2012 Summer Olympics

Last updated

Games of the XXX Olympiad
2012 Summer Olympics logo.svg
Host city London, England, United Kingdom
MottoInspire a Generation
Nations204
Athletes10,768 (5,992 men, 4,776 women)
Events302 in 26 sports (39 disciplines)
Opening 27 July
Closing 12 August
Opened by
Cauldron
Stadium London Olympic Stadium
Summer
Winter

The 2012 Summer Olympics (officially known as the Games of the XXX Olympiad [3] and commonly known as London 2012) was an international multi-sport event held from 27 July to 12 August 2012 in London, United Kingdom. The first event, the group stage in women's football, began on 25 July at the Millennium Stadium in Cardiff, followed by the opening ceremony on 27 July. [4] [5] 10,768 athletes from 204 National Olympic Committees (NOCs) participated. [6]

Contents

Following a bid headed by former Olympic champion Sebastian Coe and then-Mayor of London Ken Livingstone, London was selected as the host city on 6 July 2005 during the 117th IOC Session in Singapore, defeating bids from Moscow, New York City, Madrid, and Paris. [7] London became the first city to host the modern Olympics three times, [8] [9] having previously hosted the Summer Games in 1908 and in 1948. [10] [11]

Construction for the Games involved considerable redevelopment, with an emphasis on sustainability. [12] The main focus was a new 200-hectare (490-acre) Olympic Park, constructed on a former industrial site at Stratford, East London. [13] The Games also made use of venues that already existed before the bid. [14]

The Games received general praise for their organisation, with the volunteers, the British military and public enthusiasm praised particularly highly. [15] [16] [17] The opening ceremony, directed by Danny Boyle, received widespread acclaim throughout the world, particular praise from the British public and a minority of widely ranging criticisms from some social media sites. [18] [19] During the Games, Michael Phelps became the most decorated Olympic athlete of all time, winning his 22nd medal. [20] Saudi Arabia, Qatar, and Brunei entered female athletes for the first time, so that every currently eligible country has sent a female competitor to at least one Olympic Games. [21] Women's boxing was included for the first time, thus the Games became the first at which every sport had female competitors. [22] [23] [24] These were the final Olympic Games under the IOC presidency of Belgian Jacques Rogge, who was succeeded by German Thomas Bach the next year.

The final medal tally was led by the United States, followed by China and host Great Britain. Several world and Olympic records were set at the London Olympics. Though there were several controversies, the 2012 Games were deemed highly successful with the rising competition standards amongst nations across the world, packed stadiums, and smooth organisation. Furthermore, the focus on sporting legacy and post-Games venue sustainability was seen as a blueprint for future Olympics.[ citation needed ]

Bidding process

By 15 July 2003, the deadline for interested cities to submit bids to the International Olympic Committee (IOC), nine cities had submitted bids to host the 2012 Summer Olympics: Havana, Istanbul, Leipzig, London, Madrid, Moscow, New York City, Paris, and Rio de Janeiro. [25] On 18 May 2004, as a result of a scored technical evaluation, the IOC reduced the number of cities to five: London, Madrid, Moscow, New York and Paris. [26] All five submitted their candidate files by 19 November 2004 and were visited by the IOC inspection team during February and March 2005. The Paris bid suffered two setbacks during the IOC inspection visit: a number of strikes and demonstrations coinciding with the visits, and a report that a key member of the bid team, Guy Drut, would face charges over alleged corrupt party political finances. [27]

Lord Coe, chairman of the LOCOG Lord Coe - World Economic Forum Annual Meeting 2012 cropped.jpg
Lord Coe, chairman of the LOCOG

Throughout the process, Paris was widely seen as the favourite, particularly as this was its third bid in recent years. London was initially seen as lagging behind Paris by a considerable margin. [28] Its position began to improve after the appointment of Lord Coe as the new chair of the London Organising Committee of the Olympic and Paralympic Games (LOCOG) on 19 May 2004. [29] In late August 2004, reports predicted a tie between London and Paris. [30]

On 6 June 2005, the IOC released its evaluation reports for the five candidate cities. They did not contain any scores or rankings, but the report for Paris was considered the most positive. London was close behind, having closed most of the gap observed by the initial evaluation in 2004. New York and Madrid also received very positive evaluations. [31] On 1 July 2005, when asked who would win, Jacques Rogge said, "I cannot predict it since I don't know how the IOC members will vote. But my gut feeling tells me that it will be very close. Perhaps it will come down to a difference of say ten votes, or maybe less." [32]

On 6 July 2005, the final selection was announced at the 117th IOC Session in Singapore. Moscow was the first city to be eliminated, followed by New York and Madrid. The final two contenders were London and Paris. At the end of the fourth round of voting, London won the right to host the 2012 Games with 54 votes to 50. [33]

The celebrations in London were short-lived, being overshadowed by bombings on London's transport system less than 24 hours after the announcement. [34]

2012 host city election – ballot results
CityNOCRound 1Round 2Round 3Round 4
London Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  Great Britain 22273954
Paris Flag of France.svg  France 21253350
Madrid Flag of Spain.svg  Spain 203231
New York City Flag of the United States.svg  United States 1917
Moscow Flag of Russia.svg  Russia 15
Total ballots97101103104

Development and preparation

The London Organising Committee of the Olympic Games (LOCOG) was created to oversee the staging of the Games, and held its first board meeting on 3 October 2005. [35] The committee, chaired by Lord Coe, was in charge of implementing and staging the Games, while the Olympic Delivery Authority (ODA), established in April 2006, was in charge of construction of the venues and infrastructure. [35] [36]

The Government Olympic Executive (GOE), a unit within the Department for Culture, Media and Sport (DCMS), was the lead government body for coordinating the London 2012 Olympics. It focused on oversight of the Games, cross-programme management, and the London 2012 Olympic Legacy before and after the Games that would benefit London and the wider United Kingdom. The organisation was also responsible for the supervision of the £9.3 billion of public sector funding. [37]

In August 2011, security concerns arose surrounding the hosting of the Olympic Games in London, following the 2011 England riots. [38] Some countries expressed safety concerns, [39] despite the IOC's assurance that the riots would not affect the Games. [40]

The IOC's Coordination Commission for the 2012 Games completed its tenth and final visit to London in March 2012. Its members concluded that "London is ready to host the world this summer". [41]

Venues

The Weymouth and Portland National Sailing Academy on the Isle of Portland in Dorset hosted the sailing events Uk dor portharbour.JPG
The Weymouth and Portland National Sailing Academy on the Isle of Portland in Dorset hosted the sailing events

The 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games used a mixture of new venues, existing and historic facilities, and temporary facilities, some of them in well-known locations such as Hyde Park and Horse Guards Parade. After the Games, some of the new facilities will be reused in their Olympic form, while others will be resized or relocated. [42]

The majority of venues have been divided into three zones within Greater London: the Olympic Zone, the River Zone and the Central Zone. In addition there are a few venues that, by necessity, are outside the boundaries of Greater London, such as the Weymouth and Portland National Sailing Academy some 125 mi (201 km) southwest of London, which hosted the sailing events. The football tournament was staged at several grounds around the UK. [43] Work began on the Park in December 2006, when a sports hall in Eton Manor was pulled down. [44] The athletes' village in Portland was completed in September 2011. [45]

In November 2004, the 200-hectare (500-acre) Olympic Park plans were revealed. [46] The plans for the site were approved in September 2004 by Tower Hamlets, Newham, Hackney and Waltham Forest. [47] The redevelopment of the area to build the Olympic Park required compulsory purchase orders of property. The London Development Agency was in dispute with London and Continental Railways about the orders in November 2005. By May 2006, 86% of the land had been bought as businesses fought eviction. [48] Residents who opposed the eviction tried to find ways to stop it by setting up campaigns, but they had to leave as 94% of land was bought and the other 6% bought as a £9 billion regeneration project started. [49]

Olympic Park, London, 16 April 2012 (2).jpg
Aerial view of the Olympic Park in April 2012

There were some issues with the original venues not being challenging enough or being financially unviable. Both the Olympic road races and the mountain bike event were initially considered to be too easy, so they were eventually scheduled on new locations. [50] [51] The Olympic marathon course, which was set to finish in the Olympic stadium, was moved to The Mall, since closing Tower Bridge was deemed to cause traffic problems in central London. [52] North Greenwich Arena 2 was scrapped in a cost-cutting exercise, Wembley Arena being used for badminton and rhythmic gymnastics events instead. [53] [54] [55] [56]

Test events were held throughout 2011 and 2012, either through an existing championship such as 2012 Wimbledon Championships or as a specially created event held under the banner of London Prepares . [57]

Team GB House was the British Olympic Association's operational HQ up to and during the 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games. Designed by architects Gebler Tooth on the top floor of an office building in Westfield Stratford City, it combined the team HQ, athletes' "Friends and Family" lounge, Press Centre, and VIP lounge.

Public transport

The Olympic Javelin service ran between St Pancras and Ebbsfleet, via Stratford St Pancras railway station MMB 31 395018.jpg
The Olympic Javelin service ran between St Pancras and Ebbsfleet, via Stratford

London's public transport scored poorly in the IOC's initial evaluation; however, it felt that, if the improvements were delivered in time for the Games, London would cope. [58] Transport for London (TfL) carried out numerous improvements in preparation for 2012, including the expansion of the London Overground's East London Line, upgrades to the Docklands Light Railway and the North London Line, and the introduction of a new "Javelin" high-speed rail service. [59] According to Network Rail, an additional 4,000 train services operated during the Games, and train operators ran longer trains during the day. [60] During the Games, Stratford International station was not served by any international services (just as it had not been before the Games), [61] westbound trains did not stop at Hackney Wick railway station, [62] and Pudding Mill Lane DLR station closed entirely during the Games. [63]

The Emirates Air Line crosses the River Thames between Greenwich Peninsula and the Royal Docks Emirates Air Line towers 24 May 2012.jpg
The Emirates Air Line crosses the River Thames between Greenwich Peninsula and the Royal Docks

TfL also built a £25 million cable car across the River Thames, called the Emirates Air Line, to link 2012 Olympics venues. [64] It was inaugurated in June 2012 and crosses the Thames between Greenwich Peninsula and the Royal Docks, carrying up to 2,500 passengers an hour, cutting journey times between the O2 arena and the ExCeL exhibition centre and providing a crossing every 30 seconds. [65]

The plan was to have 80% of athletes travel less than 20 minutes to their event [66] and 93% of them within 30 minutes of their event. [67] The Olympic Park would be served by ten separate railway lines with a combined capacity of 240,000 passengers per hour. [68] In addition, LOCOG planned for 90% of the venues to be served by three or more types of public transport. [67] Two park-and-ride sites off the M25 with a combined capacity of 12,000 cars were 25 minutes away from the Olympic Park. Another park-and-ride site was planned in Ebbsfleet with a capacity for 9,000 cars where spectators could board a 10-minute shuttle train service. [67] To get spectators to Eton Dorney, four park-and-ride schemes were set up. [69] These Park and Ride services were operated by First Games Transport. [70]

Olympic rings marked on a street, indicating that the lane is reserved for the use of Olympic athletes and staff London 2012 games lane.jpg
Olympic rings marked on a street, indicating that the lane is reserved for the use of Olympic athletes and staff

TfL defined a network of roads leading between venues as the Olympic Route Network; roads connecting between all of the Olympic venues located within London. Many of these roads also contained special "Olympic lanes" marked with the Olympic ringsreserved for the use of Olympic athletes, officials, and other VIPs during the Games. Members of the public driving in an Olympic lane were subject to a fine of £130. Additionally, London buses would not include roads with Olympic lanes on their routes. [71] [72] [73] The painting of Olympic lane indicators in mid-July led to confusion from commuters, who wrongly believed that the Olympic lane restrictions had already taken effect (they were to take effect on 27 July). The A4 experienced traffic jams due to drivers avoiding the Olympic lane, and likewise on a section of Southampton Row, where the only lanes available in one direction were the Olympic lane and the bus lane. [74]

Concerns were expressed at the logistics of spectators travelling to the events outside London. In particular, the sailing events at Portland had no direct motorway connections, and local roads are heavily congested by tourist traffic in the summer. [75] However, a £77 million relief road connecting Weymouth to Dorchester was built and opened in 2011. [76] [77] Some £16 million was put aside for the rest of the improvements. [78]

TfL created a promotional campaign and website, Get Ahead of the Games, to help provide information related to transport during the Olympics and Paralympics. Through the campaign, TfL also encouraged the use of cycling as a mode of transport during the Games. [79] However, despite this encouragement to use bicycles, members of the public protested that riding bikes on London roads would be more dangerous due to the blocked Olympic lanes, and also protested against a decision to close the Lea Valley towpath during the Olympics and Paralympics due to security concerns. [73]

International transport

The 2012 Games were a unique operational task and a massive challenge for Heathrow airport.[ citation needed ] A temporary terminal was created at Heathrow Airport to be used by 10,100 departing athletes after the Games. Up to 35% more bags than normal were expected on 13 August, which was predicted to be the busiest day in the airport's history, according to Nick Cole, head of Olympic and Paralympic planning at Heathrow.[ citation needed ]

Cost and financing

A study from Oxford University found that the sports-related costs of London 2012 amounted to US$15 billion, compared with $4.6 billion for Rio 2016, $40–44 billion for Beijing 2008, and $51 billion for Sochi 2014 (the most expensive Olympics in history). London 2012 went over budget by 76% in real terms, measured from bid to completion. Cost per athlete was $1.4 million. [80] This does not include wider costs for urban and transport infrastructure, which often equal or exceed the sports-related costs.

The costs of staging the Games were separate from those for building the venues and infrastructure and redeveloping the land for the Olympic Park. While the Games were privately funded, the venues and infrastructure were largely financed using public money.

According to The Wall Street Journal, the original budget for the Games was increased to about £9.3 billion (US$15.28 billion) in 2007. [81] The revised figures were announced to the House of Commons on 15 March 2007 by Tessa Jowell. Along with East End regeneration costs, the breakdown was:

Volunteers

Unpaid volunteers known as Games Makers performed a variety of tasks before and during the Games. [82] A target of 70,000 volunteers was set as early as 2004. [83] When recruitment took place in 2010, over 240,000 applications were received. [84] Sebastian Coe said in February 2012, "Our Games Makers will contribute a total of around eight million volunteer hours during the Games and the Games simply wouldn't happen without them". [85] The volunteers wore clothing which included purple and red polo shirts and jackets, beige trousers, grey socks and grey-and-white trainers which they collected from the Uniform Distribution and Accreditation Centre. Volunteers also wore photo accreditation badges which were also worn by officials, athletes, family members and media which gain them access to specific venues and buildings around the site.

Ticketing

Organisers estimated that some 8 million tickets would be available for the Olympic Games, [86] and 1.5 million tickets for the Paralympic Games. [86] LOCOG aimed to raise £375–£400 million in ticket sales. There were also free events such as marathon, triathlon and road cycling, [87] although, for the first time in Olympic history, the sailing events were ticketed. [88] Eventually, more than 7,000,000 tickets were sold. [89] Following IOC rules, people applied for tickets from the NOC of their country of residence. European Union residents were able to apply for tickets in any EU country. [90]

In Great Britain, ticket prices ranged from £20 for many events to £2,012 for the most expensive seats at the opening ceremony. Some free tickets were given to military personnel as part of the Tickets For Troops scheme, [91] as well as to survivors and families of those who died during 7 July 2005 London bombings. [92] Initially, people were able to apply for tickets via a website from 15 March until 26 April 2011. There was a huge demand for tickets, with a demand of over three times the number of tickets available. The process was widely criticised as more than 50% of the sessions went to a random ballot, [93] and over half the people who applied got no tickets. [94] On 11 May 2012 a round of nearly one million "second chance" tickets went on sale over a 10-day period between 23 June and 3 July 2011. [95] About 1.7 million tickets were available for football and 600,000 for other sports, including archery, field hockey, football, judo, boxing and volleyball. Although technical difficulties were encountered, ten sports had sold out by 8 am of the first day. [96]

Countdown

The Countdown Clock in Trafalgar Square 2012 Summer Olympics Clock.jpg
The Countdown Clock in Trafalgar Square

During the closing ceremony of the 2008 Olympics, the Olympic Flag was formally handed over from the Mayor of Beijing to the Mayor of London. This was followed by a section highlighting London, [97] One month later, the Olympic and Paralympic flags were raised outside the London City Hall. [98]

A countdown clock in Trafalgar Square was unveiled, 500 days before the Games. [99] The clock broke down the following day, [100] but was later fixed. It was a two-sided clock with the Paralympic countdown on the other side. The countdown to the start of the Olympics began with a ceremony for the lighting of the Olympic flame in Olympia, Greece. [101]

Security

The police led the security operation, with 10,000 officers available, supported by 13,500 members of the armed forces. Naval and air assets, including ships situated in the Thames, Eurofighter jets and surface-to-air missiles, were deployed as part of the security operation; the biggest security operation Britain had faced for decades. The cost of security increased from £282 million to £553 million, and the figure of 13,500 armed forces personnel was more than Britain currently had deployed in Afghanistan. [102] The Metropolitan Police and the Royal Marines carried out security exercises in preparation for the Olympics on 19 January 2012, with 50 marine police officers in rigid inflatables and fast response boats, joined by up to 100 military personnel and a Lynx Navy helicopter. [103]

The Ministry of Defence distributed leaflets to residents of the Lexington building in Bow, announcing that a missile system was to be stationed on top of the water tower. [104] [105] This caused concern to some residents. [104] [105] The Ministry said it probably would use Starstreak missiles and that site evaluations had taken place, but that no final decision had taken place. [104] [105]

Medals

Medals of the London 2012 Olympics 2012 Olympic Games Medal, Britain 2011.jpg
Medals of the London 2012 Olympics

Approximately 4,700 [106] Olympic and Paralympic medals were produced by the Royal Mint at Llantrisant. [107] They were designed by David Watkins (Olympics) and Lin Cheung (Paralympics). [108] 99% of the gold, silver and copper was donated by Rio Tinto from a mine in Salt Lake County, Utah in the U.S. [109] The remaining 1% came from a Mongolian mine. [110] Each medal weighs 375–400 g (13.2–14.1 oz), has a diameter of 85 mm (3.3 in) and is 7 mm (0.28 in) thick, with the sport and discipline engraved on the rim. [111] The obverse, as is traditional, features Nike, the Greek goddess of victory, stepping from the Panathinaiko Stadium that hosted the first modern Olympic Games in 1896, with Parthenon in the background; the reverse features the Games logo, the River Thames and a series of lines representing "the energy of athletes and a sense of pulling together". [112] The medals were transferred to the Tower of London vaults on 2 July 2012 for storage. [111]

Each gold medal is 92.5 percent silver and 1.34 percent gold, with the remainder copper. The silver medal (which represents second place) is 92.5 percent silver, with the remainder copper. The bronze medal is made up of 97 percent copper, 2.5 percent zinc, and 0.5 per cent tin. [113] The value of the materials in the gold medal is about £410 (US$644), the silver about £210 (US$330), and the bronze about £3 (US$4.71) as of 30 July 2012. [114]

Torch relay

The torch relay in Newport, Isle of Wight Olympic torch relay through Newport.jpg
The torch relay in Newport, Isle of Wight

The Olympics torch relay ran from 19 May to 27 July 2012, before the Games. Plans for the relay were developed in 2010–11, with the torch-bearer selection process announced on 18 May 2011. [115] The torch was designed by Edward Barber and Jay Osgerby.

On 18 May 2012 the Olympic flame arrived at RNAS Culdrose in Cornwall from Greece [116] on flight BA2012, operated by a British Airways Airbus A319 named "Firefly".

The relay lasted 70 days, with 66 evening celebrations and six island visits, and involved some 8,000 people carrying the torch about 8,000 mi (12,875 km), starting from Land's End in Cornwall. [117] The torch had three days outside the United Kingdom when it visited the Isle of Man on 2 June, Dublin in Ireland, on 6 June, [118] and both Guernsey and Jersey on 15 July.

The relay focused on National Heritage Sites, locations with sporting significance, key sporting events, schools registered with the Get Set School Network, green spaces and biodiversity, Live Sites (city locations with large screens), and festivals and other events. [119] Dumfries and Galloway was the only Region in the whole of the United Kingdom that had the Olympic Torch pass through it twice. A group of young athletes, nominated by retired Olympic athletes, ran the torch around the stadium. These torchbearers were Callum Airlie, Jordan Duckitt, Desiree Henry, Katie Kirk, Cameron MacRitchie, Aidan Reynolds, and Adelle Tracey. Together the torchbearers each lit a petal which spread the fire to the 204 petals of the cauldron, representing the countries that participated in the Games. [120] The cauldron was designed by Thomas Heatherwick.

Environmental policy

The Olympic Park was planned to incorporate 45 hectares of wildlife habitat, with a total of 525 bird boxes and 150 bat boxes. Local waterways and riverbanks were enhanced as part of the process. [121] Renewable energy also features at the Olympics. It was originally planned to provide 20% of the energy for the Olympic Park and Village from renewable technologies; however, this may now be as little as 9%. [122] [ needs update ] Proposals to meet the original target included large-scale on-site wind turbines and hydroelectric generators in the River Thames. These plans were scrapped for safety reasons. [123] The focus has since moved to installing solar panels on some buildings, and providing the opportunity to recover energy from waste. Food packaging at the Olympics is made from compostable materials – like starch and cellulose-based bioplastics  – where it cannot be reused or recycled. This includes fast-food wrappers, sandwich boxes and drink cartons. After they have been used, many of these materials would be suitable for anaerobic digestion (AD), allowing them to be made into renewable energy. [124]

Buildings like the Water Polo Arena will be relocated elsewhere. Building Parts like Roofing Covers and membranes of different temporary venues will be recycled via Vinyloop. This allowed organisers to meet the standards of the Olympic Delivery Authority concerning environmental protection. Through this recycling process, the Olympic Games PVC Policy is fulfilled. It says that

Where London 2012 procures PVC for temporary usage or where permanent usage is not assured, London 2012 is required to ensure that there is a take-back scheme that offers a closed-loop reuse system or mechanical recycling system for post-consumer waste.

"The majority of temporary facilities created for the Olympic Games including the Aquatic centre temporary stands, basketball arena, Water Polo Arena, and the shooting facilities at the Royal Artillery Barracks, are essentially big tents. Basically, PVC stretched over lightweight steel frame. This design solution makes them efficient to install, reduces the need for any significant foundations and are, of course, reusable. We were challenged by the public around the use of PVC; but we considered it to be the right material for certain functions. We therefore challenged the PVC supply chain to have certain environmental performance criteria in place, including a take back and recycle scheme" says Kirsten Henson, Materials Manager for the London 2012 Olympic Park. [125]

London 2012 inaugurated Olympic Games guidelines that included the recycling of PVC. [126]

Cultural Olympiad

Tower Bridge was illuminated with the Olympic Rings in the week leading up to the Opening Ceremony. Tower Bridge Olympic Lighting, London - July 2012.jpg
Tower Bridge was illuminated with the Olympic Rings in the week leading up to the Opening Ceremony.

The Olympic Charter, the set of rules and guidelines for the organization of the Olympic Games and for governing the Olympic Movement, states that

LOCOG shall organise a programme of cultural events which must cover at least the entire period during which the Olympic Village is open. [127]

The Cultural Olympiad comprises many programmes, with over 500 events spread over four years across the whole of the United Kingdom, and culminating in the London 2012 Festival. [128] [129]

Opening ceremony

Fireworks at the opening ceremony 2012 Olympics opening ceremony fireworks 1.jpg
Fireworks at the opening ceremony

The opening ceremony officially began at 9:00 pm British Summer Time (UTC+1) on 27 July in the Olympic Stadium and was called "Isles of Wonder". [130] Oscar-winning director Danny Boyle was its artistic director, with music direction by Rick Smith of Underworld. [131]

The Games were officially opened by Queen Elizabeth II, accompanied by Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. [132] It was the second Olympic Games opened personally by the Queen, the first being in 1976 in Montreal. The ceremony included a short comic film starring Daniel Craig as secret agent James Bond and the Queen as herself, [133] and another starring Rowan Atkinson as Mr. Bean.

Live musical performers included Frank Turner, Dame Evelyn Glennie, Mike Oldfield, the London Symphony Orchestra, Dizzee Rascal, Arctic Monkeys, and Sir Paul McCartney who performed "Hey Jude" as the closing act. [134] [135] The ceremony transmitted live on BBC One attracted a peak viewing audience of over 27 million in the UK. [136]

Closing ceremony

The closing ceremony was held on 12 August. It featured a flashback fiesta to British music with The Who closing the performance. The ceremony also included a handover of the Olympic flag by Boris Johnson, Mayor of London, to Eduardo Paes, Mayor of Rio de Janeiro, the host city of the 2016 Summer Olympics. [137]

The Games

Participating National Olympic Committees

Number of participating athletes by country
.mw-parser-output .legend{page-break-inside:avoid;break-inside:avoid-column}.mw-parser-output .legend-color{display:inline-block;min-width:1.25em;height:1.25em;line-height:1.25;margin:1px 0;text-align:center;border:1px solid black;background-color:transparent;color:black}.mw-parser-output .legend-text{}
300+
100-299
30-99
10-29
4-9
1-3 2012 Summer olympics team numbers.svg
Number of participating athletes by country
  300+
  100–299
  30–99
  10–29
  4–9
  1–3
Participating countries:
Green = Had previously participated; Grey = Participating for first time; Yellow circle is host city (London) 2012 Summer Olympic games countries.svg
Participating countries:
Green = Had previously participated; Grey = Participating for first time; Yellow circle is host city (London)

Around 10,700 athletes from 204 National Olympic Committees (NOCs) took part, [6] (85 countries acquired at least one medal: gold, silver or bronze) [138] surpassing the 1948 Summer Olympics in London and the 2002 Commonwealth Games in Manchester as the largest multi-sport event ever to be held in the United Kingdom. [139]

Three athletes from the Netherlands Antilles Olympic Committee, which the IOC Executive Committee had ceased to recognise at the IOC session of July 2011, and one athlete from South Sudan which had no recognized NOC until 2015, participated independently under the Olympic flag. [140]

Participating National Olympic Committees

Number of athletes by National Olympic Committee

IOC CountryAthletes
GBRFlag of the United Kingdom.svg  Great Britain 541
USAFlag of the United States.svg  United States 530
RUSFlag of Russia.svg  Russia 436
AUSFlag of Australia.svg  Australia 410
GERFlag of Germany.svg  Germany 392
CHNFlag of the People's Republic of China.svg  China 390
FRAFlag of France.svg  France 330
JPNFlag of Japan.svg  Japan 293
ITAFlag of Italy.svg  Italy 284
ESPFlag of Spain.svg  Spain 278
CANFlag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada 277
BRAFlag of Brazil.svg  Brazil 258
KORFlag of South Korea.svg  South Korea 245
UKRFlag of Ukraine.svg  Ukraine 237
POLFlag of Poland.svg  Poland 218
NZLFlag of New Zealand.svg  New Zealand 184
NEDFlag of the Netherlands.svg  Netherlands 175
BLRFlag of Belarus (1995-2012).svg  Belarus 165
HUNFlag of Hungary.svg  Hungary 157
ARGFlag of Argentina.svg  Argentina 137
SWEFlag of Sweden.svg  Sweden 134
CZEFlag of the Czech Republic.svg  Czech Republic 133
RSAFlag of South Africa.svg  South Africa 125
BELFlag of Belgium (civil).svg  Belgium 115
SRBFlag of Serbia.svg  Serbia 115
KAZFlag of Kazakhstan.svg  Kazakhstan 114
TURFlag of Turkey.svg  Turkey 114
DENFlag of Denmark.svg  Denmark 113
EGYFlag of Egypt.svg  Egypt 113
CUBFlag of Cuba.svg  Cuba 110
CROFlag of Croatia.svg  Croatia 108
COLFlag of Colombia.svg  Colombia 104
GREFlag of Greece.svg  Greece 103
ROUFlag of Romania.svg  Romania 103
MEXFlag of Mexico.svg  Mexico 102
SUIFlag of Switzerland.svg  Switzerland 102
INDFlag of India.svg  India 83
TUNFlag of Tunisia.svg  Tunisia 83
PORFlag of Portugal.svg  Portugal 77
AUTFlag of Austria.svg  Austria 70
VENFlag of Venezuela.svg  Venezuela 70
MARFlag of Morocco.svg  Morocco 67
IRLFlag of Ireland.svg  Ireland 66
SLOFlag of Slovenia.svg  Slovenia 65
NORFlag of Norway.svg  Norway 64
BULFlag of Bulgaria.svg  Bulgaria 63
LTUFlag of Lithuania.svg  Lithuania 62
FINFlag of Finland.svg  Finland 55
NGRFlag of Nigeria.svg  Nigeria 55
UZBFlag of Uzbekistan.svg  Uzbekistan 54
AZEFlag of Azerbaijan.svg  Azerbaijan 53
IRIFlag of Iran.svg  Iran 53
PRKFlag of North Korea.svg  North Korea 51
JAMFlag of Jamaica.svg  Jamaica 50
KENFlag of Kenya.svg  Kenya 47
SVKFlag of Slovakia.svg  Slovakia 47
LATFlag of Latvia.svg  Latvia 46
TPEFlag of Chinese Taipei for Olympic games.svg  Chinese Taipei 44
ALGFlag of Algeria.svg  Algeria 42
HKGFlag of Hong Kong.svg  Hong Kong 42
ISRFlag of Israel.svg  Israel 37
THAFlag of Thailand.svg  Thailand 37
ECUFlag of Ecuador.svg  Ecuador 36
CHIFlag of Chile.svg  Chile 35
DOMFlag of the Dominican Republic.svg  Dominican Republic 35
ETHFlag of Ethiopia.svg  Ethiopia 35
GEOFlag of Georgia.svg  Georgia 35
ANGFlag of Angola.svg  Angola 34
CMRFlag of Cameroon.svg  Cameroon 33
ESTFlag of Estonia.svg  Estonia 33
MNEFlag of Montenegro.svg  Montenegro 33
SENFlag of Senegal.svg  Senegal 31
MASFlag of Malaysia.svg  Malaysia 30
TRIFlag of Trinidad and Tobago.svg  Trinidad and Tobago 30
MGLFlag of Mongolia.svg  Mongolia 29
URUFlag of Uruguay.svg  Uruguay 29
HONFlag of Honduras.svg  Honduras 27
ISLFlag of Iceland.svg  Iceland 27
UAEFlag of the United Arab Emirates.svg  United Arab Emirates 26
ARMFlag of Armenia.svg  Armenia 25
PURFlag of Puerto Rico.svg  Puerto Rico 25
BAHFlag of the Bahamas.svg  Bahamas 24
GABFlag of Gabon.svg  Gabon 24
SINFlag of Singapore.svg  Singapore 23
INAFlag of Indonesia.svg  Indonesia 22
MDAFlag of Moldova.svg  Moldova 22
PAKFlag of Pakistan.svg  Pakistan 21
GUAFlag of Guatemala.svg  Guatemala 19
KSAFlag of Saudi Arabia.svg  Saudi Arabia 19
VIEFlag of Vietnam.svg  Vietnam 18
PERFlag of Peru.svg  Peru 16
TJKFlag of Tajikistan.svg  Tajikistan 16
UGAFlag of Uganda.svg  Uganda 16
KGZFlag of Kyrgyzstan.svg  Kyrgyzstan 14
CYPFlag of Cyprus.svg  Cyprus 13
ALBFlag of Albania.svg  Albania 12
BRNFlag of Bahrain.svg  Bahrain 12
ERIFlag of Eritrea.svg  Eritrea 12
QATFlag of Qatar.svg  Qatar 12
CRCFlag of Costa Rica.svg  Costa Rica 11
KUWFlag of Kuwait.svg  Kuwait 11
MRIFlag of Mauritius.svg  Mauritius 11
PHIFlag of the Philippines.svg  Philippines 11
CIVFlag of Cote d'Ivoire.svg  Ivory Coast 10
ESAFlag of El Salvador.svg  El Salvador 10
GRNFlag of Grenada.svg  Grenada 10
LIBFlag of Lebanon.svg  Lebanon 10
SYRFlag of Syria.svg  Syria 10
TKMFlag of Turkmenistan.svg  Turkmenistan 10
FIJFlag of Fiji.svg  Fiji 9
GHAFlag of Ghana.svg  Ghana 9
JORFlag of Jordan.svg  Jordan 9
LUXFlag of Luxembourg.svg  Luxembourg 9
NAMFlag of Namibia.svg  Namibia 9
BERFlag of Bermuda.svg  Bermuda 8
COKFlag of the Cook Islands.svg  Cook Islands 8
GUMFlag of Guam.svg  Guam 8
IRQFlag of Iraq.svg  Iraq 8
PARFlag of Paraguay (1990-2013).svg  Paraguay 8
PNGFlag of Papua New Guinea.svg  Papua New Guinea 8
SAMFlag of Samoa.svg  Samoa 8
CGOFlag of the Republic of the Congo.svg  Republic of the Congo 7
ISVFlag of the United States Virgin Islands.svg  Virgin Islands 7
MADFlag of Madagascar.svg  Madagascar 7
PANFlag of Panama.svg  Panama 7
RWAFlag of Rwanda.svg  Rwanda 7
SKNFlag of Saint Kitts and Nevis.svg  Saint Kitts and Nevis 7
SRIFlag of Sri Lanka.svg  Sri Lanka 7
TANFlag of Tanzania.svg  Tanzania 7
ZAMFlag of Zambia.svg  Zambia 7
ZIMFlag of Zimbabwe.svg  Zimbabwe 7
AFGFlag of Afghanistan.svg  Afghanistan 6
ANDFlag of Andorra.svg  Andorra 6
BARFlag of Barbados.svg  Barbados 6
BDIFlag of Burundi.svg  Burundi 6
BIHFlag of Bosnia and Herzegovina.svg  Bosnia and Herzegovina 6
BOLFlag of Bolivia.svg  Bolivia 6
CAFFlag of the Central African Republic.svg  Central African Republic 6
CAMFlag of Cambodia.svg  Cambodia 6
DJIFlag of Djibouti.svg  Djibouti 6
FSMFlag of the Federated States of Micronesia.svg  Federated States of Micronesia 6
GUYFlag of Guyana.svg  Guyana 6
MLIFlag of Mali.svg  Mali 6
MONFlag of Monaco.svg  Monaco 6
MOZFlag of Mozambique.svg  Mozambique 6
MYAFlag of Myanmar.svg  Myanmar 6
NCAFlag of Nicaragua.svg  Nicaragua 6
NIGFlag of Niger.svg  Niger 6
SEYFlag of Seychelles.svg  Seychelles 6
SUDFlag of Sudan.svg  Sudan 6
TOGFlag of Togo.svg  Togo 6
ANTFlag of Antigua and Barbuda.svg  Antigua and Barbuda 5
ASAFlag of American Samoa.svg  American Samoa 5
BANFlag of Bangladesh.svg  Bangladesh 5
BENFlag of Benin.svg  Benin 5
BURFlag of Burkina Faso.svg  Burkina Faso 5
CAYFlag of the Cayman Islands.svg  Cayman Islands 5
HAIFlag of Haiti.svg  Haiti 5
LBAFlag of Libya.svg  Libya 5
MDVFlag of Maldives.svg  Maldives 5
MLTFlag of Malta.svg  Malta 5
NEPFlag of Nepal.svg  Nepal 5
PLEFlag of Palestine.svg  Palestine 5
PLWFlag of Palau.svg  Palau 5
SURFlag of Suriname.svg  Suriname 5
VANFlag of Vanuatu.svg  Vanuatu 5
ARUFlag of Aruba.svg  Aruba 4
BOTFlag of Botswana.svg  Botswana 4
CODFlag of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.svg  Democratic Republic of the Congo 4
GBSFlag of Guinea-Bissau.svg  Guinea-Bissau 4
GUIFlag of Guinea.svg  Guinea 4
IOAOlympic flag.svg  Independent Olympic Athletes 4
LBRFlag of Liberia.svg  Liberia 4
LCAFlag of Saint Lucia.svg  Saint Lucia 4
LESFlag of Lesotho.svg  Lesotho 4
MHLFlag of the Marshall Islands.svg  Marshall Islands 4
MKDFlag of Macedonia.svg  Macedonia 4
OMAFlag of Oman.svg  Oman 4
SMRFlag of San Marino.svg  San Marino 4
SOLFlag of the Solomon Islands.svg  Solomon Islands 4
YEMFlag of Yemen.svg  Yemen 4
BIZFlag of Belize (1981-2019).svg  Belize 3
BRUFlag of Brunei.svg  Brunei 3
CHAFlag of Chad.svg  Chad 3
COMFlag of the Comoros.svg  Comoros 3
CPVFlag of Cape Verde.svg  Cape Verde 3
KIRFlag of Kiribati.svg  Kiribati 3
LAOFlag of Laos.svg  Laos 3
LIEFlag of Liechtenstein.svg  Liechtenstein 3
MAWFlag of Malawi.svg  Malawi 3
SWZFlag of Swaziland.svg  Swaziland 3
TGAFlag of Tonga.svg  Tonga 3
TUVFlag of Tuvalu.svg  Tuvalu 3
VINFlag of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines.svg  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 3
BHUFlag of Bhutan.svg  Bhutan 2
DMAFlag of Dominica.svg  Dominica 2
GAMFlag of The Gambia.svg  The Gambia 2
GEQFlag of Equatorial Guinea.svg  Equatorial Guinea 2
IVBFlag of the British Virgin Islands.svg  British Virgin Islands 2
MTNFlag of Mauritania (1959-2017).svg  Mauritania 2
NRUFlag of Nauru.svg  Nauru 2
SLEFlag of Sierra Leone.svg  Sierra Leone 2
SOMFlag of Somalia.svg  Somalia 2
STPFlag of Sao Tome and Principe.svg  São Tomé and Príncipe 2
TLSFlag of East Timor.svg  East Timor 2
Total10,768

National houses

The Holland Heineken House, the Dutch home in Alexandra Palace. 2012 Holland Heinken House.jpg
The Holland Heineken House, the Dutch home in Alexandra Palace.

During the Games, some countries and continents had a "national house". These temporary meeting places for supporters, athletes and other followers were located throughout London. [143]

Sports

The 2012 Summer Olympics featured 26 different sports encompassing 39 disciplines and 302 events. In the list below, the number of events in each discipline is noted in parentheses.

2012 Summer Olympics Sports Programme

Women's boxing was included in the programme for the first time, and 36 women competed in three weight classes. There was a special dispensation for the shooting events, which would otherwise have been illegal under UK gun law. [144] [145] In tennis, mixed doubles returned to the Olympic programme for the first time since 1924. [146]

London's bid featured the same 28 sports that had been included in other recent Summer Olympics, but the IOC voted to drop baseball and softball from the 2012 Games just two days after London had been selected as the host city. There was an appeal, but the IOC voted to uphold the decision, and the two sports were scheduled to be discontinued after their last appearance at the 2008 Olympics. [147] The IOC then voted on whether or not to replace them; karate, squash, golf, roller sports and rugby sevens were considered. Karate and squash were the two final nominees, but neither received enough votes to reach the required two-thirds majority. [147]

Although formal demonstration sports were eliminated after the 1992 Summer Olympics, [148] special tournaments for non-Olympic sports can be run during the Games, such as the Wushu tournament at the 2008 Summer Olympics. [149] There were attempts to run Twenty20 cricket [149] and netball [150] tournaments alongside the 2012 Games, but neither campaign was successful.

Calendar

All times are in British Summer Time (UTC+1)

The final official schedule was released on 15 February 2011. [151]

OCOpening ceremonyEvent competitions1Gold medal eventsCCClosing ceremony
July/August25th
Wed
26th
Thu
27th
Fri
28th
Sat
29th
Sun
30th
Mon
31st
Tue
1st
Wed
2nd
Thu
3rd
Fri
4th
Sat
5th
Sun
6th
Mon
7th
Tue
8th
Wed
9th
Thu
10th
Fri
11th
Sat
12th
Sun
Events
Olympic Rings Icon.svg CeremoniesOCCCN/A
Aquatics Diving pictogram.svg Diving 1111111146
Swimming pictogram.svg Swimming 4444444411
Synchronized swimming pictogram.svg Artistic swimming 11
Water polo pictogram.svg Water polo 11
Archery pictogram.svg Archery 11114
Athletics pictogram.svg Athletics 266544568147
Badminton pictogram.svg Badminton 1225
Basketball pictogram.svg Basketball 112
Boxing pictogram.svg Boxing 35513
Canoeing Canoeing (slalom) pictogram.svg Slalom11216
Canoeing (flatwater) pictogram.svg Sprint444
Cycling Cycling (road) pictogram.svg Road cycling11218
Cycling (track) pictogram.svg Track cycling221113
Cycling (BMX) pictogram.svg BMX2
Cycling (mountain biking) pictogram.svg Mountain biking11
Equestrian pictogram.svg Equestrian 211116
Fencing pictogram.svg Fencing 11112111110
Field hockey pictogram.svg Field hockey 112
Football pictogram.svg Football 112
Gymnastics Gymnastics (artistic) pictogram.svg Artistic111133418
Gymnastics (rhythmic) pictogram.svg Rhythmic11
Gymnastics (trampoline) pictogram.svg Trampolining11
Handball pictogram.svg Handball 112
Judo pictogram.svg Judo 222222214
Modern pentathlon pictogram.svg Modern pentathlon 112
Rowing pictogram.svg Rowing 334414
Sailing pictogram.svg Sailing 22212110
Shooting pictogram.svg Shooting 221111221215
Table tennis pictogram.svg Table tennis 11114
Taekwondo pictogram.svg Taekwondo 22228
Tennis pictogram.svg Tennis 235
Triathlon pictogram.svg Triathlon 112
Volleyball Volleyball (beach) pictogram.svg Beach volleyball114
Volleyball (indoor) pictogram.svg Indoor volleyball11
Weightlifting pictogram.svg Weightlifting 122222111115
Wrestling pictogram.svg Wrestling 2322223218
Daily medal events12141215201822252318211622173215302
Cumulative total122638537391113138161179200216238255287302
July/August25th
Wed
26th
Thu
27th
Fri
28th
Sat
29th
Sun
30th
Mon
31st
Tue
1st
Wed
2nd
Thu
3rd
Fri
4th
Sat
5th
Sun
6th
Mon
7th
Tue
8th
Wed
9th
Thu
10th
Fri
11th
Sat
12th
Sun
Total events

Records

Mo Farah (left) with Usain Bolt (right), demonstrating one another's famous gestures (the "Lightning Bolt" and "Mobot") Mo Farah and Usain Bolt 2012 Olympics (cropped).jpg
Mo Farah (left) with Usain Bolt (right), demonstrating one another's famous gestures (the "Lightning Bolt" and "Mobot")

These Olympic Games resulted in 32 world records in eight sports. The largest number of records were set in swimming, at eight. China, Great Britain and the United States set the most records, at five each.

Medal table

A total of 85 National Olympic Committees (NOCs) won medals, 54 of those countries winning at least one gold medal. Bahrain, [152] Botswana, [153] Cyprus, [154] Gabon, [155] Grenada (a gold medal), [156] Guatemala, [157] and Montenegro [158] won their first ever Olympic medals. The United States finished at the top of the table winning 46 gold medals, and winning 104 medals overall. China finished second with 38 gold medals and 88 medals overall. Hosts Great Britain came in third place winning 29 gold medals and 65 medals overall in their best performance since London hosted its inaugural Summer Olympics in 1908 pushing Russia into fourth place who won 20 gold medals although they won 68 medals (3 more than Great Britain) overall.

  *   Host nation (Great Britain)

2012 Summer Olympics medal table [159]
RankNOCGoldSilverBronzeTotal
1Flag of the United States.svg  United States  (USA)Double-dagger-14-plain.png462830104
2Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  China  (CHN)Double-dagger-14-plain.png38312291
3Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  Great Britain  (GBR)*29171965
4Flag of Russia.svg  Russia  (RUS)Double-dagger-14-plain.png20202868
5Flag of South Korea.svg  South Korea  (KOR)Double-dagger-14-plain.png139830
6Flag of Germany.svg  Germany  (GER)Double-dagger-14-plain.png11201344
7Flag of France.svg  France  (FRA)Double-dagger-14-plain.png11111335
8Flag of Australia.svg  Australia  (AUS)Double-dagger-14-plain.png8151235
9Flag of Italy.svg  Italy  (ITA)891128
10Flag of Hungary.svg  Hungary  (HUN)Double-dagger-14-plain.png84618
11–86 Remaining 110137195442
Totals (86 NOCs)302301357960
Key

  *   Host nation (Great Britain)      See subpage: Changes in medal standings

Podium sweeps

DateSportEventNOCGoldSilverBronze
28 July Fencing Women's foil Flag of Italy.svg  Italy Elisa Di Francisca Arianna Errigo Valentina Vezzali
9 August Athletics Men's 200 metres Flag of Jamaica.svg  Jamaica Usain Bolt Yohan Blake Warren Weir

Broadcasting

The International Broadcast Centre in June 2011 International Broadcast Centre, 14 June 2011 cropped.jpg
The International Broadcast Centre in June 2011

The host broadcaster was Olympic Broadcasting Services (OBS), an agency of the IOC. The OBS used its own cameras and crews subcontracted from other Olympic broadcasters to cover the events. The base video and audio were sold to other broadcasters, who added their own commentary and presentation.

The official recording format of the 2012 Summer Olympics used Panasonic's digital technologies. The official video was produced and distributed from the International Broadcast Centre in 1080/50i High-Definition (HD) format. Panasonic announced that DVCPRO HD would be the official recording format. OBS London used P2 HD shoulder-mount camcorders. [160]

The IOC's wanted television coverage to reach as broad a worldwide audience as possible, and several national and regional broadcasters covered London 2012. In the UK, the BBC carried the Olympics and Channel 4 the Paralympics. The BBC aimed to broadcast all 5,000 hours of the Games. [161] BBC Parliament's Freeview channel was suspended, BBC Three's on-air time was extended so that it could show Olympic events in the daytime, and 24 additional BBC Olympics channels were available via cable, satellite and the internet in the UK.

The US television rights, owned by NBC, accounted for over half the rights revenue for the IOC. [book 1] Thousands of Americans, however, accessed the BBC's omnibus coverage using proxy servers or VPNs. [162] Despite high viewership, many viewers were disappointed with NBC's coverage. [163] [164] The operations of broadcasters granted rights to the Games were hosted in the dedicated International Broadcast Centre inside the security cordon of the Olympic Park. YouTube planned to stream the Games in 64 territories in Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa where there were no official broadcasters. [165]

In Sri Lanka a dispute occurred between Sri Lanka Rupavahini Corporation (SLRC) and MBC Networks (MTV/MBC) as to who was the official broadcaster of the Games. This problem was caused as Asia-Pacific Broadcasting Union (ABU) had offered the official broadcasting rights to both networks, as both of the networks were ABU members. So SLRC filed a case against MBC Networks for broadcasting rights at the Colombo Magistrate's Court. Considering the case, the court issued a special court order preventing MBC Networks' Olympic broadcast and stated that SLRC should be the sole broadcaster. [166] However, when the Games started, both networks broadcast most of the events simultaneously. Another dispute had previously occurred between Carlton Sports Network (CSN) and SLRC, but the Sports Minister, Mahindananda Aluthgamage, had stated that SLRC had the exclusive rights. [167]

Olympic Golden Rings Awards

In November 2012, the IOC announced the winners of the Golden Ring Awards for the best broadcast coverage of the Games. Best Olympic Sports Production was awarded to the sailing, produced by Christopher Lincoln, Gary Milkis, and Ursula Romero. The production for the canoe/kayak slalom and the rowing/canoe sprint came second and third respectively. The award for Best On Air Promotion went to NBC with Foxtel and ZDF finishing second and third. NBC Olympics also won the Best Olympic Feature category, as Sky Italia came second and ZDF third. The Best Athlete Profile award went to TV Record's profile of Sarah Menezes, NBC came second with their profile of David Rudisha, and ESPN Latin America took third place with a profile of Miguel Correa and Ruben Rezola. The award for Best Olympic Programme went to NBC, host broadcasters the BBC took second place for Super Saturday (the middle Saturday of the Games), and third place was claimed by the Nine Network for their live coverage of Day 16 of the Games. [168]

Marketing

"Survival" by Muse was announced as the official song of the Olympics, [169] to be played by international broadcasters reporting on the Games. [170] In August 2009, the Royal Mail commissioned artists and illustrators to design 30 stamps, which were released in batches of 10 between 2009 and 2011. [171] The last ones were released on 22 July 2011. [172] Two £5 coins designed by Saiman Miah have been made to commemorate the Olympics. [173] As with other Olympics since 1952, the Royal Mint will strike a set of commemorative one-kilogram gold and silver coins. [174]

Motto

The official motto for the 2012 Summer Olympics is "Inspire a generation". It was chosen to highlight the organisers' commitment to inspire the world, including younger generations, to get involved in sporting events through the Games' legacy. [175]

Logo and graphics

There have been two London 2012 logos: one used for the bidding process, and the other used in the branding for the Games themselves. The bid logo, created by Kino Design, was a ribbon with blue, yellow, black, green, and red stripes winding through the text "LONDON 2012", making the shape of the River Thames in East London. The main logo, designed by Wolff Olins and published on 4 June 2007, is a representation of the number 2012, with the Olympic Rings embedded within the zero. [176]

2012 Summer Olympics logos.svg
The Paralympics logo (far left) and the different official colour combinations for the Wolff Olins main logo design

Public reaction to the main logo in a June 2007 BBC poll was largely negative; more than 80% of votes gave it the lowest possible rating. [177] Several newspapers ran their own logo competitions, displaying alternative submissions from their readers, [178] and several writers from news agencies criticised the logo. [178] [179] A segment of animated footage released at the same time as the logo was reported to trigger seizures in a small number of people with photosensitive epilepsy, and a short segment was removed from the London 2012 website in response. [180] It was suggested that the logo resembled the cartoon character Lisa Simpson performing fellatio on her brother Bart Simpson. [181] [182] [183] [184] [185] [186] [187] In February 2011, Iran threatened to boycott the Olympics, complaining that the logo appeared to spell out the word "Zion". However, this boycott did not occur. [188]

The official London 2012 Olympic typeface was called Headline 2012 and also suffered some criticism. Journalist Simon Garfield made it number 1 in the list of the "8 Worst Fonts in the World" in his 2010 book Just My Type , commenting that "the uncool font is based on jaggedness and crudeness", although he conceded that it was "a brilliant piece of corporate branding". [189] [190] The magazine Wired pointed out that the typeface was intended for "awareness, impact and memorability as a headline typeface" rather than elegance or readability in long sections of text. [191]

Colours

     The four main colours used in the branding of the Games were pink, blue, green, and orange. These colours were chosen to showcase the spirit of the Games: energetic, spirited, youthful, and bright.

    The auxiliary colours used in the branding were dark purple, grey, and gold. These were mostly used in symbols and graphics to offset the brightness of the main colours.

Mascots

The Olympic Mascots, Mandeville (left) and Wenlock (right) Olympic mascots (cropped).jpg
The Olympic Mascots, Mandeville (left) and Wenlock (right)

The official mascots for the 2012 Summer Olympics and Paralympic Games were unveiled on 19 May 2010. [192] Wenlock and Mandeville are animations depicting two drops of steel from a steelworks in Bolton. [192] They are named after Much Wenlock, a town in Shropshire that holds a forerunner of the current Olympic Games, and Stoke Mandeville, a village in Buckinghamshire where a forerunner of the Paralympic Games was first held. [192] The writer Michael Morpurgo wrote the story concept for the mascots, and an animation was produced. [193] Two stories have been created about the mascots: Out Of A Rainbow and Adventures On A Rainbow. [194]

Creative Review magazine liked the mascots, [195] but elsewhere their design was greeted with some disdain. One columnist jested that they were the product of a "drunken one-night stand between a Teletubby and a Dalek". [196] Others have compared them to Izzy, the much disparaged mascot of the 1996 Atlanta Summer Olympics. [197] Still others have likened them to Kang and Kodos from The Simpsons . [198] However, the mascots' creators claim that young people find the duo appealing. [199]

Chariots of Fire

The 1981 Best Picture Oscar–winning film Chariots of Fire , which tells the story of two British athletes in the 1924 Olympics, was a recurring theme in promotions for the 2012 Olympics. [200] A digitally re-mastered version of Chariots of Fire was released on 13 July 2012 and screened in over 100 UK cinemas as part of the celebrations, [201] and a 2012 stage adaptation ran in London theatres from 9 May 2012 to 5 January 2013. [202] The film's theme tune was performed during the Opening Ceremony by the London Symphony Orchestra, conducted by Simon Rattle. The performance was accompanied by a comedic skit by Rowan Atkinson, which included the opening beach-running footage from the film. [203] A new orchestration of the film's theme tune was played during each medal presentation of the Games. [204]

Sponsors

LOCOG and the IOC agreed sponsorship deals with several companies, each assigned to one of four categories; worldwide, tier one, tier two and tier three. [205] The worldwide partners were: Acer, Atos, Coca-Cola, Dow, General Electric, McDonald's, Omega SA, Panasonic, Procter & Gamble, Samsung and Visa. [205] Tier one partners were: Adidas, BMW, BP, British Airways, BT Group, EDF Energy and Lloyds TSB. [206] The tier two partners were: Adecco, ArcelorMittal, Cadbury, Deloitte, Thomas Cook Group, Cisco Systems and United Parcel Service. [206] Tier three partners were: Aggreko, Airwave, Atkins, The Boston Consulting Group, CBS Outdoor, Crystal CG, Eurostar, Freshfields Bruckhaus Deringer, G4S, GlaxoSmithKline, Gymnova, Heathrow Airport, Heineken, Holiday Inn, John Lewis & Partners, McCann Worldgroup, Mondo, Nature Valley, Next, Nielsen Company, Populous (company), Rapiscan Systems, Rio Tinto (corporation), Technogym, Thames Water, Ticketmaster, Trebor and Westfield Group. [206] The companies provided £1.4 billion of funding altogether, allocated evenly between the IOC and LOCOG. [206]

Controversies

During the lead-up to the Games, there were controversies over sponsorship, [207] the athletes' use of social media, and several political issues. After a complicated lottery process, thousands of people failed to secure seats for the events they wanted, but a large number of empty seats were observed throughout the Games, even at some of the most popular events. There was speculation that this was due to a failure of corporate sponsors to make use of tickets they had received. [89]

During the Games, eight competitors in the badminton women's doubles were disqualified for "not using best efforts", when they tried to lose matches in the group stage to obtain more favourable fixtures in the knockout rounds. [208] [209] A number of results in boxing, gymnastics and judo were overturned by officials after initial decisions were appealed against. [210] [211] [212]

Ye Shiwen faced doping allegations after her gold medal in the women's 400m Individual Medley as she came from being behind the world record in the final 50m to beating it by 1.02 seconds. Furthermore, she swam her last 50m 0.17 seconds quicker than the men's winner of the corresponding race. All charges were later dropped. [213]

Just before the start of the Men's 100m Final, a spectator threw a plastic bottle into Tyson Gay's lane, intended to hit Usain Bolt who was three lanes outside in Lane 7. The race was unaffected, and Bolt would go on to become the second man in history to defend a 100m Olympic title. The spectator, later identified as Ashley Gill-Webb, was soon arrested after he was struck on the head by Dutch judoka and bronze medalist Edith Bosch, whom he happened to be sitting next to. [214] [215] LOCOG Chairman Sebastian Coe later stated: "I'm not suggesting vigilantism but it was actually poetic justice that they happened to be sitting next to a judo player". [215] Gill-Webb later pleaded not guilty to a charge of using threatening words or behaviour with intent to cause harassment, alarm or distress at Stratford Magistrates' Court. [216] He was later found guilty. [217]

Drug testing

It was announced before the Summer Games that half of all the competitors would be tested for drugs, with 150 scientists set to take 6,000 samples between the start of the Games and the end of the Paralympic Games. [218] Every competitor who won a medal was also tested. The Olympic laboratory tested up to 400 samples every day for more than 240 prohibited substances. [218] As of late 2017, 31 medals have been stripped due to doping violations, 15 of which were originally awarded to Russian athletes.

Testing for drugs was completed by GSK (GlaxoSmithKline) [219]

See also

Related Research Articles

2010 Winter Olympics

The 2010 Winter Olympics, officially known as the XXI Olympic Winter Games and commonly known as Vancouver 2010, was an international winter multi-sport event held from February 12 to 28, 2010 in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, with some events held in the surrounding suburbs of Richmond, West Vancouver and the University Endowment Lands, and in the nearby resort town of Whistler.

2012 Summer Paralympics Multi-sport event for disabled athletes

The 2012 Summer Paralympics, the 14th Summer Paralympic Games, and also more generally known as the London 2012 Paralympic Games, were a major international multi-sport event for athletes with disabilities governed by the International Paralympic Committee (IPC), that took place in London, United Kingdom from 29 August to 9 September 2012. These Paralympics were one of the largest multi-sport events ever held in the country after the 2012 Summer Olympics, and until the date the largest Paralympics ever: 4,302 athletes from 164 National Paralympic Committees participated, with fourteen countries appearing in the Paralympics for the first time ever.

2018 Winter Olympics 23rd Olympic Winter Games, held in Pyeongchang, South Korea

The 2018 Winter Olympics, officially known as the XXIII Olympic Winter Games and commonly known as PyeongChang 2018, was an international winter multi-sport event that was held between 9 and 25 February 2018 in Pyeongchang County, Gangwon Province, South Korea, with the opening rounds for certain events held on 8 February 2018, the day before the opening ceremony.

2016 Summer Olympics Games of the XXXI Olympiad, held in Rio de Janeiro in 2016

The 2016 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XXXI Olympiad and commonly known as Rio 2016, was an international multi-sport event held from 5 to 21 August 2016 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, with preliminary events in some sports beginning on 3 August. Rio was announced as the host city at the 121st IOC Session in Copenhagen, Denmark, on 2 October 2009.

London bid for the 2012 Summer Olympics Successful bid to host the Olympic Games

London 2012 was the successful bid to host the 2012 Summer Olympics, held in London with most events taking place in Stratford in the borough of Newham. The British Olympic Association had been working on the bid since 1997, and presented its report to government ministers in December 2000.

2020 Summer Olympics Games of the XXXII Olympiad, to be held in Tokyo, Japan

The 2020 Summer Olympics, officially the Games of the XXXII Olympiad and also known as Tokyo 2020 (東京2020), is an upcoming international multi-sport event scheduled to be held from 23 July to 8 August 2021 in Tokyo, Japan. Originally scheduled to take place from 24 July to 9 August 2020, the event was postponed in March 2020 as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, and will not allow international spectators. Despite being rescheduled for 2021, the event retains the Tokyo 2020 name for marketing and branding purposes. This is the first time that the Olympic Games have been postponed and rescheduled, rather than cancelled. The Summer Paralympics will be held between 24 August and 5 September 2021 after the Olympics.

2014 Winter Paralympics

The 2014 Winter Paralympics, the 11th Paralympic Winter Games, and also more generally known as the Sochi 2014 Paralympic Winter Games, were an international multi-sport event for athletes with disabilities governed by the International Paralympic Committee (IPC), held in Sochi, Krasnodar Krai, Russia from 7 to 16 March 2014. 45 National Paralympic Committees (NPCs) participated in the Games, which marked the first time Russia ever hosted the Paralympics. The Games featured 72 medal events in five sports, and saw the debut of snowboarding at the Winter Paralympics.

The 2012 Summer Olympic development process began in 2005, following the successful London bid for the 2012 Summer Olympics, and ran until the games in 2012. While many of the plans were included in the bid portfolio, which gained the favour of the International Olympic Committee (IOC) over the four other bids on 6 July 2005, there were more details released and decisions made afterwards. The London Organising Committee of the Olympic Games and Paralympic Games (LOCOG) was created to oversee many of these developments, though such a large-scale event requires the co-operation of many other agencies. These organizations are sometimes integral parts of the London 2012 plans, while others are unrelated but can still have a great effect.

The 2012 Summer Olympics and Paralympics venues were mostly located in the host city of London, though some other events required facilities located elsewhere. Between the successful bid and the Olympics and Paralympics themselves, several details and venues changed.

2016 Summer Paralympics

The 2016 Summer Paralympics, the 15th Summer Paralympic Games, were a major international multi-sport event for athletes with disabilities governed by the International Paralympic Committee, held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from 7 to 18 September 2016. The Games marked the first time a Latin American and South American city hosted the event, the second Southern Hemisphere city and nation, the first one being the 2000 Summer Paralympics in Sydney, and also the first time a Lusophone (Portuguese-speaking) country hosted the event. These Games saw the introduction of two new sports to the Paralympic program: canoeing and the paratriathlon.

2008 Summer Olympics medal table

The 2008 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XXIX Olympiad, were a summer multi-sport event held in Beijing, the capital of the People's Republic of China, from 8 to 24 August 2008. Approximately 10,942 athletes from 204 National Olympic Committees (NOCs) participated in 302 events in 28 sports.

Cycling at the 2012 Summer Olympics

The cycling competitions at the 2012 Olympic Games in London took place at five venues between 28 July and 12 August. The venues were the London Velopark for track cycling and BMX, and Hadleigh Farm, in Essex, for mountain biking. The road races took place over a course starting and ending in The Mall in central London and heading out into Surrey, while the time trials started and finished at Hampton Court Palace in Richmond upon Thames. Eighteen events were contested and around 500 athletes participated.

2018 Winter Paralympics

The 2018 Winter Paralympics, the 12th Paralympic Winter Games, and also more generally known as the PyeongChang 2018 Paralympic Winter Games, were an international multi-sport event for athletes with disabilities governed by the International Paralympic Committee (IPC), that was held in Pyeongchang County, Gangwon Province, South Korea, from 9 to 18 March 2018. They were the second Paralympics to be held in South Korea, following the 1988 Summer Paralympics in Seoul.

Athletics at the 2012 Summer Olympics

The athletics competitions at the 2012 Olympic Games in London were held during the last 10 days of the Games, on 3–12 August. Track and field events took place at the Olympic Stadium in east London. The road events, however, started and finished on The Mall in central London.

London Prepares series

London Prepares series is the banner under which the test events for the 2012 Summer Olympic and Paralympic Games were held. The events which make up the series took place in 2011 and 2012.

2012 Summer Olympics medal table

The 2012 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XXX Olympiad, were a summer multi-sport event held in London, the capital of the United Kingdom, from 27 July to 12 August. A total of 10,768 athletes from 204 nations participated in 302 events in 26 sports across 39 different disciplines.

A number of controversies and concerns associated with the 2012 Summer Olympics in London became the subject of public debate and media commentary.

2012 Summer Olympics marketing was a long running campaign that began when London won its bid to host the games in 2005.

Egypt at the 2012 Summer Paralympics Sporting event delegation

Egypt competed at the 2012 Summer Paralympics in London, United Kingdom from August 29 to September 9, 2012. Egypt made their debut at the Paralympic Games in 1972. Since their debut Egypt have won 165 medals. Egypt's most successful appearance at the Paralympic Games was in Atlanta in 1980, winning 30 medals.

Nigeria at the 2012 Summer Paralympics Sporting event delegation

Nigeria competed at the 2012 Summer Paralympics in London, United Kingdom from 29 August – 9 September 2012. Nigerian Paralympians combined won more medals than their Olympic counterparts in London, winning 6 golds, 5 silvers and 2 bronze medals.

References

  1. 1 2 "Factsheet - Opening Ceremony of the Games of the Olympiad" (PDF) (Press release). International Olympic Committee. 9 October 2014. Archived (PDF) from the original on 14 August 2016. Retrieved 22 December 2018.
  2. "Cauldron moved into position in Olympic Stadium". London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Organizing Committee. 30 July 2012. Archived from the original on 31 July 2012.
  3. The IOC numbers the Olympiads using Roman numerals.
  4. "London 2012". International Olympic Committee. Archived from the original on 1 August 2008. Retrieved 3 August 2008.
  5. "Olympics schedule and results – Wednesday 25 July". BBC Sport. Archived from the original on 11 January 2016.
  6. 1 2 "Olympics – Countries". BBC Sport. Archived from the original on 18 July 2012. Retrieved 19 July 2012. From the 27th of July 2012 – 204 countries will send more than 10,000 athletes to compete in 300 events
  7. "London 2012: Election". International Olympic Committee. Archived from the original on 24 April 2012. Retrieved 2 October 2009.
  8. "Coe promises Olympics to remember". BBC Sport. 6 July 2005. Archived from the original on 9 June 2011. Retrieved 3 August 2008.
  9. Athens has also hosted three IOC-organised events, in 1896, 2004 and the Intercalated Games in 1906. However, the 1906 Games are no longer officially recognised by the IOC, as they do not fit with the quadrennial pattern of the modern Olympics.
  10. Barden, Mark (26 April 2008). "London's first Olympics". BBC Sport. Archived from the original on 1 May 2008. Retrieved 3 August 2008.
  11. "The 1948 London Olympics Gallery". BBC History. Archived from the original on 18 July 2008. Retrieved 3 August 2008.
  12. "Building a sustainable Games". London 2012. Archived from the original on 18 October 2009. Retrieved 2 October 2009.
  13. "Newham London: The Olympic Park". London Borough of Newham. Archived from the original on 24 April 2012. Retrieved 1 April 2012.
  14. "Response to the questionnaire for cities applying to become Candidate cities to host the Games of the XXX Olympiad and the Paralympic Games in 2012" (PDF). London 2012. Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 July 2012. Retrieved 29 July 2012.
  15. "London 2012: IOC chief Jacques Rogge 'very happy' with Games". BBC News. 12 August 2012. Archived from the original on 13 August 2012. Retrieved 14 August 2012.
  16. Waldram, Hannah (12 August 2012). "Has the Olympics changed London?". The Guardian (Olympics blog). Archived from the original on 13 November 2013. Retrieved 14 August 2012.
  17. Scanlan, Wayne (10 August 2012). "Buoyed by a record medal haul – and surprisingly sunny skies – the British have embraced the Olympics, turning out to live sites in droves to cheer on Team GB". Calgary Herald. Archived from the original on 16 August 2012. Retrieved 14 August 2012.
  18. Goldsmith, Harvey; Phillips, Arlene; Quantick, David; Brown, Mick; Beard, Mary (29 July 2012). "London 2012: the experts' view of the Olympic opening ceremony". The Sunday Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on 13 August 2012. Retrieved 14 August 2012.
  19. Topping, Alexandra (28 July 2012). "Olympics opening ceremony: the view from abroad". The Guardian. London. p. 2. Archived from the original on 5 November 2013. Retrieved 14 August 2012.
  20. McCrae, Donald (1 August 2012). "Michael Phelps becomes the greatest Olympian". The Guardian. London. p. 1. Archived from the original on 13 November 2013. Retrieved 11 August 2012.
  21. Magnay, Jacquelin (11 August 2012). "London 2012 Olympics diary: three countries have failed to send any female athletes". The Daily Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on 13 August 2012. Retrieved 14 August 2012.
  22. "London 2012 international digest — Day Six". BBC Sport. 2 August 2012. Archived from the original on 5 August 2012. Retrieved 11 August 2012.
  23. "Saudis to send two women to London, make history". SI.com. Archived from the original on 15 July 2012. Retrieved 13 July 2012.
  24. "An Olympics first: All countries sending female athletes – latimes". Articles.latimes.com. 27 July 2012. Archived from the original on 5 September 2015. Retrieved 3 September 2015.
  25. "Olympic bids: The rivals". BBC Sport. 15 July 2003. Archived from the original on 10 February 2009. Retrieved 3 August 2008.
  26. "London bid team delighted". BBC Sport. 18 May 2004. Archived from the original on 13 March 2006. Retrieved 3 August 2008.
  27. "Day One Of Paris 2012 Inspection By IOC". GamesBids. Archived from the original on 20 October 2006. Retrieved 9 March 2005.
  28. Oliver, Mark (6 July 2005). "London wins 2012 Olympics". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 2 January 2014. The IOC president, Jacques Rogge, announced the result at 1248BST - around an hour after it had been decided in secret.
  29. Payne, Michael. "How London really won the games". London Business School. Retrieved 24 June 2012.
  30. "London And Paris Tie In 2012 Bid". GamesBids. Archived from the original on 7 November 2004. Retrieved 31 August 2004.
  31. "Paris, London and New York Get Glowing IOC Reports". GamesBids. Archived from the original on 18 April 2006. Retrieved 6 June 2005.
  32. "Rogge Arrives in Singapore". International Sailing Federation. 1 July 2005. Archived from the original on 18 January 2012. Retrieved 6 March 2007.
  33. "London beats Paris to 2012 Games". BBC News. 6 July 2005. Archived from the original on 25 July 2017.
  34. Culf, Andrew (6 July 2005). "The party that never was: capital marks the games at last". The Guardian. London. Archived from the original on 2 October 2008. Retrieved 22 August 2008.
  35. 1 2 "LOCOG formally established at first meeting of London 2012 Transition Board" (Press release). London Development Agency. Archived from the original on 19 January 2012. Retrieved 15 October 2011.
  36. "Lemley chairs first ODA board meeting" (Press release). London 2012. Archived from the original on 27 February 2012. Retrieved 15 October 2011.
  37. "2012 Olympic Games & Paralympic Games". Department for Culture, Media and Sport. Archived from the original on 26 October 2011. Retrieved 15 October 2011.
  38. Macur, Juliet; Pfanner, Eric (9 August 2011). "London Rioting Prompts Fears Over Soccer and Olympics". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 6 March 2012. Retrieved 11 August 2011.
  39. Foster, Peter (9 August 2011). "London riots: China raises questions over safety of 2012 Olympic Games". The Daily Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on 11 August 2011. Retrieved 11 August 2011.
  40. Jackson, Jamie (9 August 2011). "London riots will not affect 2012 Olympic security, says IOC". The Guardian. London. Archived from the original on 13 November 2013. Retrieved 11 August 2011.
  41. "London is ready to host the Olympic Games as excitement builds". Olympic.org. Archived from the original on 15 August 2012. Retrieved 13 April 2012.
  42. "London 2012". Excel London. 6 July 2005. Archived from the original on 7 October 2011. Retrieved 15 October 2011.
  43. "Olympics 2012 venue guide". BBC News. 3 December 2008. Archived from the original on 4 March 2012. Retrieved 15 October 2011.
  44. "Work begins on 2012 Olympic Park". BBC News. 14 December 2006. Archived from the original on 12 January 2007. Retrieved 15 October 2011.
  45. "Osprey Quay Olympic village topping out ceremony". BBC News. 13 September 2011. Archived from the original on 19 September 2011. Retrieved 15 October 2011.
  46. "London reveals Olympic Park plans". BBC Sport. 8 November 2004. Archived from the original on 29 October 2005. Retrieved 15 October 2011.
  47. "2012 Olympic Park gets go ahead". BBC News. 9 September 2004. Archived from the original on 18 June 2006. Retrieved 15 October 2011.
  48. "Probe into Olympic land evictions". BBC News. 9 May 2006. Archived from the original on 15 December 2006. Retrieved 15 October 2011.
  49. Assistant Producer, Building the Olympic Dream (11 March 2009). "Stratford's last stand". BBC Sport. Archived from the original on 16 March 2009. Retrieved 15 October 2011.
  50. "Road cycling". London2012. Archived from the original on 7 September 2011. Retrieved 15 October 2011.
  51. "Essex venue to host 2012 biking". BBC Sport. 11 August 2008. Retrieved 15 October 2011.
  52. Gibson, Owen (4 October 2010). "London 2012 marathon to finish at The Mall despite East End protests". The Guardian. London. Archived from the original on 13 November 2013. Retrieved 15 October 2011.
  53. "Greenwich or Wembley?". BBC News. 17 October 2008. Archived from the original on 3 February 2012. Retrieved 15 October 2011.
  54. Henson, Mike (15 June 2009). "Boxing chiefs voice 2012 concerns". BBC Sport. Retrieved 15 October 2011.
  55. "Wembley may stage Olympic boxing". BBC Sport. 23 April 2009. Archived from the original on 26 April 2009. Retrieved 15 October 2011.
  56. "Badminton and rhythmic gymnastics agree to London 2012 Wembley move". More than the Games. 26 May 2010. Archived from the original on 10 June 2012. Retrieved 15 October 2011.
  57. "London 2012 test events unveiled". BBC News. 24 February 2011.
  58. "Report of the IOC Evaluation Commission for the Games of the XXX Olympiad in 2012" (PDF). Olympic.org. Archived (PDF) from the original on 3 August 2012. Retrieved 23 June 2012.
  59. "High-speed rail links confirmed". BBC News. 27 October 2004. Archived from the original on 15 February 2009.
  60. "Extra trains planned for visitors to London 2012 venues". BBC News. 25 May 2011. Archived from the original on 19 March 2012.
  61. "Eurostar 'will not stop' at Stratford International". BBC News. 25 May 2010. Archived from the original on 3 March 2013. Retrieved 24 July 2012.
  62. "Hackney Wick". Get Ahead of the Games. Transport for London. Archived from the original on 19 July 2012. Retrieved 24 July 2012.
  63. "Pudding Mill Lane". Get Ahead of the Games. Transport for London. Archived from the original on 23 July 2012. Retrieved 24 July 2012.
  64. "Thames cable car to link 2012 Olympic Games venues". BBC News. 4 July 2010. Archived from the original on 24 April 2012. Retrieved 4 July 2010.
  65. "Plans unveiled for a new Thames crossing with London's first cable car system" (Press release). Transport for London. 4 July 2010. Archived from the original on 12 September 2010. Retrieved 5 July 2010.
  66. "Going for Gold: Transport for London's 2012 Olympic Games" (PDF). House of Commons Transport Committee. 8 March 2006. Archived (PDF) from the original on 25 November 2011. Retrieved 15 October 2011.
  67. 1 2 3 "London plan at-a-glance". BBC Sport. 6 July 2005. Archived from the original on 9 December 2008.
  68. "Free travel plan for Olympic bid". BBC News. 5 July 2004. Archived from the original on 2 March 2009.
  69. "Olympics 2012: Park and ride schemes for Dorney Lake events". BBC News. 14 September 2011. Archived from the original on 26 October 2011. Retrieved 15 October 2011.
  70. "FirstGroup wins Olympics bus contract". BBC News. 15 February 2010. Archived from the original on 18 February 2010.
  71. "Olympic and Paralympic route network". TfL.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 5 March 2012.
  72. Beard, Matthew (15 November 2011). "Revealed: the road signs that will ban drivers from Olympic lanes". London Evening Standard. Archived from the original on 4 July 2017.
  73. 1 2 Tuffrey, Laurie (10 July 2012). "Olympics regulations force cyclists to dismount". The Guardian. London. Archived from the original on 13 November 2013. Retrieved 24 July 2012.
  74. "Chaos on the A4 as drivers try to avoid Olympics lane which is not yet in operation". Evening Standard. 16 July 2012. Archived from the original on 5 January 2018. Retrieved 4 January 2018.
  75. "2012 London Olympic Games | London Chauffeur Limo Service". Panamerican Chauffeurs. 6 July 2005. Archived from the original on 3 November 2011. Retrieved 15 October 2011.
  76. "Go-ahead won for £77m relief road". BBC News. 5 April 2007. Archived from the original on 6 October 2007.
  77. "Weymouth Olympic relief road is opened". BBC News. 17 March 2011. Archived from the original on 19 September 2011.
  78. "Olympics road plans put on show". BBC News. 24 October 2009.
  79. Gardner, Jasmine (26 July 2012). "The Olympic commute... Get ahead of the Games by bike". London Evening Standard. Archived from the original on 3 August 2012. Retrieved 14 August 2012.
  80. Flyvbjerg, Bent; Stewart, Allison; Budzier, Alexander (2016). The Oxford Olympics Study 2016: Cost and Cost Overrun at the Games. Saïd Business School, University of Oxford. SSRN   2804554 .
  81. Pearman, Hugh (25 July 2012). "These Knock-Down, Shrinkable Games". The Wall Street Journal . p. D6. Retrieved 25 July 2012.
  82. "Volunteering – Making the Games happen". London 2012. Archived from the original on 24 April 2012. Retrieved 15 April 2012.
  83. Shifrin, Tash (10 February 2004). "Olympic appeal as volunteer target hit". The Guardian. London. Archived from the original on 13 November 2013. Retrieved 15 April 2012.
  84. "10 Games Maker facts". London 2012. Archived from the original on 24 April 2012. Retrieved 15 April 2012.
  85. "Volunteers training day at Wembley Stadium as they prepare for Games". The Daily Telegraph. London. 4 February 2012. Archived from the original on 6 February 2012. Retrieved 15 April 2012.
  86. 1 2 "Just the ticket". London 2012. Archived from the original on 2 February 2007. Retrieved 20 July 2012.
  87. "London Opens Ticket Process for 2012 Olympics". ABC News. Archived from the original on 25 March 2010. Retrieved 20 May 2010.
  88. ISAF (28 July 2011). "ISAF: London 2012 Olympic Games Sailing Competition: What Is The Weymouth And Portland International Regatta?". Sailing.org. Archived from the original on 20 October 2011. Retrieved 15 October 2011.
  89. 1 2 Adam, Karla (30 July 2012). "At London Olympics, empty seats have organizers scrambling, giving away tickets to children and soldiers". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 19 July 2017.
  90. Lynn, Guy (22 May 2012). "Ukrainian Olympic official 'willing to sell tickets to black market'". BBC News. Archived from the original on 7 June 2012. Retrieved 8 June 2012.
  91. "Olympic tickets offered to UK Armed Forces members". BBC News. 14 June 2011. Archived from the original on 24 August 2011.
  92. "2012 Olympic tickets for 7/7 bomb attack victims". BBC News. 6 May 2011. Archived from the original on 19 July 2011.
  93. "Olympic ticket demand passes 20m". BBC News. 27 April 2011.
  94. "750,000 Olympics tickets sold in 'second chance' round". BBC News. 3 July 2011. Archived from the original on 25 August 2011.
  95. "Olympic tickets on sale in 'second chance' phase". BBC News. 11 July 2011. Archived from the original on 18 July 2011. Retrieved 17 August 2011.
  96. "2012 Hopefuls miss out on tickets". BBC News. 26 June 2011. Archived from the original on 30 August 2011.
  97. Eight minute wonder (17 June 2008). "The BBC". BBC. Archived from the original on 10 January 2009. Retrieved 20 May 2010.
  98. "1948 Olympians and 2012 hopefuls join Beijing heroes as Olympic and Paralympic flags raised at City Hall". Legacy.london.gov.uk. 26 September 2008. Archived from the original on 13 January 2012. Retrieved 15 October 2011.
  99. "London 2012 countdown clock stops in Trafalgar Square". BBC News. 15 March 2011. Archived from the original on 18 March 2011. Retrieved 15 March 2011.
  100. Murray, Scott; Murrells, Katy (27 July 2011). "London 2012: The 'One Year To Go' Celebrations – as they happened". The Guardian. London. Archived from the original on 4 January 2017.
  101. "Olympic flame lit for London Games". The Times Of India. Archived from the original on 10 May 2012. Retrieved 10 May 2012.
  102. "London 2012: 13,500 troops to provide Olympic security". BBC News. 15 December 2011. Archived from the original on 16 December 2011.
  103. Seida, Jim (19 January 2012). "Metropolitan Police and the Royal Marines perform security exercises in preparation for London Olympics" . MSNBC.
  104. 1 2 3 Booth, Robert (29 April 2012). "London rooftops to carry missiles during Olympic Games". The Guardian. London. Archived from the original on 13 November 2013. Retrieved 29 April 2012.
  105. 1 2 3 "London Olympics 2012: MoD rooftop missile base plan alarms local residents". The Daily Telegraph. London. 29 April 2012. Archived from the original on 29 April 2012. Retrieved 29 April 2012.
  106. "London 2012 Olympic Games victory medals to be made by the Royal Mint". Royalmint.com. Archived from the original on 25 October 2011. Retrieved 15 October 2011.
  107. "London 2012 medals deal struck for Royal Mint in Llantrisant". BBC News. 14 December 2010. Archived from the original on 23 February 2012.
  108. "London 2012: Olympic medals go into production in Wales". BBC News. 27 October 2011. Archived from the original on 28 December 2011. Retrieved 4 July 2012.
  109. "Kennecott donating $7.3 million in gold, silver, bronze for Olympics". KSL.com. Archived from the original on 24 June 2012. Retrieved 25 July 2012.
  110. "Mongolia goes for gold with London medals - Yahoo! News Singapore". Sg.news.yahoo.com. 18 July 2012. Archived from the original on 24 October 2012. Retrieved 28 October 2012.
  111. 1 2 "London 2012: Olympic medals locked in Tower". BBC News. 2 July 2012. Archived from the original on 4 July 2012. Retrieved 4 July 2012.
  112. "London 2012: Olympic medals timeline". BBC News. 26 July 2011. Archived from the original on 27 July 2011.
  113. DeMarco, Anthony (26 July 2012). "London's Olympic Gold Medal Worth The Most In The History Of The Games". Forbes. Archived from the original on 29 July 2012. Retrieved 30 July 2012.
  114. "How much is a medal actually worth? Not as much as you'd think". Yardbarker.com. 30 July 2012. Archived from the original on 31 July 2012.
  115. Magnay, Jacquelin (17 May 2011). "London 2012 torch relay should focus on youth". The Daily Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on 21 May 2011. Retrieved 17 May 2011.
  116. "The Olympic Torch Relay". LOCOG. 18 May 2011. Archived from the original on 8 June 2011. Retrieved 18 May 2011.