|2015 Ankara bombings|
|Part of Turkey-ISIL conflict|
|Location||In front of Ankara Central railway station|
|Date||10 October 2015 |
|Suicide bombing, mass murder|
|Assailants||Yunus Emre Alagöz (identified) |
Ömer Deniz Dündar (alleged)
On 10 October 2015 at 10:04 local time (EEST) in Ankara, the capital city of Turkey, two bombs were detonated outside Ankara Central railway station. With a death toll of 109 civilians,the attack surpassed the 2013 Reyhanlı bombings as the deadliest terror attack in modern Turkish history. Another 500 people were injured. Censorship monitoring group Turkey Blocks identified nationwide slowing of social media services in the aftermath of the blasts, described by rights group Human Rights Watch as an "extrajudicial" measure to restrict independent media coverage of the incident.
Eastern European Summer Time (EEST) is one of the names of UTC+03:00 time zone, 3 hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. It is used as a summer daylight saving time in some European and Middle Eastern countries, which makes it the same as Arabia Standard Time, East Africa Time and Moscow Time. During the winter periods, Eastern European Time (UTC+02:00) is used.
Ankara, historically known as Ancyra and Angora, is the capital of Turkey. With a population of 4,587,558 in the urban center (2014) and 5,150,072 in its province (2015), it is Turkey's second largest city after Istanbul, having outranked İzmir in the 20th century.
Turkey, officially the Republic of Turkey, is a transcontinental country located mainly in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan Peninsula in Southeast Europe. East Thrace, located in Europe, is separated from Anatolia by the Sea of Marmara, the Bosphorous strait and the Dardanelles. Turkey is bordered by Greece and Bulgaria to its northwest; Georgia to its northeast; Armenia, the Azerbaijani exclave of Nakhchivan and Iran to the east; and Iraq and Syria to the south. Istanbul is the largest city, but more central Ankara is the capital. Approximately 70 to 80 per cent of the country's citizens identify as Turkish. Kurds are the largest minority; the size of the Kurdish population is a subject of dispute with estimates placing the figure at anywhere from 12 to 25 per cent of the population.
The bombs appeared to target a "Labour, Peace and Democracy" rally organised by the Confederation of Progressive Trade Unions of Turkey (DİSK), the Union of Chambers of Turkish Engineers and Architects (TMMOB), the Peoples' Democratic Party (HDP), the Turkish Medical Association (TTB) and the Confederation of Public Workers' Unions (KESK). The peace march was held to protest against the growing conflict between the Turkish Armed Forces and the separatist Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK). The incident occurred 21 days before the scheduled 1 November general election.
The Confederation of Progressive Trade Unions of Turkey is one of the four major national trade union centres in Turkey. It was founded in 1967 as a breakaway union from the Confederation of Turkish Trade Unions, and has a membership of 327,000.
The Union of Chambers of Turkish Engineers and Architects is a confederation of all chambers of architects and engineers in Turkey. The union was founded in 1954 as an umbrella organization of ten chambers with around 8,000 members. As of end 2013, the union represents 24 chambers with a total membership of 445.365. It is headquartered in Kızılay, Ankara.
The Peoples' Democratic Party, or Democratic Party of the Peoples, is a pro-minority political party in Turkey. Generally left-wing, the party places a strong emphasis on participatory democracy, radical democracy, feminism, minority rights, youth rights and egalitarianism. It is an associate member of the Party of European Socialists (PES) and consultative member of the Socialist International.
The governing Justice and Development Party (AKP), the main opposition Republican People's Party (CHP) and the opposition Nationalist Movement Party (MHP) condemned the attack and called it an attempt to cause division within Turkey.CHP and MHP leaders heavily criticized the government for the security failure, whereas HDP directly blamed the AKP government for the bombings. Various political parties ended up cancelling their election campaigns while three days of national mourning were declared by the Prime Minister Ahmet Davutoğlu.
The Justice and Development Party, abbreviated officially AK Parti in Turkish, is a conservative political party in Turkey. Developed from the conservative tradition of Turkey's Ottoman past and its Islamic identity, the party is the largest in Turkey. Founded in 2001 by members of a number of existing conservative parties, the party has won pluralities in the six most recent legislative elections, those of 2002, 2007, 2011, June 2015, November 2015, and 2018. The party held a majority of seats for 13 years, but lost it in June 2015, only to regain it in the snap election of November 2015 but then lose it again in 2018. Its electoral success has been mirrored in the three local elections held since the party's establishment, coming first in 2004, 2009 and 2014 respectively. The current party leader is Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, the incumbent President of Turkey.
The Republican People's Party is a Kemalist, social-democratic political party in Turkey. It is the oldest political party in the country, and is currently the main opposition in the Grand National Assembly. The CHP describes itself as "a modern social democratic party, which is faithful to the founding principles and values of the Republic of Turkey". The party is cited as "the founding party of modern Turkey". Its logo consists of the Six Arrows, which represent the foundational principles of Kemalism: republicanism, nationalism, statism, populism, laicism, and reformism.
The Nationalist Movement Party is a Turkish far-right conservative political party that adheres to Turkish ultranationalism and Euroscepticism.
No organisation has yet claimed responsibility for the attack. The Ankara Attorney General stated that they were investigating the possibility of two cases of suicide bombings.On 19 October, one of the two suicide bombers was officially identified as the younger brother of the perpetrator of the Suruç bombing; both brothers have suspected links to the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) and the ISIL affiliated Dokumacılar group.
The 2015 Suruç bombing took place in the Suruç district of Şanlıurfa Province in Turkey at approximately 12:00 local time on 20 July 2015, outside the Amara Culture Centre. 33 people were killed and 104 were reported injured. Most victims were members of the Socialist Party of the Oppressed (ESP) Youth Wing and the Socialist Youth Associations Federation (SGDF), university-ages students who were giving a press statement on their planned trip to reconstruct the Syrian border town of Kobanî.
The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant, also known as the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria, officially known as the Islamic State (IS) and also known by its Arabic language acronym Daesh, is a Salafi jihadist militant group and former unrecognised proto-state that follows a fundamentalist, Salafi doctrine of Sunni Islam. ISIL gained global prominence in early 2014 when it drove Iraqi government forces out of key cities in its Western Iraq offensive, followed by its capture of Mosul and the Sinjar massacre.
The Dokumacılar was a Turkish organisation linked to the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) that specifically targeted the Kurdish People's Protection Units (YPG) that were fighting against ISIL in the Syrian Civil War. The organisation, thought to have been formed of around 60 Turkish militants who joined ISIL, was linked to both the 2015 Diyarbakır rally bombings that killed 4 people and the 2015 Suruç bombing that killed 32 people.
Following a suicide bombing in Suruç that killed 33 people on 20 July 2015, the Turkish Armed Forces have been fighting both the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) and a renewed PKK rebellion of the Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK). The resumption of the conflict with the PKK resulted in an end to the Solution process, a series of peace negotiations between the government and the PKK alongside a ceasefire in place since 2012. With airstrikes initially targeting both the PKK and ISIL, later military operations began focusing explicitly on PKK positions in Northern Iraq, prompting a surge of counter PKK-related violence in the mainly Kurdish south-east of Turkey. By 7 October, the surge in violence since July had led to the deaths of 141 soldiers and 1,740 militants, leading to several pro-government commentators to claim that the PKK was close to defeat.However, the large number of soldiers killed also contributed to civil unrest in other parts of the country, with attacks by Turkish nationalists taking place against the Peoples' Democratic Party (HDP) headquarters. Many politicians and commentators alleged that the country was close to civil war.
The Turkish Armed Forces are the military forces of the Republic of Turkey. They consist of the Army, the Navy and the Air Force. The Gendarmerie and the Coast Guard, both of which have law enforcement and military functions, operate as components of the internal security forces in peacetime, and are subordinate to the Ministry of Interior. In wartime, they are subordinate to the Army and Navy. The President of Turkey is the military's overall head.
The Kurdistan Workers' Party or PKK is a Kurdish far-left militant and political organization based in Turkey and Iraq. Since 1984 the PKK has been involved in an armed conflict with the Turkish state, with the initial aim of achieving an independent Kurdish state, later changing it to a demand for equal rights and Kurdish autonomy in Turkey.
Solution process, also known as the Kurdish–Turkish peace process, was a peace process which aimed to resolve the long-running Kurdish–Turkish conflict (1978–present). The conflict has been ongoing since 1984 and resulted in some 40,000–100,000 mortal casualties and great economic losses for Turkey as well as high damage to the Kurdish population. Though there was a unilateral cease-fire between 1999 and 2004, the sides failed to gain understanding and the conflict became increasingly violent. The 2013 truce was working until September 2014, when the relations became strained due to spillover of the Syrian Civil War; the truce fully collapsed in July 2015, with the renewed full-scale warfare in South-Eastern Turkey.
The increase in violence came shortly after the governing Justice and Development Party (AKP) lost its majority in Parliament after 13 years of government alone in the June 2015 election. When the attacks took place, the preceding AKP government led by Ahmet Davutoğlu remained in power until a new coalition government could be formed, with an interim election government also headed by Davutoğlu taking office on 28 August 2015 after President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan called for a new election. Critics have accused the AKP of trying to regain nationalist voters back from the Nationalist Movement Party (MHP) by purposely ending the solution process and also trying to reduce turnout in the HDP electoral strongholds in the south-east by creating unrest there. Concern had been raised about whether an election could be securely conducted amid the violence in the region.
The Grand National Assembly of Turkey, usually referred to simply as the TBMM or Parliament, is the unicameral Turkish legislature. It is the sole body given the legislative prerogatives by the Turkish Constitution. It was founded in Ankara on 23 April 1920 in the midst of the National Campaign. The parliament was fundamental in the efforts of Mareşal Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, 1st President of the Republic of Turkey, and his colleagues to found a new state out of the remnants of the Ottoman Empire.
The Turkish general election of June 2015 took place on 7 June 2015 in all 85 electoral districts of Turkey to elect 550 members to the Grand National Assembly. This was the 24th general election in the history of the Turkish Republic, electing the country's 25th Parliament. The result was the first hung parliament since the 1999 general election. Unsuccessful attempts to form a coalition government resulted in a snap general election being called for November 2015.
Ahmet Davutoğlu is a Turkish academic, politician and former diplomat who was the Prime Minister of Turkey and leader of the Justice and Development Party (AKP) from August 2014 to May 2016. He previously served as the Minister of Foreign Affairs from 2009 to 2014 and as chief advisor to Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdoğan from 2003 to 2009. He was elected as an AKP Member of Parliament for Konya in the 2011 general election and was re-elected as an MP in both the June and November 2015 general elections. He resigned as Prime Minister on 22 May 2016.
The explosions occurred shortly before a 'Labour, Peace and Democracy' rally supported by the Confederation of Progressive Trade Unions of Turkey (DİSK), the Union of Chambers of Turkish Engineers and Architects (TMMOB), the Turkish Medical Association (TTB) and the Confederation of Public Workers' Unions (KESK) was due to take place.The rally was scheduled in Sıhhiye Square, the railways overpass bridge was the gathering area. It was reported that many attendants that were present in preparation for the rally were supporters of the Peoples' Democratic Party (HDP), with the rally area containing numerous HDP, Labour Party (EMEP) and Socialist Youth Associations Federation (SGDF) flags.
The first bomb exploded at around On 10 October 2015 at 10:04 local time (EEST) while rally participants were singing an anthem commemorating the Bloody Sunday incident of 1969.The second bomb exploded a few seconds later. It was also observed that the bombings were in close proximity of the National Intelligence Organisation (MİT) headquarters. Shortly after the bombing, security forces cleared the area in case of a third and fourth bomb.
On the day of the blasts, the initial death toll was reported as 86, along with 186 wounded.Next day, the total number of deaths was announced as 97. According to the prime minister's statement on 14 October, 99 people were killed in total. The number increased in the following days, as people in the hospitals succumbed to their wounds, to 100 and to 102.
The Turkish Medical Association (TTB) made independent claims, reporting that 97 died and over 400 people had been injured,which they later updated to 105, and 106. International media speak of 109 deaths and 508 injured.
The pro-Kurdish HDP party claimed the first day that the number of deaths was 128,but after a few days retracted the statement and apologised for the misleading claim.
The Radio and Television Supreme Council (RTÜK) announced a temporary ban on all press coverage of the bombings following a request by the Prime Ministry.Monitoring group Turkey Blocks identified intentional slowing, or throttling, of the Twitter and Facebook social networks beginning some hours after the attack. An official claimed at the time that internet problems were "due to heavy use," although the practice of internet throttling for "peace and order" became commonplace in the following months and was ultimately recognized by the government and brought into law.
Witnesses at the scene told the media that the police began using tear gas shortly after the bombs went off while stopping ambulances from getting through. Angry people tried to attack police cars after the blast, with the HDP claiming that the police attacked people carrying the injured to safety.
Shortly after the bombings, the Minister of Health Mehmet Müezzinoğlu, the Minister of the Interior Selami Altınok, and the Minister of Justice Kenan İpek visited the scene to carry out investigations. However, they were met by protestors who chanted anti-AKP slogans and were forced to leave the scene less than one minute after arriving.The Ankara Attorney General announced that they were investigating the possibility of two suicide bombers, while the Turkish State Railways (TCDD) stated that there would be delays to train services passing through the Ankara Central railway station.
Prime Minister Ahmet Davutoğlu cancelled all of his prior engagements and stated that he would halt his election campaign for three days. He met with President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, who also cancelled his engagements in Istanbul following the incident. The Prime Minister later held a security summit, which was attended by Deputy Prime Ministers Yalçın Akdoğan, Numan Kurtulmuş, and Tuğrul Türkeş, along with National Intelligence Organisation (MİT) undersecretary Hakan Fidan, Interior Minister Selami Altınok, Justice Minister Kenan İpek, the Governor of Ankara Mehmet Kılıçlar, the General Director of Security Celalettin Lekesiz, and several other senior civil servants working for the Prime Ministry and the Ministry of Health.
The Ankara Attorney General stated that they were investigating the possibility of twin suicide bombings.It was observed that an anonymous Twitter account had claimed that an explosion could take place in Ankara just one day before the attack actually happened.
The lack of any immediate statement from any known non-state perpetrator taking responsibility for the attack resulted in speculation over the possible perpetrators. Nationalist Movement Party (MHP) leader Devlet Bahçeli stated that the attacks bore a resemblance to the explosion in Suruç in July, raising debate on whether the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) could have been responsible.It was reported that the type of bomb used bore strong resemblance to the materials used in the Suruç bombing, signalling a potential connection between the two incidents.
The Peoples' Democratic Party (HDP) openly blamed the Turkish state and the government for conducting the attack, accusing the government of collaborating with non-state actors and taking insufficient action to tackle their presence. [ citation needed ]The HDP has claimed that the governing Justice and Development Party (AKP) was guilty of being "murderers with blood on their hands" and also of being the number one threat to Turkey's peace and security. The HDP's accusation was met with strong criticism by the AKP government.
Veysel Eroğlu, the Minister of Forest and Water Management, made a heavily criticised statement in Afyonkarahisar implying that the HDP had purposely organised the attack against their own supporters to raise public sympathy for their party.Although Eroğlu did not name the HDP or the PKK specifically, he referred to the Diyarbakır HDP rally bombing in June as being an attempt to raise support for the HDP "just so that they can pass the 10% election threshold".
Initially the government suggested the perpetrators could be any of the following anti-government groups:Islamic State/Daesh (IS), Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK), Revolutionary People's Liberation Party–Front (DHKP-C), Marxist–Leninist Communist Party (MLKP)
A day after the bombing, Davutoğlu suggested that early investigations pointed to the involvement of IS. [ which? ] did not accept this attribution.However, opposition political parties
Yunus Emre Alagöz, an ethnic Kurd from Adıyaman and the younger brother of Abdurrahman Alagöz, the perpetrator of the Suruç bombing, was suspected by the government to be one of the suicide bombers. [ who? ] to have links to ISIL, were identified using DNA from the scene of the blast. On 19 October, one of the two suicide bombers was officially identified as Yunus Emre Alagöz.On 14 October media reports alleged that Yunus, and a second suspect, Ömer Deniz Dündar, both of whom are believed
By June 2016, responsibility for the attack had not been claimed; the Turkish government blamed ISIL.
President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan condemned the bombings and vowed that the Turkish people will stand in "unity and solidarity" following the "heinous attack". He also stated that Turkey would not give in to efforts to sow division in society.He encouraged everyone to take responsibility and act with good intentions, claiming that the government was working to uncover the full details of the incident as quickly as possible.
Prime Minister Ahmet Davutoğlu, the leader of the Justice and Development Party (AKP), issued a statement condemning the attack and claiming that it was an attack against democracy and against all segments of society. He said Turkey was an example of a country that had kept united despite several threats against national unity, announcing plans to meet with opposition party leaders in regards to the attack. Declaring three days of national mourning, Davutoğlu vowed to bring the perpetrators to justice regardless of who they were.
Main opposition leader Kemal Kılıçdaroğlu, the leader of the Republican People's Party (CHP), claimed that they were ready to fulfill any task to end such attacks in Turkeyand agreed to meet with Davutoğlu to discuss the bombing. He stated that all political parties had a duty to stand together against such attacks and called on the perpetrators to identify themselves, further claiming that violence was never an answer to a difference in viewpoints.
Opposition leader Devlet Bahçeli, the leader of the Nationalist Movement Party (MHP), cancelled a planned electoral rally in İzmir following the attack and issued a statement in which he claimed that Turkey was paying the price for the AKP's close relations with violent groups, refusing to meet with Davutoğlu.Condemning the bombings as an attack on the country's unity, he also stated that the fact that such perpetrators could evade security and intelligence organisations to conduct a bombing in the country's capital city was another serious issue of concern.
Opposition leader Selahattin Demirtaş, the co-leader of the Peoples' Democratic Party (HDP), drew parallels with the bombings in Suruç and Diyarbakır earlier in the year, claiming that his party was specifically targeted. Accusing the state of conducting a "massacre" in the centre of the capital Ankara, he further claimed that they were facing a "mad, undignified attitude that has lost its mind". He accused the AKP government and Recep Tayyip Erdoğan of forcing violence onto the people of Turkey, denouncing them as "murderers with blood on their hands". Referring to Erdoğan as a "gang leader", he claimed that Erdoğan had been able to conduct rallies under complete security but members of the public wishing to hold a rally for peace had been "massacred". He further claimed that the AKP was the biggest threat to the country's peace and security, drawing criticism from AKP leader and Prime Minister Ahmet Davutoğlu.
Shortly after the bombing, PKK/KCK declared a ceasefire in order to ensure that a peaceful election would be held on 1 November,which was reportedly already being planned before the bombing took place. Nevertheless, the ceasefire did not materialize, as policemen and soldiers continued to be killed in PKK attacks everyday since the bombing.
Before closing his morning television chat show on 13 October, TRT anchor Selver Gözüaçık read a tweet by one of his viewers that read it was not right to "lump all the victims together [because] some may be innocent." He agreed with the sentiment, saying that there may have been "police officers, cleaning staff, passersby or people trying to get to work" who were also killed in the bombings.
Former Nobel Prize in Literature laureate Orhan Pamuk criticized Erdogan for what he said was a climate of insecurity as a result of the latter's persistence on trying to achieve a parliamentary majority that has brought the country to the brink of sectarian conflict. "The electoral defeat enraged Erdogan...he didn't succeed in convincing the Kurds to give him their votes for his plan to create a presidential republic. That is why he decided to go to the polls again on November 1. But neither the government nor the army were satisfied with how things were going and they agreed to resume the war against the Kurdish movement."
During a one minute silence for the victims at the UEFA Euro 2016 qualifying match between Turkey and Iceland, the crowd instead booed, whistled, shouted Turkish ultranationalist slogans and chanted Allahu akbar.
The relevance of particular information in (or previously in) this article or section is disputed . (October 2015)
Austria, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France, Germany, Iran, Ireland, Italy, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Poland, Switzerland, the United Kingdom and the United States issued travel advisories recommending that all non-essential travel to Turkey should be avoided.
Following the attack, three days of national mourning were declared by Prime Minister Ahmet Davutoğlu.
With the bombing occurring during the election campaigns for the November 2015 general election, various parties abandoned their scheduled rallies. The Justice and Development Party (AKP) cancelled their planned election programme for three days after the attack.The Republican People's Party (CHP) also cancelled their daily programme, with party leader Kemal Kılıçdaroğlu having been due to spend the day campaigning in Istanbul. The Nationalist Movement Party (MHP) announced that their scheduled rally in İzmir would take place at a later date. The Peoples' Democratic Party (HDP), having claimed that they were the targets of the attack, abandoned a campaign strategy meeting due in their İstanbul headquarters. President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan also cancelled his prior engagements in Istanbul, including a trip to Turkmenistan.
After a screen grab of Justice Minister Kenan İpek showing him smiling went viral, CHP leader Kemal Kılıçdaroğlu said that they should resign in a meeting with Davutoğlu. He said: "The sight of the justice minister [smiling at the reporter's question] is startling. The [ sic ] society is going through a severe trauma and meanwhile the justice minister is smiling. The justice minister cannot remain in his office." He added that Davutoğlu would make a decision upon receipt of a report on Ipek’s conduct. It was also criticised on social media. Further, Deputy Chairman Haluk Koç also called for the immediate resignation of Interior Minister Selami Altınok saying that he was unable to carry out his responsibilities.
The Confederation of Public Workers' Unions (KESK), Union of Chambers of Turkish Engineers and Architects (TMMOB), the Turkish Medical Association (TTB) and the Confederation of Progressive Trade Unions of Turkey (DISK), which had all been organisers of the peace rally, declared that two days of industrial action would be held on Monday 12 October and Tuesday 13 October as a show of respect to the dead, as well as a protest against the "fascist massacre." The unions also stated that they would not give up on their efforts to end the conflict.
Shortly after the bombings, the Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK) declared a ceasefire to allow a peaceful election to take place on 1 November. The ceasefire announcement, which was made through the executive of the Group of Communities in Kurdistan (KCK), declared that the PKK would not conduct any attacks unless provoked or in self-defence.It is unclear if the ceasefire announcement, which was made approximately an hour after the Ankara bombing, was related to the incident.
In the afternoon following the attack, thousands of union members began protesting at Taksim Square in İstanbul against the bombing, with many participants chanting anti-government slogans and calling on both the governing AKP and for Erdoğan to resign.Amongst the about 10,000 people, slogans were chanted that said "the state is a killer" and "we know the murderers." Similar protests occurred in İzmir, with tensions between protestors and riot police briefly rising in Alsancak before deescalating shortly after. HDP Members of Parliament of the Grand National Assembly of Turkey led a protest in Batman, before being met by riot police using tear gas and water cannon. A group of 15 masked individuals in Kızılay, Ankara, began attacking police officers with fireworks before being met by water cannon and pepper spray. Over 2,000 protestors led demonstrations in Diyarbakır and 300 protestors participated in protests in Şanlıurfa, having been accompanied by HDP and Democratic Regions Party (DBP) politicians. Similar protests took place in Van, Tunceli and Kars, with participating politicians from the HDP and CHP as well as union members from KESK, TMMOB, TTB and DISK.
In the run-up to, during and after the Turkish general election of June 2015, numerous accusations of electoral fraud and violence were made by opposition parties. Electoral fraud in Turkey has usually been most extensive during local elections, where individual votes have significantly larger impact in determining local administrations. Although the 2014 presidential election saw little evidence of electoral misconduct, issues regarding voter records as well as extensive media bias have been controversial issues that have remained largely unaddressed. In both the local and presidential elections in 2014, several voters reported that ballot papers had been sent to addresses that are wrong or do not exist as well as voters that have been dead for a substantial amount of time.
The following article documents the issues and developments that have formed the basis of the political campaigns and the news agenda in the run-up to the June 2015 general election and the November 2015 general election.
The Turkish general election of November 2015 was held on 1 November 2015 throughout the 85 electoral districts of Turkey to elect 550 members to the Grand National Assembly. It was the 25th general election in the History of the Republic of Turkey and elected the country's 26th Parliament. The election resulted in the Justice and Development Party (AKP) regaining a Parliamentary majority following a 'shock' victory, having lost it five months earlier in the June 2015 general election.
The 2015 Diyarbakır Rally bombings occurred on 5 June 2015 in Diyarbakır, Turkey during an electoral rally of the Peoples' Democratic Party (HDP) at 17:55 local time. The bombing took place two days before the June 2015 general election and killed 5 supporters, injuring over 100.
The 2015 police raids in Turkey were a series of police raids conducted by the General Directorate of Security in 16 different Provinces of Turkey. The operations were largely seen as a response to the suicide bombing in Suruç on 20 July 2015 that killed 32 people, as well as a series of attacks by the Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK) on the police and military positions in Adıyaman and Ceylanpınar.
Operation Martyr Yalçın was a military operation conducted by the Turkish Air Force against Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) positions in Syria, and Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK) positions in Northern Iraq, on 24 and 25 July 2015.
Müslüm Doğan is a Turkish politician who served as the Minister of Development in the interim election government formed by Prime Minister Ahmet Davutoğlu on 28 August 2015. He was elected as a Member of Parliament for İzmir's second electoral district in the June 2015 general election. He is a member of the Peoples' Democratic Party (HDP). On 22 September 2015, he resigned from the interim election cabinet and was succeeded by Cüneyd Düzyol.
Ali Haydar Konca is a Turkish politician who served as the Minister of European Union Affairs and Chief Negotiator in the interim election government led by Ahmet Davutoğlu between 28 August and 22 September 2015. He served as a Member of Parliament for the electoral district of Kocaeli from June to November 2015. He is a member of the Peoples' Democratic Party (HDP) and is a former civil servant and Kaymakam (sub-governor).
The Justice and Development Party election campaign of June 2015 was the official election campaign of the Justice and Development Party (AKP) for the June 2015 general election. This was the fourth general election contested by the AKP, which was founded in 2001 and swept to power in a landslide victory in 2002. This was the first election contested by the AKP's new leader, Ahmet Davutoğlu, who was elected leader in September 2014 after the party's former leader Recep Tayyip Erdoğan was elected as the President of Turkey in August 2014.
The Peoples' Democratic Party election campaign of June 2015 was the official election campaign of the Peoples' Democratic Party (HDP) for the June 2015 general election in Turkey. the campaign was dominated by the party's co-leader Selahattin Demirtaş. It was the first time a pro-Kurdish party contested a general election as a political party rather than as independent candidates since the 2002 general election and the first time such a party won representation in Parliament.
Controversies during the Turkish general election of November 2015 mainly centred on the escalating violence in the south-east and the rise in domestic terrorist attacks linked to both the Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK) and the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL). International concerns also grew over an increase in media censorship, with the government being accused of specifically targeting news outlets known to be close to the Gülen Movement such as Kanaltürk and Bugün TV. Safety concerns due to the escalating conflict resulted in the government proposing to merge ballot boxes in affected areas and to transport them to safer locations, though the opposition criticised the move as an attempt to decrease the votes of the Peoples' Democratic Party (HDP), which polled strongly in the June 2015 general election.
On 17 February 2016, in Ankara, the capital of Turkey, at least 30 people died and 60 were injured in a bombing. According to Turkish authorities, the attack targeted a convoy of shuttles carrying both civilian and military personnel working at the military headquarters during the evening rush hour as the vehicles were stopped at traffic lights at an intersection with İsmet İnönü Boulevard close to Kızılay neighborhood. Several ministries, the headquarters of the army and the Turkish Parliament are located in the neighbourhood where the attack occurred. The Kurdistan Freedom Hawks (TAK) took responsibility for the attack and said they targeted security forces. Censorship monitoring organization Turkey Blocks reported nationwide internet restrictions beginning approximately one hour after the blast pursuant to an administrative order.
On 13 March 2016, at 18:35 (EET), a bombing took place in Kızılay, Ankara, in which at least 37 people were killed and 125 injured, with 19 being heavily injured. A car laden with explosives was used for the attack and buses carrying civilians were targeted. The bombing took place on Atatürk Boulevard, near Güvenpark, at a point where several bus stops were located, and several buildings and cars were damaged. According to initial reports, a bus was completely burned, along with many cars. The area was subsequently evacuated as a precaution against the possibility of further attacks.
The Turkish local elections of 2019 were held on Sunday 31 March 2019 throughout the 81 provinces of Turkey. A total of 30 metropolitan and 1,351 district municipal mayors, alongside 1,251 provincial and 20,500 municipal councillors were elected, in addition to numerous local non-partisan positions such as neighbourhood wardens (muhtars) and elderly people's councils.
On 20 August 2016, a suicide bomber targeted a Kurdish wedding in Gaziantep, Turkey. 57 people were killed and 66 injured in the attack, 14 critically.
On the evening of 10 December 2016, two explosions caused by a car bombing and suicide bombing in Istanbul's Beşiktaş municipality killed 48 people and injured 166 others. 36 of those killed were police officers, 8 were civilians and one remains unidentified. The Kurdistan Freedom Hawks (TAK) assumed responsibility, claiming that their members killed more than 100 police officers.
The Ceylanpınar incidents were a series of attacks in the area of Ceylanpınar, Turkey, on Turkish police. These attacks were used by the Erdogan government as casus belli to drop the 2013-2015 Solution process, resume war on PKK militants. As Erdogan recently lost the June 2015 Turkish general election, and soon after announced the anticipated November 2015 Turkish general election, analysts comment the Ceylanpınar incidents and return to war have been used to increase nationalist fervor and favor the ruling party to take back control over the Turkish parliament.
The younger Alagoz brother, of Kurdish origin born in Adiyaman, is believed to have acted on behalf of Isil. The 20-year-old is believed to have gone to Syria last year with his brother, Turkish media reported.