2015 Pan American Games

Last updated

XVII Pan American Games
2015 Pan American Games logo.svg
Host city Toronto, Canada
MottoUnited We Play
Nations41
Athletes6,132
Events364 in 36 sports
Opening July 10
Closing July 26
Opened by
Cauldron
Stadium Pan Am Dome
2011 Guadalajara 2019 Lima

The 2015 Pan American Games (French : Jeux Panaméricains de 2015), officially the XVII Pan American Games and commonly known as the Toronto 2015 Pan-Am Games (French: Jeux panaméricains de 2015 à Toronto), were a major international multi-sport event celebrated in the tradition of the Pan American Games, as governed by Pan American Sports Organization (PASO). The games were held from July 10 to 26, 2015 in Toronto, Ontario, Canada; preliminary rounds in certain events began on July 7, 2015. These were the third Pan American games hosted by Canada, and the first in the province of Ontario. The Games were held at venues in Toronto and seventeen other Golden Horseshoe communities. [1] The Pan American Games and 2015 Parapan American Games were organized by the Toronto Organizing Committee for the 2015 Pan and Parapan American Games (TO2015).

Contents

The Games hosted 6,132 athletes representing 41 National Olympic Committees (NOCs) in the Americas, marking the largest multi-sport event hosted in Canada, in terms of athletes competing. [2] A record of 45% of competitors were women, the most ever for any multi-sport event. [3] 364 events were contested in 36 sports, which included the 28 sports contested at the 2016 Summer Olympics; certain sports also served as qualification paths for these Olympics. Canoe slalom and golf made their Pan American Games debut, as well as women's competitions in baseball, C-1 canoe and rugby sevens.

In 2019, the organizing committee reported that the games came in under budget by $38 million and left a strong legacy for the region with a legacy fund of over $60 million to maintain these structures for a twenty-year period after the Games were held (i.e., until 2035). [4]

Bidding process

Toronto was selected by the Canadian Olympic Committee as the official bid city from Canada for the 2015 Pan American Games Skyline of Toronto viewed from Harbour.jpg
Toronto was selected by the Canadian Olympic Committee as the official bid city from Canada for the 2015 Pan American Games

The Canadian Olympic Committee chose Toronto and the surrounding region as the Canadian candidate. No other Canadian city was given a chance to bid in a domestic race, and thus Toronto was selected without a vote. [5] Toronto's interest in bidding came after failing to land the 1996 Summer Olympics and the 2008 Summer Olympics, which were held in Atlanta and Beijing, respectively.

On February 23, 2009, Toronto City Council and Hamilton City Council approved the bid and confirmed their intentions to support the successful hosting of the event. [6] The official bid book document was submitted to the Pan American Sports Organization (PASO) on May 27, 2009. [7]

PASO made an evaluation visit to Toronto between August 30 and 31, 2009. The team analysed the candidate city features and provided its feedback back to voting members of PASO. The evaluation committee was headed by Julio Maglione, a member of the IOC representing Uruguay and the head of Fédération Internationale de Natation (FINA), the international swimming federation. After the visit Maglione said, "Toronto has all the conditions to play host to the Pan American Games." [8]

Toronto won the bidding process to host the Pan and Parapan American Games by a vote of the Pan American Sports Organization on November 6, 2009, at the PASO Session held in Guadalajara, Mexico. The result was announced by PASO President Mario Vázquez Raña. [9] Toronto faced two other finalists shortlisted Lima, Peru (which later won the rights to host the 2019 Pan American Games), and Bogotá, Colombia. Toronto earned 33 votes, while contesting candidate cities Lima and Bogotá received 11 and 7 votes, respectively. [10] Then-Mayor of Toronto Rob Ford and Canadian Minister for Sport Bal Gosal received the Pan American Sports Organization flag during the closing ceremony of the 2011 Pan American Games in Guadalajara, Mexico. [11]

2015 Pan American Games bidding results
City NOC Round 1
Toronto Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg Canada33
Lima Flag of Peru.svg Peru11
Bogotá Flag of Colombia.svg Colombia7

Development and preparation

Venues

Rogers Centre (temporarily renamed Pan Am Dome for the duration of the Games) hosted the opening and closing ceremonies. Toronto - ON - Rogers Centre (Nacht).jpg
Rogers Centre (temporarily renamed Pan Am Dome for the duration of the Games) hosted the opening and closing ceremonies.
BMO Field staged the rugby sevens competition BMO Field Rugby 2.jpg
BMO Field staged the rugby sevens competition

The 2015 Pan American Games used a mixture of new venues, existing and temporary facilities, some of them in well-known locations such as Exhibition Place. After the Games, some of the new facilities will be reused in their games time form, while others will be resized. A total of 30 competition venues across 14 municipalities were used for competition. Ten of these venues were newly built, while fifteen were renovated to stage the games. [12]

Toronto was one of the most populous cities in history to hold the Pan American Games. In July, Toronto has an average mean temperature of 22.3 °C (72.1 °F) and afternoon maximum average of 26.6 °C (79.9 °F) The average humidity is 74%, and the city (downtown area) averages five days with the temperature exceeding 30 °C (86 °F) and about 65 millimetres (2.6 in) of precipitation, mostly brief periods of showers and sometimes thunderstorms. Toronto's elevation is 112 m (367 ft 5 12 in) above sea level on average, though the city has many steep hills and ravines. [13]

In January 2012, the Toronto Organizing Committee for the 2015 Pan and Parapan American Games (TO2015) announced that sixty percent of the venues that had been proposed would be dropped in favour of a clustering system seen at other multi-sport events such as the 2012 Summer Olympics in London. [14]

The opening and closing ceremonies were held at Rogers Centre (renamed "Pan-Am Dome" due to sponsorship rules). Some of the competition venues in the Toronto area included BMO Field (renamed "Exhibition Stadium" due to sponsorship rules), the Pan Am/Parapan Am Fields, the Enercare Centre and the Toronto Pan Am Sports Centre. Competition venues outside the city of Toronto included Tim Hortons Field, Hershey Centre, Markham Pan Am Centre in Markham, the GM Centre in Oshawa, and the Royal Canadian Henley Rowing Course in St. Catharines. [12]

Financing

The Toronto 2015 Organizing Committee and three jurisdictions of government were to spend about CA$672 million in upgrading and building new venues in the region. [15] An additional CA$760 million was to be spent in operating expenses such as venue management and marketing. [15] The Canadian federal government was expected to provide CA$500 million in funding for the games, while the City of Toronto's contribution was to be CA$86 million. Other municipalities which are hosting sporting events were to cover CA$205 million of the costs. All remaining costs were covered by the Government of Ontario. Revenue from the games were expected to cover ten percent of the cost to stage the games. [16] The organizing committee expected to generate CA$172 million in revenue. In addition, CA$709 million was to be spent on building an athletes' village in the West Don Lands area of Toronto. A further CA$239 million was budgeted on security, while transportation costs were around CA$90 million. [17] In 2014, the Ontario government provided an additional CA$74 million to expand the torch relay, provide additional live broadcasting of events and other features. [16] Therefore, the total spent was expected to be CA$2.57 billion, the highest-ever cost of a single Pan-Am Games. [16]

In 2016, Ontario auditor-general Bonnie Lysyk issued a report suggesting that the games were over-budget by CA$342 million. [18]

Infrastructure

The Union Pearson Express UPXatMimico.jpg
The Union Pearson Express
Temporary high-occupancy vehicle lanes were installed on Toronto's Don Valley Parkway for the Pan Am Games Temporary high-occupancy vehicle lanes on the Don Valley Parkway in Toronto, Canada for the 2015 Pan American Games.jpg
Temporary high-occupancy vehicle lanes were installed on Toronto's Don Valley Parkway for the Pan Am Games

The Union Pearson Express, an airport rail link from Toronto Pearson International Airport to Union Station, started full-time service on June 6, 2015. [19] The games created a deadline for a project that had been stalled for years. [20] In addition, a new GO Transit train station in Hamilton at James Street North opened in time for the games. [21]

In October 2013, an expansion of the Pan Am site was announced to help complete 250 kilometres (160 mi) in gaps in Ontario's Trans Canada Trail and connect communities from Ottawa to Windsor and Fort Erie to Huntsville in time for the games. Connections to the Waterfront Trail were expected to be expanded and complete gaps in the trail. Premier of Ontario Kathleen Wynne announced "The province is investing more than $3.5 million in Pan Am/Parapan Am Trails to help create a continuous trail of more than 2,000 kilometres (1,200 mi)." [22]

Athlete's Village

The 2015 Pan American Games Athlete's Village in January 2015 2015 Pan Am Village Jan 2015.jpg
The 2015 Pan American Games Athlete's Village in January 2015

The Athlete's Village was located in the West Don Lands along Front Street between Bayview Avenue and Cherry Street. It had the capacity to hold 10,000 athletes and officials during the Pan Am and Parapan Am Games and after the games will be converted into housing. The development was to be certified LEED Gold. [23]

In conjunction with The 519 organization and the Church and Wellesley LGBT neighbourhood, the event also hosted the first Pride House for LGBT athletes and tourists staged at a Pan American Games. [24]

Volunteers

The organization committee expected 23,000 volunteers to be required for Pan Am and Parapan Am Games. [25] Over 63,000 applicants applied to become a volunteer. [26]

Ticketing

Ticket sales began in September 2014. The Games expected to have 1.4 million tickets for sale, with over 75% of them priced under $45. The first tranche of tickets was to be allocated via a lottery system. [27] [28] Over one million tickets were sold. [29]

Countdown

Countdown clock in Nathan Phillips Square To2015countdownclock.png
Countdown clock in Nathan Phillips Square

The one-year countdown took place in Nathan Phillips Square in Downtown Toronto on July 10, 2014, in which a countdown clock was unveiled. A Cirque du Soleil performance was also held. [30]

Medals

In October 2013, it was announced that the medals for the games would be produced and designed by the Royal Canadian Mint. [31] In September 2014, it was announced that the supplier of the raw minerals used in the medals (over 4,000 in total) would be Barrick Gold. All the materials used in the medals will come from the company's operations in the Pan American region. [32] The copper was mined at the company's Zaldivar mine in Chile, the silver at the Pueblo Viejo mine in the Dominican Republic and the gold was mined at the Hemlo mine in northwestern Ontario near Thunder Bay. [33]

The designs of the medals were revealed on March 3, 2015 at a ceremony at the Royal Ontario Museum. The design of the medals for the first time in an international able-bodied multi-sport event included braille. The medals are roughly 86.7 millimetres (3.41 in) in diameter and weigh about 350 grams (12 oz). [34] The artist of the medals is Christi Belcourt. There are three shapes on the front of the medal representing North America, Central America and the Caribbean, and South America, the three regions that competed at the games, while also giving a feel and texture of the medal podium. The back of the medal represents the logo and motto of the games and the design also includes elements and techniques of mokume-gane. [35] [36]

Torch relay

An application period for Canadians to carry the torch opened in October 2014 and continued until December. Anyone aged 13 or older as of May 30, 2015 was eligible to become a torchbearer. Most of the torchbearers were selected by a random selection, while the others were selected by torch relay communities and games partners. [37]

The torch took a 41-day journey after being lit in May 2015 at the pyramids of Teotihuacan, Mexico. The torch was brought through a total of 130 communities, mostly in Ontario (with five outside the province: Richmond, Winnipeg, Calgary, Halifax and Montreal). The torch was carried by about 3,000 torchbearers and travel approximately 20,000 kilometres (12,000 mi). [38] The relay began on May 30, 2015 in Toronto and finished on July 10, the date of the opening ceremony. [39]

The detailed torch relay route and celebration sites were announced on February 24, 2015. [38] The torch arrived in Toronto and then headed to Thunder Bay before visiting all other communities on the route. The relay also visited five National Historic Sites of Canada, six Canadian Forces bases and one provincial park. There were 180 celebrations across the torch relay route. [40] [41]

Colours

                    

The colours of the Toronto 2015 brand are Yellow, Fuchsia, Orange, Lime, and Blue; these colours symbolize creativity, passion, determination, youth, and collaboration, respectively.

The Games

Opening ceremony

The opening ceremony of the 2015 Pan American Games took place on Friday July 10, 2015, beginning at 8:00 p.m. EDT at the Pan Am Dome. [42] The opening ceremony was produced and directed by Cirque du Soleil. [43] The production became the largest event produced by the company. [44]

Governor General David Johnston officially opened the games. [45]

Closing ceremony

The closing ceremony took place on Sunday July 26, 2015, beginning at 8:00 p.m. EDT at the Pan Am Dome in Toronto. [42] The closing ceremony was produced and directed jointly by B5C Productions, BaAM Productions and FiveCurrents, [46] in association with Live Nation. [47] American rapper and music producer Kanye West was chosen as the headliner for the closing ceremony, although the decision was met with public backlash and spurred the formation of an online petition calling for West's removal from the ceremony to be replaced with a Canadian musician to headline the ceremony. Other performers included Pitbull and Serena Ryder, the former of whom is also American, though the latter is Canadian. [48]

Participating nations

All 41 nations of PASO competed, one less than in the 2011 Pan American Games, as the Netherlands Antilles Olympic Committee was dissolved in 2011. [49] The numbers in parenthesis represents the number of participants qualified.

Sports

The lead pack in the Pan American Games women's marathon Pan American Games Women's Marathon.JPG
The lead pack in the Pan American Games women's marathon

A total of 36 sports, 51 disciplines and 364 medal events were contested in these Games. [50] Basque pelota was the only sport dropped from the last games. [51] Golf (after being added to the Olympic program for 2016) also made its Pan American Games debut. [51] Canoe slalom, the only Olympic discipline never to have been held at the Games, also made its debut, meaning for the first time the entire Olympic sports program was contested. [51] [52] Furthermore, both canoe disciplines had C-1 events for women for the first time. [52] Women's baseball and women's rugby sevens also made their debuts, with men's softball returning to the program, after last being contested in 2003. [28] [53] [54] A total of 19 sports (the most ever) were direct or indirect (such as opportunities to gain qualification times) qualifiers for the 2016 Summer Olympics in Rio de Janeiro. [3]

Numbers in parentheses indicate the number of medal events to be contested in each sport/discipline.

Calendar

In the following calendar of events, each blue box represents an event competition, such as a qualification round, on that day. The yellow boxes represent days during which medal-awarding finals for a sport were held. The number in each box represents the number of finals that were contested on that day. Events began three days before the opening ceremony on July 7 and ended with the closing ceremony on July 26. [55] [56]

OCOpening ceremonyEvent competitions1Event finalsCCClosing ceremony
July7
Tue
8
Wed
9
Thu
10
Fri
11
Sat
12
Sun
13
Mon
14
Tue
15
Wed
16
Thu
17
Fri
18
Sat
19
Sun
20
Mon
21
Tue
22
Wed
23
Thu
24
Fri
25
Sat
26
Sun
Events
Ceremonies (opening / closing)OCCCN/A
Archery pictogram.svg Archery 224
Athletics pictogram.svg Athletics 12988108147
Badminton pictogram.svg Badminton 235
Baseball pictogram.svg Baseball 112
Basketball pictogram.svg Basketball 112
Volleyball (beach) pictogram.svg Beach volleyball 22
Bowling pictogram.svg Bowling 224
Boxing pictogram.svg Boxing 6713
Canoeing pictogram.svg Canoeing 1156518
Cycling pictogram.svg Cycling 2232232218
Diving pictogram.svg Diving 2248
Equestrian Vaulting pictogram.svg Equestrian 112116
Fencing pictogram.svg Fencing 22222212
Field hockey pictogram.svg Field hockey 112
Football pictogram.svg Football 112
Golf pictogram.svg Golf 33
Gymnastics (artistic) pictogram.svg Gymnastics 1125525324
Handball pictogram.svg Handball 112
Judo pictogram.svg Judo 334414
Karate pictogram.svg Karate 33410
Modern pentathlon pictogram.svg Modern pentathlon 112
Racquets pictogram.svg Racquetball 426
Inline speed skating pictogram.svg Roller sports 448
Rowing pictogram.svg Rowing 45514
Rugby union pictogram.svg Rugby sevens 22
Sailing pictogram.svg Sailing 5510
Shooting pictogram.svg Shooting 2312122215
Softball pictogram.svg Softball 112
Squash pictogram.svg Squash 2226
Swimming pictogram.svg Swimming 116758634
Synchronized swimming pictogram.svg Synchronized swimming 22
Table tennis pictogram.svg Table tennis 224
Taekwondo pictogram.svg Taekwondo 22228
Tennis pictogram.svg Tennis 325
Triathlon pictogram.svg Triathlon 112
Volleyball (indoor) pictogram.svg Volleyball 112
Water polo pictogram.svg Water polo 112
Water skiing pictogram.svg Water skiing 369
Weightlifting pictogram.svg Weightlifting 3333315
Wrestling pictogram.svg Wrestling 455418
Total events162331343219212631817172227337364
Cumulative total163970104136155176202233241258275297324357364N/A
July7
Tue
8
Wed
9
Thu
10
Fri
11
Sat
12
Sun
13
Mon
14
Tue
15
Wed
16
Thu
17
Fri
18
Sat
19
Sun
20
Mon
21
Tue
22
Wed
23
Thu
24
Fri
25
Sat
26
Sun
Events

Medal table

United States won the most medals with a total of 265. Canada, the host country, won 219 medals. Other notable mentions include St. Lucia winning its first Pan American gold medal. [57]

Key

  *   Host nation (Canada)

RankNOCGoldSilverBronzeTotal
1Flag of the United States.svg  United States  (USA)1038280265
2Flag of Canada.svg  Canada  (CAN)*787071219
3Flag of Brazil.svg  Brazil  (BRA)423960141
4Flag of Cuba.svg  Cuba  (CUB)36273497
5Flag of Colombia.svg  Colombia  (COL)27143172
6Flag of Mexico.svg  Mexico  (MEX)22304395
7Flag of Argentina.svg  Argentina  (ARG)15293074
8Flag of Venezuela.svg  Venezuela  (VEN)8222050
9Flag of Ecuador.svg  Ecuador  (ECU)791632
10Flag of Guatemala.svg  Guatemala  (GUA)61310
11–31 Remaining NOCs 223969130
Totals (31 NOCs)3663624571185

Anti-doping

Athletes disqualified for doping
AthleteNationSportProhibited substanceNote
Stephanie Bragayrac Flag of Paraguay.svg ParaguayWrestling Furosemide [58] [59]
María Luisa Calle Flag of Colombia.svg ColombiaCycling – Road and track GHRP2 [59] [60]
Astrid Camposeco Flag of Guatemala.svg GuatemalaWeightlifting Clenbuterol, boldenone [61] [62]
Mario Mercedes Castillo Flag of the Dominican Republic.svg Dominican RepublicBaseball Dimethylbutylamine [59] [63]
Cinthya Domínguez Flag of Mexico.svg MexicoWeightlifting Oxandrolone [59] [61] [63]
Mauricio Fiol Flag of Peru.svg PeruSwimming – 200-metre butterfly Silver medal icon.svg Stanozolol [59] [61]
Nelson Gomez Flag of Puerto Rico.svg Puerto RicoBaseball Boldenone [59] [61] [63]
Jesús González Flag of Venezuela.svg VenezuelaWeightlifting [64]
Christopher Guajardo Flag of Chile.svg ChileAthletics – Marathon EPO [65] [66]
Elverine Jimenez Flag of Nicaragua.svg NicaraguaWrestling DHEA [58] [59]
Patrick Mendes Flag of Brazil.svg BrazilWeightlifting 4-Chlorodehydromethyltestosterone [59] [61] [67]
Sheila Ocasio Flag of Puerto Rico.svg Puerto RicoVolleyball Stanozolol [68]
Javier Jesus Ortiz Angulo Flag of Colombia.svg ColombiaBaseball Stanozolol [59] [63]
Carlos Oyarzun Flag of Chile.svg ChileCycling – Road FG-4592 [59] [69]
María Pastuña Flag of Ecuador.svg EcuadorAthletics – 10,000 metres, 5,000 metres Nandrolone [70] [71]
Richard Peralta Robledo Flag of Panama.svg PanamaFootball Clostebol [70] [71]
Rene Silva Rios Flag of Nicaragua.svg NicaraguaWrestling Boldenone [59]
Gladys Tejeda Flag of Peru.svg PeruAthletics – Marathon Gold medal icon.svg Furosemide [72] [73]
Luz Vázquez Flag of Argentina.svg ArgentinaWrestling - Freestyle 69 kg Bronze medal icon.svgHormone and metabolic modulator [59] [69]
Merin Zalazar Flag of Honduras.svg HondurasBoxing Furosemide [58] [59]

Media

Broadcasting

Enercare Centre hosted broadcasting facilities for the Games. DirectEnergyCentre.jpg
Enercare Centre hosted broadcasting facilities for the Games.

The Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC) served as the host and domestic broadcaster of the 2015 Pan American Games; locally, coverage was broadcast in the English and French languages by CBC Television and Ici Radio-Canada Télé, and CBC's website carried 650 hours of online coverage. [74] [75] Pay television rights were sub-licensed to Sportsnet, which aired the football (soccer) tournaments, and a semi-final of the Men's basketball tournament that involved Canada. [76] Spanish language rights were sub-licensed to Telelatino and Univision Canada; the broadcaster collaborated with US Spanish-language rights-holder ESPN Deportes on its own coverage. [77] [78] [79] CBC stated that it was "very happy" with the ratings performance of the Games; primetime coverage averaged around 900,000 to 1 million viewers per-night, and the opening ceremonies were seen by 1.93 million viewers across CBC and CBC News Network, with the largest audience being in the Toronto region. [76] [80]

In the United States, ESPN held broadcast rights, with 66 hours of English-language coverage across ESPN and ESPN2, 44 hours on Longhorn Network, 200 hours of Spanish-language coverage on ESPN Deportes, and streaming on WatchESPN. ESPN broadcast from studios at Corus Quay, which was linked to the IBC (and in turn, ESPN's headquarters in Bristol, Connecticut). ESPN and ESPN Deportes used their own hosts, as well of those of CBC, as part of its multi-platform coverage. [81] [82]

Rede Record acquired rights in Brazil, paying a record US$30 million. [83] [84] Other broadcasting deals include Torneos y Competencias sports in Argentina, Claro Sports in Mexico and Latina Televisión in Peru. [85]

Marketing

The original bid logo for the games Toronto bid logo for the 2015 Pan American Games.svg
The original bid logo for the games

Toronto's bid logo was launched on October 2, 2008, with the then-Toronto mayor David Miller and then-head of the organizing committee David Peterson unveiling the logo to the public. The bid logo looks like an abstract maple leaf with three sections, each section made up of two strokes in the shape of a "v" with a spot in the centre. The colours are green, red and blue. This was the official logo of the games until 2010, when the new logo was launched. [86]

On September 29, 2010, the official logo of the games was unveiled at a street party at Maple Leaf Square. [87] According to Ian Troop, the former chief executive officer of Toronto 2015 organizing committee, the logo is designed on the basis of the different art styles seen throughout the 41 countries that compete at the games. [87]

Mascot

Pachi greets US Ambassador Bruce Heyman at the 2015 Pan American Games Mascot Pachi greets US Ambassador Bruce Heyman at the 2015 Pan American Games (18959014963).jpg
Pachi greets US Ambassador Bruce Heyman at the 2015 Pan American Games

In January 2013, it was announced that a contest would determine the mascot of the games. Children under the age of 16 had until March 8, 2013 to submit their ideas. [88] 4,000 ideas and drawings were submitted to the organizing committee during this time frame. [89] In April 2013, a shortlist of six mascot designs (which were produced by professional graphic designers with the sketches by the children as models) were released, including a raccoon, beaver, moose, two pixie creature twins, porcupine and an owl. [90] The final six were selected based on originality, how well they represent Canadian culture and the branding of the Games, and the appeal they had amongst adults and children. [89] On April 22, 2013, the general public was allowed to vote for the mascot they felt was the best. Voting was open until May 5, 2013. [89]

On July 17, 2013, Pachi the Porcupine was revealed as the official mascot of the games at an unveiling at the Canadian Broadcasting Centre. [91] The mascot received over 33,000 votes from the nationwide vote. [91] The winning design was submitted by four grade-eight students at a school in Markham. [91] The name Pachi means "clapping with joy" in Japanese, while the 41 quills the porcupine has represent the 41 participating countries at the games. [92] The New York Times described the mascot as "a departure from the usual cute and cuddly" and "a marketing challenge". [93]

Music

The event's official theme song was released in three versions: the English-language "Together We Are One", performed by Serena Ryder; the French "Ensemble on est immense", performed by Jasmine Denham; and the Spanish "Unidos Somos Más", performed by Eva Avila. [94]

Sponsorship

Private sponsors included Chevrolet Canada. [95] Another sponsorship deal with CAA South Central Ontario announced in January 2014 was terminated in May 2014. [95] [96]

The Toronto 2015 pop-up store at Toronto Eaton Centre. TORONTO2015OfficialStore5.jpg
The Toronto 2015 pop-up store at Toronto Eaton Centre.

Premier and lead partners

Official suppliers

Concerns and controversies

Scheduling

The aquatics events at the 2015 Pan American Games were scheduled to be held roughly around the same time as the 2015 World Aquatics Championships scheduled in Kazan, Russia. In order to maintain the quality of its fields, the schedule of the five aquatics disciplines had to be changed to accommodate athletes. The synchronized swimming competition was moved to the day before the opening ceremony, diving events began on the day of the opening ceremony (when events are traditionally not held on the day of the ceremony), open water swimming was moved to the first weekend of the games, swimming was reduced to a five-day schedule (down from seven in 2011), and water polo competitions began three days before the opening ceremony. All events were scheduled to be completed by July 24, six days before the opening ceremonies of the World Championships, which in itself was moved back a week to accommodate the games. The change in schedule meant that for the first time, events were held before the opening ceremony. [107] [108]

The 2015 FIFA Women's World Cup concluded on the Sunday prior to the opening ceremony; due to the proximity of the events, teams who competed in both the Women's World Cup and the Pan Am women's football tournament were not expected to field their best players due to availability. [109] Toronto and Hamilton had decided not to bid to host matches during the Women's World Cup due to a potential conflict with the Games. [110]

The 2015 World Archery Championships were scheduled later in July, to avoid conflict with the games, while the 2015 World Fencing Championships (which finished one day prior to the start of fencing competitions at the Pan-Am Games) were coordinated to allow athletes to compete at both events. Finally, the second round of the 2015 Davis Cup was moved ahead one week to avoid conflict with the tennis competitions. Tennis competitions were held before the opening ceremony, to allow athletes to compete in both events. [3] [111]

The volleyball tournaments and the FIVB Volleyball World Grand Prix and the FIVB Volleyball World League were played at roughly the same time, leading to scheduling conflicts for teams playing both events. [3]

The IndyCar Series' Honda Indy Toronto race, which is held on a street circuit at Exhibition Place, was moved to June from July to avoid conflicting with the Games. [112]

Expenses claims

In September 2013, it was reported that many senior members of the organizing committee, including then-CEO Ian Troop, expensed Ontario taxpayers for things such as a cup of tea. This led to outrage among provincial politicians including Ontario Premier Kathleen Wynne, "I'm just going to say it's ridiculous. It is the kind of entitlement that is unacceptable". [113] In response to the backlash the organization released an updated expenses and travel policy in November 2013. [114] In December 2013, Troop was ousted by the organization's board of directors, just three months after the expense scandal came into light. [115] He was replaced by Saad Rafi. [115] In 2014, more expenses by the organization came under scrutiny including boxes of South American wine. [116]

In 2015, Ian Troop, the former CEO, gave an interview in which he stated that organizers cleared him from any wrongdoing, and that all expenses fell under the organization's policy. Troop also mentioned under his leadership the organization saved CA$50 million from the capital infrastructure budget. Troop's firing had nothing to do with the expenses scandal that arose in 2013. [117]

Executive compensation and bonuses

The games' organizing committee came under scrutiny for the high compensation and bonus packages its executive team has been awarded. [118] Under Ontario's Salary Disclosure rules, any provincial employee receiving over CA$100,000 in compensation will have their salary publicly disclosed. In 2012, it was revealed that former CEO Ian Troop made CA$552,065, with several other senior staff making between CA$100,000 and CA$400,000. Additionally, in 2013 it was revealed that as part of his compensation package, Troop would be eligible for a CA$780,000 bonus at the end of his contract, if the games had finished successfully. Other executives are eligible for bonuses of up to 100% of their salaries upon completion of their contract. [119] In 2015, it was revealed that Troop's replacement, Saad Rafi, would receive a bonus of 100% of his CA$428,794 salary upon completion of his contract. Rafi did not collect his bonus at the conclusion of the games. [120]

Reception of the Games in Toronto

The 3D Toronto sign placed in Nathan Phillips Square for the Games became a symbol of their positive response, and of the city as a whole. 3DTORONTOSignNathanPhillipsSquare11.jpg
The 3D Toronto sign placed in Nathan Phillips Square for the Games became a symbol of their positive response, and of the city as a whole.

Toronto's Globe and Mail described a lack of excitement for the games by Toronto residents and "lacklustre" ticket sales, [121] while The New York Times described Toronto residents as "indifferent" and "apathetic" to the games due to excessive costs and "apocalyptic news coverage" of traffic disruptions, adding "Canada is a country where winter sports predominate, and the Pan Am Games have never been of immense interest". [93] [122] One Toronto journalist wrote "in Toronto's fierce desire to be a world class city, the Pan Am Games are viewed as a consolation prize to previous unsuccessful Olympic bids". [122]

Signs of a more positive reception to the Games began to emerge following its opening; on the first official day of competition, 20,000 tickets were sold (in comparison to a single-day projection of eight to nine thousand), and by the next day, at least 850,000 of the 1.2 million total tickets had been sold. [123] By the end of the games, approximately 1.05 million out of 1.2 million available tickets were sold, marking the largest total sold for a single edition of the games. [124]

A large, illuminated "Toronto" sculpture sign installed in Nathan Phillips Square for the Games proved to be popular with locals and tourists as a spot for photos, and came to become a symbol of the renewed enthusiasm surrounding the Pan Am Games. Considering it a symbol of their legacy, Mayor of Toronto John Tory solicited suggestions for a permanent location for the sign following the Games. It was later announced that the sign would remain in the Square in its current form through at least the end of 2016 [125] [126] and later extended to the end of 2017 with the temporary addition of a maple leaf for the 150th anniversary of Canadian confederation and 2018 with a medicine wheel. [127] [128]

Canadian television coverage

Although still billed as having been the most extensive television coverage of the Pan American Games ever broadcast in the country, [74] the CBC faced criticism for the amount of coverage it produced and broadcast from the 2015 Pan American Games. Only condensed, tape-delayed highlights of events aired on CBC Television, drawing comparisons to the similar practices imposed by NBC's coverage of the Olympics. Most events were streamed online, and pay television channel Sportsnet aired the soccer tournaments on television, but events in some sports received only limited online coverage or were not broadcast at all. Part-way through the Games, the CBC expanded its primetime coverage block, while broadcasts of a semi-final game in men's basketball on Sportsnet and the baseball finals online were added at the last minute. Critics perceived these last-minute changes as signs that the CBC had underestimated viewer interest in the Pan Am Games. [129] [130]

CBC Sports head of programming Trevor Pilling explained that the large number of events being held, along with the stature of the Pan American Games in comparison to the Olympics, were a factor in the structure of CBC's coverage, stating that "I do think we are the victim of our own success in that having Olympic coverage that is around the clock, but the Olympics are a different event than these Pan Am Games. But I feel like we've done the athletes justice by telling those stories or through live coverage, or with reporters on site. We've tried to make sure we're at all the significant events, and with Canada winning over 180 medals, that's a tall task." [129] [130]

While the National Post also felt that budget cuts faced by the CBC in recent years, including those imposed following the loss of its national broadcast rights to the National Hockey League to Rogers Media, may have also had an impact—with a CBC spokesperson arguing that "resources" were a factor, Pilling denied that this was the case, arguing that it was "about the planning, It is about making good, sound business decisions", and promised that there would be extensive coverage of the 2016 Summer Olympics. [129] [130]

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York Lions Stadium is an outdoor athletics facility on the campus of Toronto's York University. It is home to the York Lions, the athletic teams of York University. The facility was primarily built for the 2015 Pan-American and Parapan American Games, where it hosted track and field events. It also hosted the opening ceremony for the 2015 Parapan American Games. During the games the venue was known as the CIBC Pan Am and Parapan Am Athletics Stadium.

Antigua and Barbuda at the 2015 Pan American Games

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Canada at the 2015 Pan American Games

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Dominica competed at the 2015 Pan American Games in Toronto, Ontario, Canada from July 10 to 26, 2015.

Grenada at the 2015 Pan American Games

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2015 Pan American Games opening ceremony

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2015 Pan American Games torch relay

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2015 Pan American Games closing ceremony

The closing ceremony of the 2015 Pan American Games took place on Sunday July 26, 2015, beginning at 8:00 p.m. EDT at the Rogers Centre in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. The closing ceremony was produced and directed jointly by three companies B5C Productions, BaAM Productions and FiveCurrents.

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Canada at the 2019 Pan American Games

Canada competed in the 2019 Pan American Games in Lima, Peru from July 26 to August 11, 2019.

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Preceded by
Guadalajara
XVII Pan American Games
Toronto

(2015)
Succeeded by
Lima