 300 days remaining until the end of the year.

Civil uprising phase of the Syrian Civil War early stage of protests in 2011

The civil uprising phase of the Syrian Civil War, or as it was sometimes called by the media the Syrian Revolution of Dignity was an early stage of protests – with subsequent violent reaction by the Syrian Arab Republic authorities – lasting from March to 28 July 2011. The uprising, initially demanding democratic reforms, evolved from initially minor protests, beginning as early as January 2011 and transformed into massive protests in March.

Daraa Place in Daraa Governorate, Syria

Daraa is a city in southwestern Syria, located about 13 kilometres (8.1 mi) north of the border with Jordan. It is the capital of Daraa Governorate, historically part of the ancient Hauran region. The city is located about 90 kilometres (56 mi) south of Damascus on the Damascus–Amman highway, and is used as a stopping station for travelers. Nearby localities include Umm al-Mayazen and Nasib to the southeast, al-Naimeh to the east, Ataman to the north, al-Yadudah to the northwest and Ramtha, Jordan to the southwest.

April

May

June

July

August

September

October

November

December

Births

Deaths

January

Gerry Rafferty Gerry Rafferty.jpg
Gerry Rafferty

February

Jane Russell Jane Russell in Gentlemen Prefer Blondes trailer 3.jpg
Jane Russell

March

Alberto Granado Alberto-granado-scaled.JPG
Alberto Granado
Elizabeth Taylor Taylor, Elizabeth posed.jpg
Elizabeth Taylor

April

William Lipscomb William n lipscomb jr.jpg
William Lipscomb

May

Osama bin Laden Osama bin Laden portrait.jpg
Osama bin Laden
Jeff Conaway JeffConaway1998.jpg
Jeff Conaway

June

Jack Kevorkian KevorkianUCLARoyce.jpg
Jack Kevorkian
Peter Falk Columbo Peter Falk 1973.JPG
Peter Falk

July

Itamar Franco ItamarFranco.jpg
Itamar Franco
Betty Ford Betty Ford, official White House photo color, 1974.jpg
Betty Ford
Amy Winehouse WinehouseLA.jpg
Amy Winehouse

August

Jack Layton Jack Layton 2011-04-23.jpg
Jack Layton

September

Andy Whitfield Andy Whitfield by Gage Skidmore.jpg
Andy Whitfield
Rudolf Mössbauer Mossbauer.jpg
Rudolf Mössbauer
Wangari Maathai Wangari Maathai no Brasil.jpg
Wangari Maathai

October

Steve Jobs Steve Jobs Headshot 2010-CROP.jpg
Steve Jobs
Muammar Gaddafi Muammar al-Gaddafi 1-1.jpg
Muammar Gaddafi

November

Joe Frazier Joe Frazier 2010.jpg
Joe Frazier
Danielle Mitterrand Portrait DM.jpg
Danielle Mitterrand

December

Christopher Hitchens Christopher Hitchens 2008-04-24 001.jpg
Christopher Hitchens
Kim Jong-il Kim Jong-il on August 24, 2011.jpg
Kim Jong-il

Nobel Prizes

Nobel medal.png

New English words

Related Research Articles

Foreign relations of Libya under Muammar Gaddafi

The foreign relations of the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya (1969–2011) underwent much fluctuation and change. They were marked by severe tension with the West and by other national policies in the Middle East and Africa, including the Libyan government's financial and military support for numerous paramilitary and rebel groups.

2009 (MMIX) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2009th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 9th year of the 3rd millennium, the 9th year of the 21st century, and the 10th and last year of the 2000s decade.

2010 (MMX) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2010th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 10th year of the 3rd millennium, the 10th year of the 21st century, and the 1st year of the 2010s decade.

2013 (MMXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2013th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 13th year of the 3rd millennium, the 13th year of the 21st century, and the 4th year of the 2010s decade.

2012 (MMXII) was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2012th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 12th year of the 3rd millennium, the 12th year of the 21st century, and the 3rd year of the 2010s decade.

Al-Saadi Muammar Gaddafi, is the third son of former Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi. He is a Libyan former association football player. In 2011, he was the commander of Libya's Special Forces and was involved in the Libyan Civil War. An Interpol notice was issued against him in 2011. On 5 March 2014, he was arrested in Niger and extradited to Libya, where he faces murder charges. In August 2015, video surfaced allegedly showing Gaddafi being tortured.

Saif al-Islam Gaddafi is a Libyan political figure. He is the second son of the Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi and his second wife Safia Farkash. Gaddafi was awarded a PhD from the London School of Economics.

These are some of the notable events relating to politics in 2011.

Arab Spring protests and revolutions in the Arab world

The Arab Spring was a series of anti-government protests, uprisings, and armed rebellions that spread across the Middle East in late 2010. It began in response to oppressive regimes and a low standard of living, beginning with protests in Tunisia. In the news, social media has been heralded as the driving force behind the swift spread of revolution throughout the world, as new protests appear in response to success stories shared from those taking place in other countries. In many countries, the governments have also recognized the importance of social media for organizing and have shut down certain sites or blocked Internet service entirely, especially in the times preceding a major rally. Governments have also scrutinized or suppressed discussion in those forums through accusing content creators of unrelated crimes or shutting down communication on specific sites or groups, such as through Facebook.

Libyan Civil War (2011) 2011 armed conflict in the North African country of Libya

The First Libyan Civil War, also referred to as the Libyan Revolution or 17 February Revolution, was an armed conflict in 2011 in the North African country of Libya fought between forces loyal to Colonel Muammar Gaddafi and those seeking to oust his government. The war was preceded by protests in Zawiya on 8 August 2009 and finally ignited by protests in Benghazi beginning on Tuesday, 15 February 2011, which led to clashes with security forces that fired on the crowd. The protests escalated into a rebellion that spread across the country, with the forces opposing Gaddafi establishing an interim governing body, the National Transitional Council.

Libya–United Kingdom relations

Relations between Libya and the United Kingdom were initially close and positive after the British Armed Forces helped rebel forces to topple Muammar Gaddafi's regime in the 2011 Libyan Civil War. British officials have visited Libya several times since then, including two visits by Prime Minister David Cameron on which large crowds turned out to welcome him. The British Armed Forces are also helping to train Libya's National Army as part of wider cooperation on security matters. Security conditions have deteriorated since 2014, when the United Kingdom suspended operations from their embassy in Tripoli, into a second civil war.

The international reactions to the Libyan Civil War were the responses to the series of protests and military confrontations occurring in Libya against the government of Libya and its de facto head of state Muammar Gaddafi.

National Transitional Council de facto government of Libya from 2011 to 2012

The National Transitional Council of Libya, sometimes known as the Transitional National Council, was the de facto government of Libya for a period during and after the Libyan Civil War, in which rebel forces overthrew the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya of Muammar Gaddafi. The NTC governed Libya for a period of ten months after the end of the war, holding elections to a General National Congress on 7 July 2012, and handing power to the newly elected assembly on 8 August.

Khamis Gaddafi was the seventh and youngest son of former Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi, and the military commander in charge of the Khamis Brigade of the Libyan Army. He was part of his father's inner circle. During the Libyan Civil War in 2011, he was a major target for opposition forces trying to overthrow his father.

Estimates of deaths in the Libyan Civil War vary with figures from 2,500 to 25,000 given between March 2 and October 2, 2011. An exact figure is hard to ascertain, partly due to a media clamp-down by the Libyan government. Some conservative estimates have been released. Some of the killing "may amount to crimes against humanity" according to the United Nations Security Council and as of March 2011, is under investigation by the International Criminal Court.

Foreign relations of Libya

The foreign relations of Libya were largely reset at the end of the Libyan Civil War, with the overthrow of Muammar Gaddafi and the ongoing Second Libyan Civil War. The current Minister of Foreign Affairs in the internationally recognized executive government known as the Government of National Accord (GNA) is Mohamed Taha Siala. Although many foreign embassies in Tripoli closed down in 2014 due to the fighting, by the end of 2017 thirty diplomatic missions were reopened in the Libyan capital.

Aftermath of the 2011 Libyan Civil War

The aftermath of the Libyan Civil War has been characterized by marked change in the social and political order of Libya after the overthrow and killing of Muammar Gaddafi in the 2011 Libyan Civil War. The country has been subject to ongoing proliferation of weapons, Islamic insurgencies, sectarian violence, and lawlessness, with spillovers affecting neighboring countries including Mali.

Gaddafi loyalism

Gaddafi loyalism refers to sympathetic sentiment towards the overthrown government of Muammar Gaddafi, who was killed in October 2011. It has been responsible for some of the ongoing violence in Libya, though the degree of its involvement has been disputed in a number of instances.

Libyan Crisis (2011–present)

The Libyan Crisis refers to the ongoing conflicts in Libya, beginning with the Arab Spring protests of 2011, which led to a civil war, foreign military intervention, and the ousting and death of Muammar Gaddafi. The civil war's aftermath and proliferation of armed groups led to violence and instability across the country, which erupted into renewed civil war in 2014. The ongoing crisis in Libya has so far resulted in tens of thousands of casualties since the onset of violence in early 2011. During both civil wars, the output of Libya's economically crucial oil industry collapsed to a small fraction of its usual level, with most facilities blockaded or damaged by rival groups, despite having the largest oil reserves of any African country. U.S. President Barack Obama stated on 11 April 2016 that not preparing for a post-Gaddafi Libya was probably the "worst mistake" of his presidency.

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