2014 Iquique earthquake

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2014 Iquique earthquake
South America laea relief location map.jpg
Blue pog.svg
Iquique
Blue pog.svg
Santiago
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UTC  time2014-04-01 23:46:47
ISC  event 610102185
USGS-ANSS ComCat
Local date1 April 2014 (2014-04-01)
Local time20:46 CST (UTC-03:00)
Magnitude8.2 Mw [1]
Depth20.1 km (12.5 mi) [1]
Epicenter 19°38′31″S70°49′01″W / 19.642°S 70.817°W / -19.642; -70.817 [1]
Areas affectedChile, Peru, Bolivia
Total damage2,500 homes damaged
Max. intensity VIII (Severe)
TsunamiYes
Casualties Chile: 6 dead [2] [3] [4]
Peru: 9 injured [5] [6]

The 2014 Iquique earthquake struck off the coast of Chile on 1 April, with a moment magnitude of 8.2, at 20:46 local time (23:46 UTC). [7] [8] The epicenter of the earthquake was approximately 95 kilometres (59 mi) northwest of Iquique. [1] The mainshock was preceded by a number of moderate to large shocks and was followed by a large number of moderate to very large aftershocks, including a M7.7 event on 3 April. The megathrust earthquake triggered a tsunami of up to 2.11 metres (6.9 ft) that hit Iquique at 21:05 local time (00:05 UTC, 2 April). [9] Similar-sized tsunamis were also reported to have hit the coasts of Pisagua and Arica. [10]

Contents

Geology

A number of mid-sized quakes struck the same area in the preceding weeks. These quakes and the main tremor are associated with the boundary of the Nazca Plate and the South American Plate. [1]

Earthquake

There was a cluster of earthquakes starting from the one occurring on March 16 with a magnitude of Mw 6.7, and a large earthquake had been expected. [11] [12] The 8.2 earthquake was smaller than what was expected, with a rupture of 200 km (120 mi) in length instead of the expected 600 km (370 mi) rupture. [13] The earthquake was felt in Chile, Peru, and Bolivia. [14] The intensity reached intensity VIII (Severe) in Iquique, Chile. [15]

Effects

Four men died of heart attacks and one woman was reportedly crushed to death when a wall collapsed. A loader was crushed by a falling metal structure and died of the injuries afterwards. [16] Around 80,000 were displaced by the event. [17] Electricity and water services were interrupted in the regions of Arica y Parinacota and Tarapacá. [18]

During the aftermath of the earthquake, 293 prisoners escaped from a women's prison in Iquique when a wall collapsed. Many returned voluntarily a short time later, while Chilean soldiers searched for the rest. [19]

ShakeMap provided by the United States Geological Survey 2014 Iquique Earthquake ShakeMap.jpg
ShakeMap provided by the United States Geological Survey

According to the Peruvian emergency services, nine people were slightly injured, seven households have been affected, one temple has collapsed and electricity outages in the affected regions of Tacna, Moquegua and Arequipa occurred, which were restored later. [ citation needed ]

Aftershocks

There were several significant aftershocks above 6.0 magnitude and many more of lower magnitude over subsequent days.

Time (local)MIDepthEpicenter
April 1 at 20:57:586.9VI28.4 km (17.6 mi)91 km (57 mi) WNW of Iquique [20]
April 2 at 22:58:306.5VI24.1 km (15.0 mi)46 km (29 mi) WSW of Iquique [21]
April 2 at 23:43:137.7VII22.4 km (13.9 mi)53 km (33 mi) SW of Iquique [22]
April 3 at 02:26:156.4VI25 km (16 mi)78 km (48 mi) SW of Iquique [23]

Associated events

Such large earthquakes can have effects far away other than tsunamis. [24] A megathrust quake can shake the entire earth, but causes stronger movement and strain on the entire associated oceanic plate, beyond the few hundred kilometer rupture zone. Though too far to be an aftershock, a 6.0 quake on a thin protruding wedge of the Nazca Plate (Iquique quake shoved this plate) was reported off Panama within 12 hours of the main shock. [25]

Tsunamis

Travel time projection of the tsunami 2014 Iquique earthquake NOAA tsunami travel time projection 2014-04-01.jpg
Travel time projection of the tsunami

Under advice from the Pacific Tsunami Warning Center, tsunami warnings were issued for the Latin American Pacific coastlines of Chile, Peru, and Ecuador shortly after the earthquake occurred. [4] [7] [26] Chile was subsequently hit by a tsunami of 2.11 m in its northern territories. [9]

The tsunami warning was later canceled for all countries except Chile and Peru within a few hours of the earthquake. [27] The tsunami warning was canceled for both Chile and Peru at around 4:58 UTC on 2 April. Hawaii was under a tsunami advisory for over 13 hours. [28] [29] On April 3 local time, tsunamis were observed in Japan. [30] The tsunami reached 60 centimetres (2.0 ft) high in Kuji, Iwate Prefecture, Japan. [31]

See also

Related Research Articles

2001 southern Peru earthquake

The 2001 southern Peru earthquake occurred at 20:33:15 UTC on June 23 with a moment magnitude of 8.4 and a maximum Mercalli intensity of VIII (Severe). The quake affected the Peruvian regions of Arequipa, Moquegua and Tacna. It was the most devastating earthquake in Peru since the catastrophic 1970 Ancash earthquake and globally the largest earthquake since the 1965 Rat Islands earthquake.

2007 Peru earthquake 8.0 Mw quake some 200 kilometers south of the capital Lima

The 2007 Peru earthquake, which measured 8.0 on the moment magnitude scale, hit the central coast of Peru on August 15 at 23:40:57 UTC and lasted two minutes. The epicenter was located 150 km (93 mi) south-southeast of Lima at a depth of 39 km (24 mi). The United States Geological Survey National Earthquake Information Center reported that it was a Very strong earthquake. The Peruvian government stated that 519 people were killed by the quake.

September 2007 Sumatra earthquakes earthquake

The September 2007 Sumatra earthquakes were a series of megathrust earthquakes that struck the Sunda Trench off the coast of Sumatra, Indonesia, with three of magnitude 7 or greater. A series of tsunami bulletins was issued for the area. The most powerful of the series had a magnitude of 8.4, which makes it in the top 20 of the largest earthquakes ever recorded on a seismograph.

2007 Tocopilla earthquake

The 2007 Tocopilla earthquake occurred on November 14 at 12:40:50 local time. Its epicenter was located between Quillagua and Tocopilla, affecting the Tarapacá and the Antofagasta regions in northern Chile. The earthquake had a moment magnitude of 7.7 and lasted about 3 minutes and 35 seconds. Seventeen aftershocks of magnitude greater than 5.3, including one of magnitude 7.1 and two others of magnitude 6.3 or higher, were recorded. The Pacific Tsunami Warning Center issued a tsunami warning, stating a tsunami had been generated; after one hour, this warning was cancelled. The earthquake was felt from Santiago, 1,245 km south from the epicenter, to La Paz, about 700 km north-northeast.

Events from the year 2007 in Chile

2010 Chile earthquake Magnitude 8.8 earthquake in Chile on 27 February 2010

The 2010 Chile earthquake occurred off the coast of central Chile on Saturday, 27 February at 03:34 local time, having a magnitude of 8.8 on the moment magnitude scale, with intense shaking lasting for about three minutes. It was felt strongly in six Chilean regions, that together make up about 80 percent of the country's population. According to the United States Geological Survey (USGS) the cities experiencing the strongest shaking—VIII (Severe) on the Mercalli intensity scale (MM)—were Concepción, Arauco and Coronel. According to Chile's Seismological Service Concepción experienced the strongest shaking at MM IX (Violent). The earthquake was felt in the capital Santiago at MM VII or MM VIII. Tremors were felt in many Argentine cities, including Buenos Aires, Córdoba, Mendoza and La Rioja. Tremors were felt as far north as the city of Ica in southern Peru.

1868 Arica earthquake

The 1868 Arica earthquake occurred on 13 August 1868, near Arica, then part of Peru, now part of Chile, at 21:30 UTC. It had an estimated magnitude between 8.5 and 9.0. A tsunami in the Pacific Ocean was produced by the earthquake, which was recorded in Hawaii, Japan, Australia, and New Zealand.

1877 Iquique earthquake Earthquake in Chile

The 1877 Iquique earthquake occurred at 21:16 local time on 9 May. It had a magnitude of 8.5 on the surface wave magnitude scale. Other estimates of its magnitude have been as high as 9.0. It had a maximum intensity of XI (Extreme) on the Mercalli intensity scale and triggered a devastating tsunami. A total of 2,385 people died, mainly in Fiji.

April 2011 Miyagi earthquake earthquake, with an epicentre off the coast of Miyagi Prefecture, Japan on 7 April 2011

The April 2011 Miyagi earthquake occurred off the coast of Miyagi Prefecture, approximately 66 kilometres (41 mi) east of Sendai, Japan. The Mw7.1 thrust earthquake was classified as an aftershock of the March 11 Tōhoku earthquake, and occurred at 23:32 JST (14:32 UTC) on Thursday, 7 April 2011.

April 2011 Fukushima earthquake earthquake in Japan

The April 2011 Fukushima earthquake was a potent magnitude 6.6 Mw intraplate aftershock that occurred at 17:16 JST (08:16 UTC) on 11 April, in the Hamadōri region of Fukushima, Japan. With a shallow focus of 13 km (8.1 mi), the earthquake was centred inland about 36 km (22 mi) west of Iwaki, causing widespread strong to locally severe shaking. It was one of many aftershocks to follow the 11 March Tōhoku earthquake, and the strongest to have its epicentre located inland.

2010 Pichilemu earthquake earthquakes in Chile

The 2010 Pichilemu earthquake, also known as the Libertador O'Higgins earthquake, was a 6.9 MW intraplate earthquake that struck Chile's O'Higgins Region on 11 March 2010. The earthquake was centred 15 kilometres (9.3 mi) northwest of the city of Pichilemu.

2012 Indian Ocean earthquakes earthquake

The 2012 Indian Ocean earthquakes were magnitude 8.6 and 8.2 Mw  undersea earthquakes that struck near the Indonesian province of Aceh on 11 April at 15:38 local time. Initially, authorities feared that the initial earthquake would cause a tsunami and warnings were issued across the Indian Ocean; however, these warnings were subsequently cancelled. These were unusually strong intraplate earthquakes and the largest strike-slip earthquake ever recorded.

2012 Haida Gwaii earthquake

The 2012 Haida Gwaii earthquake occurred just after 8:04 p.m. PDT on October 27. The shock had a moment magnitude of 7.8 and a maximum Mercalli Intensity of VIII (Severe). The earthquake's epicentre was on Moresby Island of the Haida Gwaii archipelago. This was the second largest Canadian earthquake ever recorded by a seismometer, after the 1949 Queen Charlotte Islands earthquake, about 135 kilometres (84 mi) away.

2015 Illapel earthquake 8.3 magnitude quake in Chile

The 2015 Illapel earthquake occurred 46 km (29 mi) offshore from Illapel on September 16 at 19:54:33 Chile Standard Time (22:54:33 UTC), with a moment magnitude of 8.3. The initial quake lasted between three and five minutes; it was followed by several aftershocks greater than magnitude six and two that exceeded 7.0 moment magnitude. The Chilean government reported 15 deaths, 6 missing and thousands of people affected. In Buenos Aires, Argentina, a man died from a stroke while he was evacuating a building.

2016 Sumatra earthquake

The 2016 Sumatra earthquake was a 7.8 magnitude earthquake which struck on 2 March 2016 in the Indian Ocean, approximately 800 kilometers southwest of Sumatra in Indonesia. Tsunami warnings were issued for Indonesia and Australia, but were withdrawn two hours later. Heronimus Guru, the National Meteorological Agency's deputy head of operations, initially stated that "there are some who have died", without citing an official death toll; however, it is now known that there were no deaths directly related to the earthquake.

2016 Ecuador earthquake earthquake which occurred on 16 April 2016

The 2016 Ecuador earthquake occurred on April 16 at 18:58:37 ECT with a moment magnitude of 7.8 and a maximum Mercalli intensity of VIII (Severe). The very large thrust earthquake was centered approximately 27 km (17 mi) from the towns of Muisne and Pedernales in a sparsely populated part of the country, and 170 km (110 mi) from the capital Quito, where it was felt strongly. Regions of Manta, Pedernales and Portoviejo accounted for over 75 percent of total casualties. Manta's central commercial shopping district, Tarqui, was completely destroyed. Widespread damage was caused across Manabi province, with structures hundreds of kilometres from the epicenter collapsing. At least 676 people were killed and 16,600 people injured. President Rafael Correa declared a state of emergency; 13,500 military personnel and police officers were dispatched for recovery operations.

2017 Leyte earthquake

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2017 Valparaiso earthquake

The Valparaíso earthquake of April 2017 was a strong earthquake that shook the cities of Valparaíso and Santiago on Monday, April 24, 2017 at 18:38 local time and 21:38 UTC. Its epicenter was located off the coast of the Valparaíso Region and had a magnitude of 6.9 Mw. On the scale of Mercalli, the earthquake reached an intensity VII.

References

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 "M8.2 - 95km NW of Iquique, Chile". United States Geological Survey . Retrieved 2 April 2014.
  2. "Chile earthquake: 2 dead, 3 seriously injured". Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. 2 April 2014.
  3. Franklin, Jonathan; Davidson, Helen; Farrell, Paul (2 April 2014). "Chile earthquake triggers tsunami warning and evacuation – live updates". The Guardian. Retrieved 4 April 2014.
  4. 1 2 Stout, David; Winograd, David (1 April 2014). "Five Dead After Huge Quake Hits off Coast of Chile". TIME. Retrieved 2 April 2014.
  5. "Massive earthquake and tsunami at the Tarapaca coast, Northern Chile – The full story from the very beginning". Earthquake-Report.com.
  6. "Chile Lifts Tsunami Warning After Quake Kills 6". 2 April 2014.
  7. 1 2 "Tsunami alert after 8.2 quake strikes off Chile". BBC . 1 April 2014. Retrieved 2 April 2014.
  8. Shabner, Dean (1 April 2014). "8.2-Magnitude Earthquake Off Chile Triggers Tsunami". ABC News. Retrieved 1 April 2014.
  9. 1 2 "Pacific Tsunami Waves hit Chile after an Earthquake measuring 8.3". IANS. news.biharprabha.com. Retrieved 2 April 2014.
  10. Tsunami Message Number 6 Archived 2 April 2014 at the Wayback Machine , NWS Pacific Tsunami Warning Center, 1 April 2014
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  12. "Earthquake Report (Informe de Sismo Sensible)" (in Spanish). Sismologia.cl. 16 March 2014. Retrieved 4 April 2014.
  13. "La estrella de Iquique", 2 April 2014, page 5
  14. "Tsunami alert after 8.2 quake strikes off Chile". BBC News. 2 April 2014. Retrieved 4 April 2014.
  15. "M8.2 - 95km NW of Iquique, Chile 2014-04-01 23:46:46 UTC". U.S. Geological Survey. 4 April 2014. Retrieved 4 April 2014.
  16. "La estralla de Iquique", April 4, 2014, page 10
  17. "8.2 earthquake hits Chile, killing 6 and displacing 80,000". RT. 2 April 2014.
  18. Moreno, Génesis; Paz Núñez, María (2 April 2014). "Replenishment of basic services has been slower in communes of Iquique and Alto Hospicio (Reposición de servicios básicos ha sido más lenta en comunas de Iquique y Alto Hospicio)". La Tercera (in Spanish). Retrieved 4 April 2014.
  19. Amos, Jonathan (2 April 2014). "Chile soldiers hunt escaped inmates in quake-hit Iquique". BBC News .
  20. USGS. "M6.9 - 91km WNW of Iquique, Chile". United States Geological Survey.
  21. USGS. "M6.5 - 46km WSW of Iquique, Chile". United States Geological Survey.
  22. USGS. "M7.7 - 53km SW of Iquique, Chile". United States Geological Survey.
  23. USGS. "M6.4 - 78km SW of Iquique, Chile". United States Geological Survey.
  24. Lubick, Naomi (March 2003). "Triggered Swarms: How Big Quakes Can Cause Small Quakes Far Away". Scientific American. Retrieved 4 April 2014.(subscription required)
  25. "M6.0 - 52km S of Pedregal, Panama 2014-04-02 16:13:27 UTC". U.S. Geological Survey. 3 April 2014. Retrieved 4 April 2014.
  26. "Tsunami Warning and Warch for Latin American Pacific coastline". Pacific Tsunami Warning Center. 1 April 2014. Retrieved 2 April 2014.
  27. "Tsunami Warning and Watch Cancellation". Pacific Tsunami Warning Center. 2 April 2014. Retrieved 2 April 2014.
  28. "Hawai'ian Islands Tsumani Advisory". Pacific Tsunami Warning Center. 2 April 2014. Retrieved 2 April 2014.
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  30. "Japan hit by Tsunami waves on 3 April after Chilean Earthquake". IANS. news.biharprabha.com. Retrieved 3 April 2014.
  31. "60 cm Tsunami Observed in Kuji City, Iwate Prefecture; Caused by Chile Quake (岩手県久慈市で津波60センチ観測 チリ地震)" (in Japanese). Asahi Shimbun Company (朝日新聞). 3 April 2014. Retrieved 4 April 2014.

Further reading