2015 Texas–Oklahoma flood and tornado outbreak

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2015 Texas–Oklahoma flood and tornado outbreak
Blanco River May 25, 2015 hydrograph.png
Hydrograph of the Blanco River at Wimberley, Texas depicting the record flood event during the overnight of May 24–25
Type Extratropical cyclone
Tornado outbreak
Flood
FormedMay 22, 2015
DissipatedMay 25, 2015
Tornadoes confirmed75
Max. rating1 EF3 tornado
Casualties58 total fatalities:
  • 27 from flooding in Texas [1]
  • 4 from flooding in Oklahoma [1]
  • 14 from a tornado in Ciudad Acuña, Mexico [2]
  • 1 from a tornado near Cameron, Texas [2]
  • 1 from a tornado near Blue, Oklahoma [3]
  • 11 missing from flooding in Texas [1]
Areas affected Mexico, Great Plains, Southern United States
1Most severe tornado damage; see Enhanced Fujita scale

Preceded by more than a week of heavy rain, a slow-moving storm system dropped tremendous precipitation across much of Texas and Oklahoma during the nights of May 24–26, 2015, triggering record-breaking floods. Additionally, many areas reported tornado activity and lightning. [4] Particularly hard hit were areas along the Blanco River in Hays County, Texas, where entire blocks of homes were leveled. On the morning of May 26, the National Weather Service issued a flash flood emergency for southwest Harris County (which includes the city of Houston) and northeast Fort Bend County. The system also produced deadly tornadoes in parts of Mexico, Texas, and Oklahoma. [5]

Contents

Meteorological synopsis

Mammatus clouds formed over Bull Creek park after wave of Memorial Day storms in Austin, May 25, 2015. Austin Mammatus Clouds 25 May 2015.jpg
Mammatus clouds formed over Bull Creek park after wave of Memorial Day storms in Austin, May 25, 2015.

According to Bob Henson from Wunderground, inflow of low-level moisture from the Gulf of Mexico and the combination of very slow moving large-scale storm systems set the stage for the floods. He added,"Upper-level winds were largely aligned with the low-level frontal zone, an ideal setup for “thunderstorm training” (successive downpours over the same area). In addition, rains were concentrated by several mesoscale convective vortices, small-scale centers of low-pressure that developed along the frontal bands, in some cases resembling mini-tropical cyclones." [6] The stationary trough during May is linked to both the El Niño and amplified midlatitude short-wave train. [7]

Flooding

On May 14, 2015, prior to extensive flooding beginning around May 24, flash flood warnings were issued for counties in South East Texas. [8] At least 31 people were killed, including 27 in Texas and 4 in Oklahoma, and another 11 remain missing. [1]

Texas

Boat ramp and pier flooded at Caddo Lake State Park Caddo lake flooded 2015.jpg
Boat ramp and pier flooded at Caddo Lake State Park

Flooding along the Wichita River prompted evacuations of 390 homes in Wichita Falls. Projections from the National Weather Service indicated that the river would reach a record crest of 25.5 ft (7.8 m) on May 26. [9] Up to 100,000 customers were without power. [10]

Wichita Falls and Corpus Christi broke their previous records for all-time wettest month. Many parts in northern Texas recorded over 20 in (510 mm) of rain. [11]

A 25-foot-by-25-foot sinkhole near a runway at the Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport caused the closure of the runway for a few hours. [12]

Also on May 25, historic flooding along Shoal Creek inundated House Park in Austin, Texas damaging the turf among other things and forcing the Austin Aztex to search for a temporary home. [13]

Houston

More than 500 water rescues were carried out by firefighters, which involved for the most part stranded motorists. At least 2,500 vehicles were abandoned, when drivers had to seek higher grounds. [14]

During the overnight of May 25–26, nearly 11 in (280 mm) of rain fell near Houston, setting off further flash floods. Two people drowned after being trapped in their cars while a third was later found in bayou. [1] A fourth person lost their life when an evacuation boat capsized during the morning of May 26. [15] On May 26, Houston Mayor Annise Parker, estimated up to 4,000 properties with significant damage. [16]

Blanco River

During the overnight of May 24–25, more than 12 in (300 mm) fell along the watershed of the Blanco River. In just a few short hours, the river rose from roughly 5 ft (1.5 m) to a crest just over 41 ft (12 m), well over the 13 ft (4.0 m) flood-stage, near Wimberley. [17] [18] This broke the river's all-time peak of 32 ft (9.8 m) set in 1929. Tremendous flash flooding ensued as a result, with areas of Hays County being particularly hard hit. [18]

Entire blocks of homes in Wimberley were swept away by a "tidal wave of water" [1] with officials reporting 350–400 residences destroyed in the town alone. For the first time, the river covered portions of Interstate 35, shutting down traffic for hours. Large trees and debris were deposited across the roadway.

One person in San Marcos, Texas was confirmed dead. [18] Thirteen people were carried away when the home they were in was swept downstream. Residents reported seeing it being destroyed after striking a bridge. One occupant was recovered with significant injuries while the other twelve remain missing. [19] At least 1,200 people have been left homeless along the river. [18]

Oklahoma

On May 23, flash flooding along Highway 20 near Claremore claimed the life of a firefighter attempting to rescue people in an apartment complex. He was pulled into a storm drain obscured by the rising waters and carried hundreds of yards away. A fellow firefighter attempting to save him was pulled in as well but managed to escape. [20] The day also saw some roads submerged in as much as 9 inches (230 mm) of water, and thousands of OG&E customers experienced power outages as a result of the flooding in Oklahoma City and Del City. [21]

A station Oklahoma City recorded 19.48 inches (495 mm) of rainfall in May 2015, which made it the all-time wettest month on record. Records date back to 1890. [11]

From May 1 to May 25, 122 tornado warnings were reported by the National Weather Service in Oklahoma, more than in the same period

The Oklahoma Department of Transportation reported on May 26 that a number of highways were closed because of high water or damage from previous flooding. [22]

Louisiana

Flooding in Ruston, Louisiana on 18 May caused an eleven-year-old boy to drown in a submerged car along Colvin Creek. [23]

Response

Texas counties under a state of emergency as of May 25 Texas Governor declares state of disaster in 37 counties.png
Texas counties under a state of emergency as of May 25

On May 24, voluntary evacuations were extended to include 2,177 homes near the Wichita River. [24] On May 25, near Houston, about 400 homes were placed under mandatory evacuation orders downstream from the Louis Creek Dam. [25]

On May 25, Texas Governor Greg Abbott declared a state of emergency for 24 counties as a result of the ongoing disaster, and called the floods the biggest in Texas history. [26] [27] On May 26, President Barack Obama announced federal resources to help affected areas in Texas, and signed a disaster declaration for Oklahoma. [28] [29] Houston Mayor Annise Parker declared a local state of disaster for the city of Houston on May 26. [11]

On May 26, Governor Mary Fallin declared a state of emergency for all 77 counties in Oklahoma. [30]

Climate change

A study by Utah State University [31] analyzed the pathway in which anthropogenic global warming contributed to the persistent precipitation in May 2015: Warming in the tropical Pacific acted to strengthen the teleconnection toward North America, modification of zonal wave-5 circulation that deepened the stationary trough west of Texas, and enhanced Great Plains low-level southerlies increasing moisture supply from the Gulf of Mexico. Attribution analysis indicated a significant increase in the El Niño-induced precipitation anomalies over Texas and Oklahoma when increases in the anthropogenic greenhouse gases were taken into account.

Studies by the Scripps Institution of Oceanography found for Texas that precipitation totals have increased 10 percent in the last century, but mostly in eastern Texas, with more frequent, severe and longer drought conditions in west Texas. [32]

The report Regional Climate Trends and Scenarios for the U.S. National Climate Assessment (NCA) from 2013 by NOAA, projects that parts of Texas, and parts of the Great Plains region can expect up to 30% (High emissions scenario based on CMIP3 and NARCCAP models) increase in extreme precipitation days by midcentury. This definition is based on days receiving more than one inch of rainfall. [33]

A study from April 2015 concluded that about 18% of the moderate daily precipitation extremes over land are attributable to observed temperature increase since the Industrial Revolution and that this primarily results from human influence. [34] [35]

Tornado events

Confirmed tornadoes by Enhanced Fujita rating
EFUEF0EF1EF2EF3EF4EF5Total
02838720075

May 23 event

List of confirmed tornadoes – Saturday, May 23, 2015 [note 1]
EF# LocationCounty / ParishStateStart Coord.Time (UTC)Path lengthMax widthDamage [note 2] SummaryRefs
EF0WSW of Bosler Albany WY 41°32′09″N105°50′35″W / 41.5357°N 105.843°W / 41.5357; -105.843 (Bosler (May 23, EF0)) 1855 – 19000.3 mi (0.48 km)35 yd (32 m)$0Tornado remained over open country, causing no damage. [36]
EF0N of Pocasset Grady OK 35°11′24″N98°00′11″W / 35.19°N 98.0031°W / 35.19; -98.0031 (Pocasset (May 23, EF1)) 2212 – 22326 mi (9.7 km)500 yd (460 m)$0Four houses were damaged by this tornado. [37]
EF0N of Sulphur (1st tornado) Murray OK 34°31′28″N96°58′12″W / 34.5245°N 96.97°W / 34.5245; -96.97 (Sulphur (May 23, EF0)) 2259 – 23073 mi (4.8 km)40 yd (37 m)$0Tornado damaged a workshop building. [38]
EF0SE of Ada Pontotoc OK N/A23050.2 mi (0.32 km)20 yd (18 m)$0Brief tornado remained over open country, causing no damage. [39]
EF0N of Sulphur (2nd tornado) Murray OK N/A2310 – 23110.5 mi (0.80 km)50 yd (46 m)$0Brief tornado remained over open country, causing no damage. [40]
EF1E of Blanchard McClain OK N/A2311 – 23172 mi (3.2 km)50 yd (46 m)$0Ten homes were damaged by this large tornado. [41]
EF0S of Stratford Garvin OK N/A23160.2 mi (0.32 km)50 yd (46 m)$0Brief tornado remained over open country, causing no damage. [42]
EF1NE of Francis Pontotoc, Seminole OK N/A2325 – 23333.75 mi (6.04 km)100 yd (91 m)$0Tornado caused significant tree damage along its path. [43] [44]
EF0WSW of Newcastle McClain OK N/A2330 – 23320.5 mi (0.80 km)50 yd (46 m)$0Tornado remained over open country causing no damage. [45]
EF1SE of Maysville Garvin OK N/A00050.5 mi (0.80 km)50 yd (46 m)$0A barn was destroyed by this brief tornado. [46]
EF0N of Holdenville Hughes OK N/A00130.2 mi (0.32 km)50 yd (46 m)$0Brief tornado remained over open country, causing no damage. [47]
EF1SSW of Balcones Heights Bexar TX 29°26′35″N98°34′30″W / 29.4430°N 98.575°W / 29.4430; -98.575 (Balcones Heights (May 23, EF1)) 0116 – 01170.4 mi (0.64 km)150 yd (140 m)One home sustained major damage to its roof, and additional residences nearby sustained generally minor damage to their roofs and vehicles. A home's carport had its roof removed and displaced two blocks to the north. Trees were damaged. [48]
EF0SE of Panola Latimer OK 34°52′43″N95°10′20″W / 34.8785°N 95.1722°W / 34.8785; -95.1722 (Panola (May 23, EF0)) 0144 – 01471.6 mi (2.6 km)75 yd (69 m)$0Large tree limbs were snapped by this weak tornado. [49]
EF0SE of Dripping Springs Hays TX 30°07′37″N98°05′27″W / 30.1269°N 98.0909°W / 30.1269; -98.0909 (Dripping Springs (May 23, EF0)) 0153 – 02005.8 mi (9.3 km)100 yd (91 m)Approximately 15 homes and numerous trees were damaged along the path. [50]
EF1NNW of Jonestown Travis TX 30°32′47″N97°58′15″W / 30.5465°N 97.9708°W / 30.5465; -97.9708 (Jonestown (May 23, EF1)) 0158 – 02001.3 mi (2.1 km)200 yd (180 m)A residence sustained roof and exterior wall damage as its front and back porches were destroyed. [51]
EF0 Hays Travis TX 30°09′12″N97°52′10″W / 30.1533°N 97.8694°W / 30.1533; -97.8694 (Hays (May 23, EF0)) 0211 – 02132.5 mi (4.0 km)200 yd (180 m)Significant tree damage and minor roof damage was observed in Hays. [51]
EF1N of Liberty Hill Williamson TX 30°41′27″N97°56′28″W / 30.6909°N 97.9411°W / 30.6909; -97.9411 (Liberty Hill (May 23, EF1)) 0222 – 02343.1 mi (5.0 km)200 yd (180 m)Damage was largely confined to large oak trees. Seven to ten homes sustained damage mainly to their roofs, the most substantial instance being the complete less of a chimney. A barn had part of its roof ripped off. [52]
EF0NE of Jonestown Travis, Williamson TX 30°30′56″N97°53′18″W / 30.5155°N 97.8883°W / 30.5155; -97.8883 (Jonestown (May 23, EF0)) 0237 – 02381.2 mi (1.9 km)125 yd (114 m)Damage to trees and a school occurred. [51]
EF1 Wells Branch Travis TX 30°21′54″N97°41′06″W / 30.365°N 97.685°W / 30.365; -97.685 (Wells Branch (May 23, EF1)) 0239 – 02420.6 mi (0.97 km)250 yd (230 m)A business in town had its sheet metal roofing peeled back, and a stone brick sign was demolished. At an apartment complex, roofing shingles were damaged, large tree limbs were snapped, and a garbage dumpster was tossed. The second floor of a storage facility had its metal roof and walls collapsed. The tornado lifted and tossed 10 small moving trailers. Several power poles were blown over and additional tree limbs were snapped. [53]
EF1N of Wyldwood Bastrop TX 30°10′09″N97°29′38″W / 30.1692°N 97.494°W / 30.1692; -97.494 (Wyldwood (May 23, EF1)) 0243 – 02440.8 mi (1.3 km)200 yd (180 m)Several trees were uprooted, with several oaks sustaining substantial damage. Roof damage occurred at a residence. [54]
EF0WSW of Andice Williamson TX 30°45′59″N97°55′30″W / 30.7665°N 97.925°W / 30.7665; -97.925 (Andice (May 23, EF0)) 02470.25 mi (0.40 km)50 yd (46 m)Tree and minor roof damage occurred along the path. [55]
EF1NE of Leander Williamson TX 30°36′40″N97°48′18″W / 30.611°N 97.805°W / 30.611; -97.805 (Leander (May 23, EF1)) 0247 – 02500.5 mi (0.80 km)150 yd (140 m)Large tree limbs were snapped. Two homes sustained damage: one had a small portion of its roofing decking removed, while the second had over half of its roofing decking removed. Two large storage sheds were moved 20 yd (18 m). [53]

May 24 event

List of confirmed tornadoes – Sunday, May 24, 2015 [note 1]
EF# LocationCounty / ParishStateStart Coord.Time (UTC)Path lengthMax widthDamage [note 2] SummaryRefs
EF1 Western Corpus Christi Nueces TX N/A0627 – 06302.62 mi (4.22 km)100 yd (91 m)$750,000Numerous trees were snapped or uprooted, some of which fell on houses and vehicles. A flower nursery and a grocery store were damaged, and a baseball dugout was destroyed. Several residences sustained minor to moderate roof and siding damage as well. [56]
EF1 Northern Irving Dallas TX N/A0734 – 07361.13 mi (1.82 km)80 yd (73 m)$600,000Several trees, two high rise buildings, and several carports were damaged. [57]
EF1 Northwestern Dallas Dallas TX N/A0734 – 07374.91 mi (7.90 km)40 yd (37 m)$100,000Trees and power lines were damaged. An apartment complex and several warehouse buildings sustained roof damage. [58]
EF1 Southwestern Houston Harris TX 29°40′26″N95°31′41″W / 29.674°N 95.528°W / 29.674; -95.528 (Houston (May 24, EF1)) 1133 – 11380.5 mi (0.80 km)50 yd (46 m)$200,000Ten structures at an apartment complex sustained roof damage, including one with complete roof removal and interior wall damage. A twelve-story glass facade building had several of its north-facing windows blown out. [59]
EF1S of Marshall Harrison TX 32°21′32″N94°21′32″W / 32.3588°N 94.3589°W / 32.3588; -94.3589 (Marshall (May 24, EF1)) 1634 – 16361.89 mi (3.04 km)128 yd (117 m)$75,000Trees were snapped or uprooted. A house sustained roof damage when its carport was lifted, a small outbuilding was destroyed, and a warehouse sustained roof damage. [60]
EF1E of Marshall Harrison TX 32°28′19″N94°20′11″W / 32.4719°N 94.3364°W / 32.4719; -94.3364 (Marshall (May 24, EF1)) 1646 – 17009.52 mi (15.32 km)201 yd (184 m)Damage was largely confined to snapped or uprooted trees, some of which damaged structures and vehicles. [61]
EF1E of Lowry City St. Clair MO 38°06′19″N93°42′43″W / 38.1052°N 93.712°W / 38.1052; -93.712 (Lowry City (May 24, EF1)) 1715 – 17204.63 mi (7.45 km)200 yd (180 m)Several outbuildings and two homes were severely damaged, and numerous trees were damaged or uprooted. [62]
EF1ESE of St. Paul Lee IA 40°45′18″N91°28′48″W / 40.7551°N 91.4801°W / 40.7551; -91.4801 (St. Paul (May 24, EF1)) 22420.1 mi (0.16 km)25 yd (23 m)$10,000A barn and a grain bin were destroyed, a couple of chimneys were damaged, and some trees and a power line were downed. [63]
EF0W of Merriman(1st tornado) Cherry NE 42°55′12″N101°59′47″W / 42.92°N 101.9965°W / 42.92; -101.9965 (Merriman (May 24, EF0)) 22450.1 mi (0.16 km)20 yd (18 m)$0Brief landspout tornado remained over open rangeland, causing no damage. [64]
EF0W of Merriman(2nd tornado) Cherry NE 42°55′12″N101°59′33″W / 42.92°N 101.9925°W / 42.92; -101.9925 (Merriman (May 24, EF0)) 22450.1 mi (0.16 km)20 yd (18 m)$0Law enforcement reported a brief landspout tornado in open rangeland. [65]
EF1W of Theodosia Ozark MO 36°35′09″N92°42′21″W / 36.5859°N 92.7058°W / 36.5859; -92.7058 (Theodosia (May 24, EF1)) 2259 – 23084.5 mi (7.2 km)200 yd (180 m)A tornado damaged or destroyed three barns, caused minor damage to a mobile home, and snapped or uprooted hundreds of trees. [62]
EF2N of New Boston Mercer IL 41°15′10″N90°59′07″W / 41.2527°N 90.9854°W / 41.2527; -90.9854 (New Boston (May 24, EF2)) 2350 – 00006.75 mi (10.86 km)50 yd (46 m)$30,000A large machine shed and two garages were completely destroyed, and a house had a portion of its roof ripped off. Additional trees and outbuildings were damaged. [66]
EF1NNE of Kismet to N of Plains Seward, Meade KS 37°13′54″N100°41′06″W / 37.2318°N 100.6849°W / 37.2318; -100.6849 (Plains (May 24, EF1)) 0237 – 032110.87 mi (17.49 km)1,200 yd (1,100 m)$1,000,000Irrigation pivots were damaged by this large wedge tornado. [67] [68]
EF0W of Hayne Seward KS 37°05′51″N100°49′05″W / 37.0975°N 100.818°W / 37.0975; -100.818 (Hayne (May 24, EF0)) 0247 – 02490.71 mi (1.14 km)150 yd (140 m)$0Tornado remained over open country causing no damage. [69]
EF0NE of Plains Meade KS 37°18′02″N100°32′20″W / 37.3006°N 100.539°W / 37.3006; -100.539 (Plains (May 24, EF0)) 0306 – 03142.4 mi (3.9 km)100 yd (91 m)$0Tornado remained over open country, causing no damage. [70]
EF0N of Plains Meade KS 37°20′24″N100°32′03″W / 37.3399°N 100.5342°W / 37.3399; -100.5342 (Plains (May 24, EF0)) 0320 – 03343.1 mi (5.0 km)100 yd (91 m)$0Tornado remained over open country, causing no damage. [71]
EF1NNE of Plains to SE of Montezuma Meade, Gray KS 37°24′37″N100°27′33″W / 37.4104°N 100.4592°W / 37.4104; -100.4592 (Montezuma (May 24, EF1)) 0347 – 043013.2 mi (21.2 km)800 yd (730 m)UnknownNumerous pivot irrigation sprinklers were damaged by this large wedge tornado. [72] [73]
EF2SW of Dodge City Meade, Ford KS 37°32′01″N100°19′09″W / 37.5337°N 100.3193°W / 37.5337; -100.3193 (Dodge City (May 24, EF2)) 0426 – 051514.62 mi (23.53 km)250 yd (230 m)UnknownHigh voltage transmission lines and poles, pivot irrigation sprinklers, trees, and a home were damaged by this large wedge tornado. The home had a large stock trailer thrown into it. A car was tossed 100 yd (91 m) to the northeast. [74] [75]

May 25 event

List of confirmed tornadoes – Monday, May 25, 2015 [note 1]
EF# LocationCounty / ParishStateStart Coord.Time (UTC)Path lengthMax widthDamage [note 2] SummaryRefs
EF1S of Dodge City Ford KS 37°40′08″N100°05′55″W / 37.6688°N 100.0987°W / 37.6688; -100.0987 (Ft. Dodge (May 24, EF1)) 0520 – 05326.43 mi (10.35 km)75 yd (69 m)UnknownA few pivot irrigation sprinklers, trees, and a home were damaged. [76]
EF1 Kenner Jefferson LA 29°58′N90°15′W / 29.97°N 90.25°W / 29.97; -90.25 (Jefferson (May 25, EF1)) 0622Unknown75–100 yd (69–91 m)One building in Kenner suffered structural damage as of result of this tornado which also damaged trees and took down power lines. [77]
F3 Ciudad Acuña Acuña COA N/A~1130UnknownUnknown14 deaths – A large tornado struck a densely populated subdivision in Ciudad Acuña, near the Mexico–United States border, causing extensive damage. Cars and buses were thrown and mangled, and numerous masonry homes were damaged, with a few that were leveled. 750 structures were damaged or destroyed and more than 200 people were injured. May have been an F4 according to some sources. [78] [79] [80]
EF0WSW of Amory Monroe MS 33°56′47″N88°38′06″W / 33.9464°N 88.635°W / 33.9464; -88.635 (Amory (May 25, EF0)) 1341 – 13474.3 mi (6.9 km)70 yd (64 m)Trees were snapped or uprooted, some of which damaged the roof of several homes. [81]
EF1 Amory Monroe MS 33°58′54″N88°29′19″W / 33.9816°N 88.4885°W / 33.9816; -88.4885 (Amory (May 25, EF1)) 1351 – 13572.5 mi (4.0 km)150 yd (140 m)Numerous trees in town were snapped or uprooted, some of which damaged the roofs of homes, carports, and storage sheds, and power poles were bent. A few homes had areas of shingles removed. [81]
EF1S of Loraine Mitchell TX 32°23′58″N100°43′02″W / 32.3994°N 100.7172°W / 32.3994; -100.7172 (Loraine (May 25, EF1)) 1400 – 14010.16 mi (0.26 km)50 yd (46 m)$40,000A barn had several of its walls collapsed and a pole with a cement base pulled out of the ground. Debris from the barn was impaled through a nearby house. [82]
EF0NNE of Sweetwater Fisher TX 32°32′N100°24′W / 32.54°N 100.4°W / 32.54; -100.4 (Palava (May 25, EF0)) 1445 – 14481.06 mi (1.71 km)40 yd (37 m)$0The public observed a tornado along Texas State Highway 70. It remained over open country and caused no damage. [83]
EF0W of Louisville Winston MS 33°06′19″N89°10′57″W / 33.1054°N 89.1826°W / 33.1054; -89.1826 (Louisville (May 25, EF0)) 1519 – 15210.94 mi (1.51 km)25 yd (23 m)$20,000Multiple trees were uprooted and multiple large branches were downed. A small boat was lofted several yards. [84]
EF0 Fort Lauderdale Beach Broward FL 26°06′44″N80°06′15″W / 26.1122°N 80.1041°W / 26.1122; -80.1041 (Broward (May 25, EF0)) 1600 – 16010.06 mi (0.097 km)10 yd (9.1 m)$0A waterspout moved ashore Fort Lauderdale Beach, causing four injuries when an inflatable bounce house was lofted into the air. [85]
EF1 Marshall Harrison TX 32°28′19″N94°20′11″W / 32.4719°N 94.3364°W / 32.4719; -94.3364 (Marshall (May 25, EF1)) 1646 – 17009.54 mi (15.35 km)201 yd (184 m)$300,000Numerous trees and power lines were downed, and falling trees damaged several homes in town. [86]
EF1E of Fredericksburg Gillespie TX 30°14′46″N98°48′14″W / 30.2462°N 98.8038°W / 30.2462; -98.8038 (Fredericksburg (May 25, EF1)) 1733 – 17362.4 mi (3.9 km)100 yd (91 m)A water pump station lost its roof and a brick wall; additional damage was largely confined to trees. [87]
EF0NW of Johnson City Blanco TX 30°20′15″N98°29′35″W / 30.3375°N 98.4931°W / 30.3375; -98.4931 (Johnson City (May 25, EF0)) 1804 – 18094.9 mi (7.9 km)200 yd (180 m)Numerous trees and two barns were damaged. [87]
EF1NE of Lampasas Lampasas TX N/A1841 – 18420.42 mi (0.68 km)90 yd (82 m)$35,000Several trees were damaged and a home had a large portion of its roof ripped off. [88]
EF1N of Kempner Lampasas TX N/A1842 – 18451.53 mi (2.46 km)180 yd (160 m)$85,000Several buildings were damaged, including two houses that had a majority of their roofs removed. [89]
EF1NNW of Copperas Cove Coryell TX N/A1906 – 19145.66 mi (9.11 km)600 yd (550 m)$90,000All but one tree at a historic cemetery was damaged and/or uprooted. Six homes were damaged, one of which had roofing material removed. [90]
EF0 Eastern Sherman Grayson TX N/A1925 – 19281.71 mi (2.75 km)30 yd (27 m)$20,000A tornado produced minimal damage over open construction areas. [91]
EF3WSW of Blue to E of Carney Bryan, Atoka OK N/A1942 – 202018.8 mi (30.3 km)700 yd (640 m)$01 death – A few mobile homes were completely destroyed while other houses were damaged, some significantly. Fatality occurred when a mobile home was completely destroyed. [92] [93]
EF2NNW of Bentley Atoka OK N/A2029 – 20418 mi (13 km)1,000 yd (910 m)$0Trees were uprooted and a number of houses were damaged. [94]
EF0NE of Duplex Fannin TX N/A2041 – 20432.43 mi (3.91 km)100 yd (91 m)$65,000Several trees were damaged or uprooted. The roof of a church and two homes were damaged. [95]
EF0near Kirvin Freestone TX N/A2055 – 20560.33 mi (0.53 km)25 yd (23 m)$5,000A brief tornado produced minor crop damage. [96]
EF2W of Cameron Milam TX N/A2055 – 21058.88 mi (14.29 km)400 yd (370 m)$760,0001 death – Approximately 12 houses, mobile homes, or farm buildings were damaged or destroyed. Multiple trees were damaged as well. Fatality occurred when a manufactured home was completely destroyed. [97]
EF1NE of Atoka Atoka OK N/A2106 – 21081 mi (1.6 km)400 yd (370 m)$0Emergency management and trained storm spotters observed a tornado. [98]
EF1W of Cedar Creek Bastrop TX 30°05′06″N97°32′31″W / 30.085°N 97.542°W / 30.085; -97.542 (Cedar Creek (May 25, EF1)) 2124 – 21333 mi (4.8 km)440 yd (400 m)Many trees were snapped or uprooted. A few barns and a greenhouse were destroyed, and 12 homes were damaged. One person was critically injured. [99]
EF2ESE of Clayton to SSW of Talihina Pushmataha, Latimer OK 34°33′07″N95°13′25″W / 34.552°N 95.2235°W / 34.552; -95.2235 (Clayton (May 25, EF2)) 2152 – 221213.3 mi (21.4 km)1,000 yd (910 m)$45,000An outbuilding was destroyed and several homes were damaged. Power poles were downed and numerous trees were snapped or uprooted. [100] [101]
EF1E of Whitesboro Le Flore OK 34°38′49″N94°51′46″W / 34.6469°N 94.8628°W / 34.6469; -94.8628 (Whitesboro (May 25, EF1)) 2217 – 22256.4 mi (10.3 km)600 yd (550 m)$10,000Numerous trees were snapped or uprooted and power poles were blown down. [102]
EF1NE of Fanshawe Le Flore OK 34°58′24″N94°52′15″W / 34.9734°N 94.8709°W / 34.9734; -94.8709 (Fanshawe (May 25, EF1)) 2234 – 22497.5 mi (12.1 km)250 yd (230 m)$0Numerous trees were snapped. [103]
EF2ENE of Wister to NW of Panama Le Flore OK 34°59′01″N94°39′57″W / 34.9835°N 94.6658°W / 34.9835; -94.6658 (Wister (May 25, EF2)) 2248 – 230715.5 mi (24.9 km)1,700 yd (1,600 m)$500,000At least two mobile homes were destroyed; other barns and outbuildings were also destroyed. Several homes were severely damaged while a number of others sustained roof damage. A cellular communication tower was partially collapsed, power poles were downed, and numerous trees were snapped or uprooted. [104]
EF1SE of Ola Yell AR N/A2335 – 23360.43 mi (0.69 km)100 yd (91 m)$5,000Some trees and power lines were downed. [105]
EF1E of Ola Yell AR N/A2340 – 23441.91 mi (3.07 km)250 yd (230 m)$300,000A home, some chicken houses, and several outbuildings were damaged; one chicken house was destroyed. Some trees and power lines were downed. [106]
EF0SE of Floresville Wilson TX 29°05′56″N98°07′48″W / 29.099°N 98.13°W / 29.099; -98.13 (Floresville (May 25, EF0)) 2310 – 23141 mi (1.6 km)50 yd (46 m)A carport awning to a business was ripped off and a few tree limbs were downed. [107]
EF1WNW of Swiss Alp Fayette TX 29°47′13″N96°57′04″W / 29.787°N 96.951°W / 29.787; -96.951 (Swiss Alp (May 25, EF1)) 2316 – 23244 mi (6.4 km)100 yd (91 m)Two homes sustained substantial roof damage, multiple barns sustained roof damage, a few small outbuildings were destroyed, and several trees were snapped at their trunks. [108]
EF2 Henderson Rusk TX 32°07′04″N94°56′38″W / 32.1177°N 94.9438°W / 32.1177; -94.9438 (Henderson (May 25, EF2)) 2347 – 000619.45 mi (31.30 km)600 yd (550 m)$250,000Numerous trees were snapped or uprooted, several power poles were snapped, and several homes sustained minor to moderate damage in and around town. [109]
EF0W of Pandora Wilson TX 29°14′49″N97°52′26″W / 29.247°N 97.874°W / 29.247; -97.874 (Pandora (May 25, EF0)) 2357 – 00021.75 mi (2.82 km)150 yd (140 m)Crops were damaged, a few trees were uprooted and several large limbs were snapped, a mobile home had its skirting damaged and the tin roof to a patio cover peeled off, a metal carport was collapsed, a residence sustained shingle damage, and a small barn was heavily damaged. [110]
EF1SSW of Beckville to NE of DeBerry Panola TX 32°14′24″N94°27′24″W / 32.24°N 94.4566°W / 32.24; -94.4566 (Beckville (May 25, EF1)) 0018 – 004321.6 mi (34.8 km)1,251 yd (1,144 m)$600,000Trees were snapped or uprooted, several of which damaged homes upon falling, and outbuildings sustained some damage. [111]
EF1SE of Shreveport Caddo LA 32°23′21″N93°47′25″W / 32.3891°N 93.7903°W / 32.3891; -93.7903 (Shreveport (May 25, EF1)) 0112 – 01130.43 mi (0.69 km)91 yd (83 m)$500,000Trees were snapped or uprooted, several of which caused major damage to homes upon falling. [112]

See also

Notes

  1. 1 2 3 All dates are based on the local time zone where the tornado touched down; however, all times are in Coordinated Universal Time for consistency.
  2. 1 2 3 All damage totals are in 2015 USD unless otherwise stated.

Related Research Articles

Tornadoes of 2015

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Tornado outbreak sequence of May 5–10, 2015

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Tornado outbreak of November 16–18, 2015

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This page documents notable tornadoes and tornado outbreaks worldwide in 2019. Strong and destructive tornadoes form most frequently in the United States, Argentina, Brazil, Bangladesh, and Eastern India, but can occur almost anywhere under the right conditions. Tornadoes also develop occasionally in southern Canada during the Northern Hemisphere's summer and somewhat regularly at other times of the year across Europe, Asia, Argentina, and Australia. Tornadic events are often accompanied by other forms of severe weather, including strong thunderstorms, strong winds, and hail.

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Tornado outbreak of January 10–11, 2020

The tornado outbreak of January 10–11, 2020 was a two-day severe weather event stretching from the South-Central Plains eastward into the Southeast United States. An eastward-moving shortwave trough tracked across the continental United States through that two-day period, combining with abundant moisture, instability, and wind shear to promote the formation of a long-lived squall line. Hundreds of damaging wind reports were received, and 79 tornadoes occurred within this line, making it the third largest January tornado outbreak on record. Three tornadoes—an EF1 in eastern Texas, an EF2 in northern Louisiana, and an EF2 in western Alabama—led to a total of seven deaths, all in mobile homes. Extensive damage and several other injuries occurred as well. The severe weather event was notable in that it was forecast well in advance, with the Storm Prediction Center first highlighting the risk area a full week beforehand.

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