2017–18 Australian region cyclone season

Last updated
2017–18 Australian region cyclone season
2017-2018 Australian region cyclone season summary.png
Season summary map
Seasonal boundaries
First system formed8 August 2017
Last system dissipated28 April 2018
Strongest storm
Name Marcus
  Maximum winds230 km/h (145 mph)
(10-minute sustained)
  Lowest pressure912 hPa (mbar)
Seasonal statistics
Tropical lows23
Tropical cyclones11
Severe tropical cyclones3
Total fatalities41 total
Total damage$165 million (2017 USD)
Related articles
Australian region tropical cyclone seasons
2015–16, 2016–17, 2017–18, 2018–19, 2019–20

The 2017–18 Australian region cyclone season was an average period of tropical cyclone formation in the Southern Indian Ocean and Pacific Oceans, between 90°E and 160°E, with 11 named storms, which 3 intensified into severe tropical cyclones. Another two tropical cyclones, Cempaka (Indonesian region north of 10°S) and Flamboyan (Indonesian and La Reunion's area of responsibility) occurred outside the Australian region but are included in the descriptions below. The season officially began 1 November 2017 and ended on 30 April 2018; however, tropical cyclones can form at any time of the year, as demonstrated by the first tropical low of the season in early August. Any tropical system that forms between 1 July 2017 and 30 June 2018 will count towards the season total. During the season, tropical cyclones will be officially monitored by one of the five tropical cyclone warning centres (TCWCs) that operate in this region. Three of the five centres are operated by the Australian Bureau of Meteorology (BOM) in Perth, Darwin and Brisbane, while the other two are operated by the National Weather Service of Papua New Guinea in Port Moresby and the Indonesian Agency for Meteorology, Climatology and Geophysics in Jakarta. The Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) of the United States and other national meteorological services, including Météo-France at Réunion, also monitored the basin during the season.

Tropical cyclone Is a rotating storm system

A tropical cyclone is a rapidly rotating storm system characterized by a low-pressure center, a closed low-level atmospheric circulation, strong winds, and a spiral arrangement of thunderstorms that produce heavy rain. Depending on its location and strength, a tropical cyclone is referred to by different names, including hurricane, typhoon, tropical storm, cyclonic storm, tropical depression, and simply cyclone. A hurricane is a tropical cyclone that occurs in the Atlantic Ocean and northeastern Pacific Ocean, and a typhoon occurs in the northwestern Pacific Ocean; in the south Pacific or Indian Ocean, comparable storms are referred to simply as "tropical cyclones" or "severe cyclonic storms".

Indian Ocean The ocean between Africa, Asia, Australia and Antarctica (or the Southern Ocean)

The Indian Ocean is the third largest of the world's oceanic divisions, covering 70,560,000 km2 (27,240,000 sq mi). It is bounded by Asia on the north, on the west by Africa, on the east by Australia, and on the south by the Southern Ocean or, depending on definition, by Antarctica.

Pacific Ocean Ocean between Asia and Australia in the west, the Americas in the east and Antarctica or the Southern Ocean in the south.

The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of Earth's oceanic divisions. It extends from the Arctic Ocean in the north to the Southern Ocean in the south and is bounded by Asia and Australia in the west and the Americas in the east.

Contents

Seasonal forecasts

RegionAverage
number
Chance
of more
Chance
of less
Actual
activity
Whole1156%44%11
Western752%48%4
North-Western556%44%4
Northern353%47%2
Eastern454%46%2
Source: BOM's Seasonal Outlooks for Tropical Cyclones. [1]

During October, ahead of the tropical cyclone season, the Bureau of Meteorology issued a tropical cyclone outlook for the coming 2017–18 season, which would officially run from 1 November 2017 to 30 April 2018. Seasonal forecasts were issued for the basin as a whole, as well as the Eastern, Northern and Western regions and the North-Western sub-region. [1] The forecasts took into account various factors, including the latest neutral to weak La Niña conditions that had been observed in the tropical Pacific Ocean. [1] The outlooks showed that activity in the basin overall, as well as for each of its individual regions, would be near average. [1] For the Western region between 90°E and 125°E, the BOM forecast that the area would also see activity slightly above its average of 7, with a 52% chance of an above average number of tropical cyclones occurring. [1] TCWC Perth also noted that there was a likelihood of two tropical cyclones and a significant likelihood of at least one severe tropical cyclone impacting Western Australia. [2] For the North-Western sub-region between 105°E and 130°E, it was predicted that activity would be above average, with a 56% chance of above-average tropical cyclone activity. [1] The Northern Territory, which was defined as being between as being 125°E and 142.5°E, had a 53% chance of an above-average season. [1] The Eastern region between 142.5°E and 160°E was predicted to have a slightly above-normal tropical cyclone season, with a 54% chance of above-average tropical cyclone activity. [1]

Seasonal summary

Cyclone MarcusCyclone KelvinCyclone CempakaTropical cyclone scales#Comparisons across basins2017-18 Australian region cyclone season

Systems

Tropical Cyclone Cempaka

Category 1 tropical cyclone (Australian scale)
Cempaka 2017-11-27 0300Z.jpg   Cempaka 2017 track.png
Duration21 November – 29 November
Peak intensity65 km/h (40 mph) (10-min)  998  hPa  (mbar)

On 22 November, TCWC Perth and TCWC Jakarta started to monitor a weak tropical low that had developed about 332 km (206 mi) south of the city of Surabaya. [3] By 06:00 UTC of 26 November, TCWC Jakarta began issuing advisories and was classified as a tropical depression. [4] The JTWC, however, issued a Tropical Cyclone Formation Alert early on 27 November, stating that satellite imagery depicted flaring convection near its center. [5] Several hours later, TCWC Jakarta upgraded the system to a tropical cyclone, giving the name Cempaka. [6] Winds from the cyclone also blew ash from nearby Mount Agung on Bali westwards to its popular beaches and far eastern Java. [7] On 30 November, Cempaka weakened into a tropical low, while turning to the southwest. [8] TCWC Perth last mentioned Cempaka on 1 December. [9]

Surabaya City in Java, Indonesia

Surabaya is the capital of East Java province, and the second-largest city in Indonesia. The city has a population of over 3 million within the city proper and over 10 million in the Greater Surabaya metropolitan area, known as Gerbangkertosusila. Located on northeastern Java on the Madura Strait, it is one of the earliest port cities in Southeast Asia.

Tropical Cyclone Formation Alert

A Tropical Cyclone Formation Alert (TCFA) is a bulletin released by the U.S. Navy-operated Joint Typhoon Warning Center in Honolulu, Hawaii or the Fleet Weather Center in Norfolk, Virginia, warning of the possibility of a tropical cyclone forming from a tropical disturbance that has been monitored. Such alerts are generally always issued when it is fairly certain that a tropical cyclone will form and are not always released prior to cyclone genesis, particularly if the cyclone appears suddenly. The TCFA consists of several different checks that are performed by the on-duty meteorologist of the system and its surroundings. If the condition being checked is met, a certain number of points are given to the system.

Mount Agung volcano in Bali in Indonesia

Mount Agung or Gunung Agung is a volcano in Bali, Indonesia, southeast of Mt Batur volcano, also in Bali. Gunung Agung stratovolcano is the highest point on Bali. It dominates the surrounding area, influencing the climate, especially rainfall patterns. From a distance, the mountain appears to be perfectly conical. From the peak of the mountain, it is possible to see the peak of Mt Rinjani on the nearby island of Lombok, to the east, although both mountains are frequently covered in clouds.

Although Cempaka never made landfall, the rainfall from the storm caused severe flooding and landslides across the southern half of Java and Bali, killing at least 41 people and destroying many homes and businesses. [10]

Tropical Cyclone Dahlia

Category 2 tropical cyclone (Australian scale)
Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Dahlia 2017-11-30 0330Z.jpg   Dahlia 2017 track.png
Duration26 November – 4 December
Peak intensity95 km/h (60 mph) (10-min)  985  hPa  (mbar)

Tropical Low 03U was first noted as a tropical depression by TCWC Jakarta on 24 November, while it was located about 1,500 km (930 mi) to the west of Jakarta, Indonesia. [11] By 29 November, TCWC Jakarta upgraded the system to a tropical cyclone, receiving the name Dahlia, making it the first time where at least two cyclones were formed and named by TCWC Jakarta in a single season. [12] The JTWC followed suit the next day, designating the system as 01S. [13] By 1 December, Dahlia intensified into a Category 2 tropical cyclone, [14] and reached its peak intensity six hours later with a minimum barometric pressure of 985 hPa. [15] Dahlia maintained its intensity for several hours until the storm moved southeastwards and began to weaken. [16] The BoM later issued its final bulletin on Dahlia early on 4 December. [17] TCWC Perth last monitored on Dahlia on 5 December. [18]

Tropical Cyclone Hilda

Category 2 tropical cyclone (Australian scale)
Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Hilda 2017-12-28 0215Z.jpg   Hilda 2017 track.png
Duration26 December – 29 December
Peak intensity100 km/h (65 mph) (10-min)  980  hPa  (mbar)

During 26 December, the BoM reported that a tropical low had developed just off the Kimberley coast, about 330 km (205 mi) to the north of Derby. [19] The system subsequently moved south-southwest parallel to the coast, as it developed further before it moved overland to the southwest of Cape Leveque. [19] The system was subsequently classified as a Category 1 tropical cyclone and named Hilda by the BoM, while it was located inland near Broome based on reports of persistent gale-force winds from Broome Airport. [19] After moving back over water, the system was classified as a Category 2 tropical cyclone with 10-minute peak windspeeds of 95 km/h (60 mph). [19] Hilda made landfall close to Anna Plains on 28 December, as a Category 2 tropical cyclone. Wind and flooding damage was reported along the coast in Broome.[ citation needed ]

Derby City and Unitary authority area in England

Derby is a city and unitary authority area in Derbyshire, England. It lies on the banks of the River Derwent in the south of Derbyshire, of which it was traditionally the county town. At the 2011 census, the population was 248,700. Derby gained city status in 1977.

Cape Leveque object in Broome, Western Australia

Cape Leveque is the northernmost tip of the Dampier Peninsula in the Kimberley region of Western Australia. Cape Leveque is 240 kilometres (150 mi) north of Broome, and is remote with few facilities. Nevertheless, the Cape's sandy beaches are attracting an increasing number of visitors.

Broome, Western Australia Town in Western Australia

Broome is a coastal, pearling and tourist town in the Kimberley region of Western Australia, 1,681 km (1,045 mi) north of Perth. The urban population was 14,445 in June 2018 growing to over 45,000 per month during the peak tourist season.

Tropical Cyclone Irving

Category 1 tropical cyclone (Australian scale)
Tropical storm (SSHWS)
08U 2018-01-05 0735Z.jpg   Irving 2018 track.png
Duration3 January – 6 January (Exited basin)
Peak intensity75 km/h (45 mph) (10-min)  993  hPa  (mbar)

On 3 January, a tropical low had developed to the southwest of Sumatra. [20] On 06:00 UTC of 5 January, TCWC Perth began issuing advisories on the system, using the identifier 08U. [21] TCWC Perth had recorded winds of 75 km/h (45 mph), despite the fact that the system did not have the structure of a tropical cyclone. [21] By the next day, 08U then strengthened into a Category 1 tropical cyclone, with the storm receiving the name Irving, the fourth named storm of the season. [22] Three hours later, the JTWC followed suit and gave the system the designation 04S. [23] TCWC Perth, however, discontinued advisories after Irving exited the basin on 12:00 UTC the same day. [24]

Tropical Cyclone Joyce

Category 1 tropical cyclone (Australian scale)
Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Joyce 2018-01-12 0536Z.jpg   Joyce 2018 track.png
Duration6 January – 13 January
Peak intensity85 km/h (50 mph) (10-min)  978  hPa  (mbar)

Joyce made landfall in the Pilbara Coast on 12 January.[ citation needed ] The remnants of Cyclone Joyce bought heavy rain to the Perth Metro Area on January 15; a total of 96 mm (3.77 in) of rain in 24 hours fell in Perth, while Rottnest Island recorded the highest amount of rain in the metro, which was a total of 142mm (5.59 in). [25]

Tropical Low 11U

Tropical low (Australian scale)
11U 2018-01-24 0445Z.jpg   11U 2018 track.png
Duration20 January – 1 February
Peak intensity75 km/h (45 mph) (10-min)  985  hPa  (mbar)

The slow-moving system brought copious rains to a broad swath of coastal Australia. In Kimberley, Western Australia, near-record rainfall accumulations of 639 mm (25.2 in) in four days caused extensive flooding. In a 24-hour span, 439 mm (17.3 in) of rain fell across Broome, Western Australia, with flood waters in some areas reaching depths of 1.2 to 1.5 m (4 to 5 ft). Portions of the Great Northern Highway and Cape Leveque road were closed. Coastal areas experienced powerful winds reaching 100 km/h (65 mph) with gusts to 125 km/h (78 mph); these winds downed many trees and power lines.[ citation needed ] The effects of the low were considered substantially worse than Hilda and Joyce, tropical cyclones that affected the same region earlier in the season. [26]

Severe Tropical Cyclone Kelvin

Category 3 severe tropical cyclone (Australian scale)
Category 1 tropical cyclone (SSHWS)
Kelvin 2018-02-18 0155Z.jpg   Kelvin 2018 track.png
Duration11 February – 21 February
Peak intensity150 km/h (90 mph) (10-min)  955  hPa  (mbar)

Tropical Cyclone Kelvin formed on 12 February and rapidly intensified into a Category 2 Storm (Australian Scale) and a Category 1 Storm (Saffir-Simpson) Kelvin made landfall, but unusually formed an eye over land. Kelvin sustained cyclone or hurricane intensity until dissipating on 20 February. Tropical Cyclone Kelvin brought widespread heavy rainfall to the Kimberley region which had already been saturated by other tropical cyclone systems. As a result, significant flooding occurred in parts of the Kimberley, including in the towns of Broome and Bidyadanga. Property damage was sustained at Broome and Anna Plains Station, where the cyclone made landfall, as well as infrastructural damage to the Great Northern Highway as a result of the heavy rainfall and flooding.[ citation needed ]

Tropical Cyclone Linda

Category 1 tropical cyclone (Australian scale)
Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Linda 2018-03-13 0310Z.jpg   Linda 2018 track.png
Duration11 March – 16 March
Peak intensity75 km/h (45 mph) (10-min)  993  hPa  (mbar)

On 11 March, the Fiji Meteorological Service reported that Tropical Disturbance 10F had developed about 85 km (55 mi) to the southwest of Rennell and Bellona Province of the Solomon Islands. [27] The system was poorly organised, with atmospheric convection displaced to the east of the low-level circulation centre. On the morning of 12 March, following some mild strengthening, the JTWC upgraded the disturbance to a tropical depression, [28] and the Bureau of Meteorology assigned the system the tropical low designation 21U. [29] Late the same day, the JTWC assessed the system to be producing gale-force winds, and upgraded it to tropical storm status on the Saffir-Simpson scale. [28] The storm moved generally southwards and entered the Australian region at 10:00 AEST on 13 March. [30] Despite being exposed to generally unfavourable atmospheric conditions for tropical cyclone development, the tropical low strengthened into a category 1 tropical cyclone on the Australian scale six hours later. [30] The storm was named 'Linda', and was the first tropical cyclone in the Eastern Region for the 2017-18 season. [30] Tropical Cyclone Linda attained its peak intensity at 22:00 AEST 13 March, with 75 km/h (45 mph) ten-minute sustained winds, 95 km/h (60 mph) one-minute sustained winds, and a minimum atmospheric pressure of 993 hPa (29.32 inHg). [28] [30]

A few hours later, the storm assumed a more southwesterly course towards the southern Queensland coast. [30] As a result of the further deteriorating atmospheric conditions and cooling sea surface temperatures due to movement away from warm equatorial waters, Linda weakened to a subtropical low during mid-morning on 14 March, having spent fewer than 24 hours as a cyclone. [30] The JTWC proceeded to downgrade the system below tropical storm intensity at 04:00 AEST on 25 March. [28] The remnant low transitioned to a south-southeasterly track and continued to decay while travelling roughly parallel to the coastline, finally dissipating on 16 March. [30]

Ex-Tropical Cyclone Linda passed within about 300 km (185 mi) of Fraser Island at its closest approach to Australia, and produced large waves and swell which were experienced on exposed southern Queensland beaches. [30] Due to the dangerous surf conditions, many beaches south of Fraser Island were closed on 14 and 15 March for the safety of the public. [30] Areas off parts of the Sunshine Coast experienced waves of up to 8 metres (26 feet), and 1 metre (3 feet) of beach erosion occurred at the Gold Coast. [31] Sustained gale-force winds were recorded on the Australian mainland at Double Island Point on 14 March, with gusts up to 85 km/h (55 mph). [32]

Severe Tropical Cyclone Marcus

Category 5 severe tropical cyclone (Australian scale)
Category 5 tropical cyclone (SSHWS)
Marcus 2018-03-22 0632Z.jpg   Marcus 2018 track.png
Duration14 March – 24 March
Peak intensity230 km/h (145 mph) (10-min)  912  hPa  (mbar)

On 14 March, the Australian Bureau of Meteorology issued cyclone warnings for Darwin, the Tiwi Islands and parts of the northwest Top End.

Marcus formed north of the Tiwi Islands as a Category 1 tropical cyclone on the Australian scale, and was upgraded to Category 2 in the hours before it hit the Northern Territory coastline on 17 March. Major events and flights in and out of Darwin were cancelled. Upon moving away from the coast, Marcus intensified markedly, and on 21 March, Cyclone Marcus reached Category 5 status on both cyclone scales. From then on, Marcus began a weakening phase, brushing by Western Australia and becoming a remnant low on 24 March.[ citation needed ]

Severe Tropical Cyclone Nora

Category 3 severe tropical cyclone (Australian scale)
Category 2 tropical cyclone (SSHWS)
Nora 2018-03-23 1800Z.jpg   Nora 2018 track.png
Duration20 March – 26 March
Peak intensity155 km/h (100 mph) (10-min)  958  hPa  (mbar)

On the afternoon of 19 March, the Bureau of Meteorology reported on the development of a weak tropical low in the Torres Strait, north of Thursday Island. [33] [34] Two days later, on the afternoon of 21 March, tropical cyclone advice bulletins were initiated as the tropical low began to develop, and a cyclone watch was issued for the far northeastern coastal region of the Top End. [35] At this stage, the system was forecast to coalesce into a tropical cyclone by 4:00 a.m. on 23 March (ACST), and then reach severe tropical cyclone strength by 4:00 p.m. the next day. [36] On the afternoon of 22 March, the Joint Typhoon Warning Center upgraded the strengthening system to a tropical storm. [37] Later on the same day, the Bureau of Meteorology identified that sustained gale-force winds had developed on the northern semicircle of the system; [38] however, the system was still classified as a tropical low as these winds did not extend more than halfway around the circulation centre. On 23 March, the system organized sufficiently into a tropical cyclone, and was named Nora by the BoM. Within the next couple of days, Nora intensified into a Category 3 Severe Tropical Cyclone, before making landfall on the Top End at that intensity. Afterward, Nora gradually began to weaken, degenerating into a tropical low soon afterward. On 26 March, Nora's remnant low stalled, and began to slowly meander counterclockwise over the Top End. On March 27, Nora's remnant moved westward across the Gulf of Carpentaria. On the next day, Nora's remnant made landfall on the Australian coast once again and dissipated.[ citation needed ]

Tropical Cyclone Iris

Category 2 tropical cyclone (Australian scale)
Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Iris 2018-04-03 1535Z.jpg   Iris 2018 track.png
Duration24 March (Entered basin) – 9 April
Peak intensity100 km/h (65 mph) (10-min)  987  hPa  (mbar)

During 24 March, the BoM reported that Cyclone Iris had moved into the Australian region from the South Pacific as a Category 1 tropical cyclone, while located about 520 km (325 mi) to the south of Honiara in the Solomon Islands. [39] According to the BoM, the system quickly weakened into a tropical low during that day as it moved further into the Australian region. Conversely, the JTWC reported that Iris had developed into a tropical cyclone at around 04:00 AEST on 25 March (18:00 UTC on 24 March), when there were good divergence aloft and a formative poleward outflow channel, although high vertical wind shear kept impacting the system. [40] Tracking generally southwards along the western periphery of a near-equatoral ridge, [41] Iris remained weak with an exposed low-level circulation centre, which resulted in the final warning from the JTWC being issued at 09:00 UTC on 27 March, as colder sea surface temperatures further eroded the fully sheared system. [42] On 28 March, Iris slowed down and started to exhibit subtropical characteristics. [43] The subtropical low began to drift northwestward, parallel to the coast of Queensland on 29 March. [44] The JTWC issued a Tropical Cyclone Formation Alert for Iris again on 1 April, due to the increasing amounts of persistent convection and improving low-level banding. These factors indicated that Iris had transitioned back to a tropical low on the same day, as it turned towards the south-southeast. [45] [46]

Both the BoM and the JTWC reported that Iris had redeveloped into a tropical cyclone at around 10:00 AEST (00:00 UTC) on 2 April, supported by Dvorak technique estimates as well as sustained gales recorded by the automatic weather station at Flinders Reef. [47] [48] A half-day later, the station further recorded maximum sustained winds at 58 knots (107 km/h; 67 mph). Thanks to weak vertical wind shear, warm SSTs at 28 °C, and excellent poleward outflow, the BoM indicated that Iris had further intensified into a Category 2 tropical cyclone at around 04:00 AEST on 3 April (18:00 UTC on 2 April), with estimated 10-minute maximum sustained winds at 100 km/h (65 mph). [49] [50] Iris became almost stationary on the same day, due to the competing steering influences from a near-equatorial ridge located to the northeast and a subtropical ridge anchored over Australia. [51] Early on 3 April, Iris resumed its south-southeastward track and turned eastward; [52] at the same time, the low-level circulation centre became partially exposed, with deep convection only persisting over the southern periphery of the storm, showing that the intensification had stopped. [53]

At 04:07 AEST on 4 April (18:07 UTC on 3 April), microwave imagery revealed that Iris briefly had formed a shallow eyewall, [54] [55] prompting the JTWC to indicate that Iris reached its peak intensity at 10:00 AEST (00:00 UTC), with the same estimate as the BoM's 30 hours earlier. [56] However, the BoM downgraded Iris to a Category 1 tropical cyclone at 16:00 AEST (06:00 UTC), as the unfavourable environment with moderate northwesterly wind shear, weak upper-level outflow, penetrating dry air, and marginal supportive SSTs at about 26 °C, had begun to impact the sheared system. [57]

Tropical Cyclone Flamboyan

Category 1 tropical cyclone (Australian scale)
Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Flamboyan 2018-04-28 0640Z.jpg   Flamboyan 2018 track.png
Duration27 April – 28 April (Exited basin)
Peak intensity65 km/h (40 mph) (10-min)  1002  hPa  (mbar)

Flamboyan formed on 27 April, before moving into the South-West Indian Ocean basin on 28 April. Afterward, the system began intensifying. Flamboyan occurred outside the Australian region, having developed north of 10S in Indonesia's area of responsibility before moving southwest into La Reunion's area of responsibility.

Other systems

On 8 August, TCWC Perth started to monitor a tropical low located approximately 850 km (530 mi) to the west-northwest of the Cocos Islands, on the 90th meridian east—the western edge of the BOM's area of responsibility. [58] [59] The tropical low moved in a west-southwesterly direction [58] and attained 35 km/h (25 mph) sustained winds south of the circulation center, [60] and a minimum barometric pressure of 1005 hPa (29.68 inHg). [61] The storm moved out of the Australian region on the same day. [61] On 24 November, TCWC Darwin started to monitor a weak tropical low that had developed in the Banda Sea. [62] The system moved in a slow direction, and attained a minimum pressure of 1005 hPa, until it was last mentioned on 29 November. [63] On 1 December, a tropical low formed to the south of Java. [64] The tropical low rapidly moved southwestward, before dissipating the next day. [65] On 1 January, TCWC Perth began to track a small, weak tropical low to the south of Bali. [66] The system was last mentioned the next day. [67]

On 14 January, a weak tropical low had developed about 750 km (466 mi) to the northwest of Exmouth. [68] The tropical low moved in a general westward direction for several days until it was last monitored by TCWC Perth on 19 January. [69] On 27 January, TCWC Brisbane began monitoring on a tropical low pressure system that was located to the south of the Solomon Islands. [70] The system had a moderate chance of becoming a tropical cyclone although the system had already crossed basins into the South Pacific and became Tropical Depression 06F very early on the next day. [70] The system subsequently became Tropical Cyclone Fehi by 29 January. On 1 February, a weak tropical low had briefly developed in the Coral Sea. [71] On 9 February, a slow-moving tropical low had developed located about 450 km (280 mi) to the northwest of Cooktown, Queensland. [72] The system moved westward and was last noticed three days later. [73] On 4 March, a tropical low persisted to the west of Queensland. [74] In the course of two days, the tropical low emerged towards the waters of the Gulf of Carpentaria. The tropical low rapidly dissipated, however, on 9 March.

A weak tropical low near the Solomon Islands was first identified by the Bureau of Meteorology on 17 March. Over the next couple of days, the tropical low meandered over the Solomon Sea. [75] The system was last noted by the Bureau of Meteorology on the afternoon of 19 March. [33]

Storm names

Bureau of Meteorology

Since the start of the 2008–09 season, there has only been one list from which the Bureau of Meteorology has assigned tropical cyclone names despite the fact that three different warning centres are operated (in Perth, Darwin and Brisbane). [76] These warning centres monitor all tropical cyclones that form within the Australian region, as well as any in the areas of responsibility of either TCWC Jakarta or TCWC Port Moresby. The next 12 names on the naming list are shown below.

HildaIrvingJoyceKelvinLindaMarcus
NoraOwen (unused)Penny (unused)Riley (unused)Savannah (unused)Trevor (unused)

Retirement

Due to the damage caused by the cyclone in Darwin and its subsequent intensification, the name Marcus was retired and Replaced by Marco.

TCWC Jakarta

TCWC Jakarta monitors tropical cyclones from the equator to 11°S and from 90°E to 145°E. Should a tropical depression reach tropical cyclone strength within TCWC Jakarta's area of responsibility then it will be assigned the next name from the following list. [76]

CempakaDahliaFlamboyanKenanga (unused)Lili (unused)
Mangga (unused)Seroja (unused)Teratai (unused)Anggrek (unused)Bakung (unused)

TCWC Port Moresby

Tropical cyclones that develop north of 11°S between 151°E and 160°E are assigned names by the TCWC Port Moresby. Tropical cyclone formation in this area is rare, with no cyclones being named in it since 2007. [77] As names are assigned in a random order, the whole list is shown below.

Alu (unused)Buri (unused)Dodo (unused)Emau (unused)Fere (unused)
Hibu (unused)Ila (unused)Kama (unused)Lobu (unused)Maila (unused)

Season effects

NameDates active Peak
classification
Sustained
wind speeds
PressureAreas affectedDamages
(AUD)
Damages
(USD)
DeathsRefs
01U8 AugustTropical low35 km/h (25 mph)1005 hPa (29.68 inHg)NoneNoneNoneNone
Cempaka 21 – 29 NovemberCategory 1 tropical cyclone65 km/h (40 mph)998 hPa (29.47 inHg) Java UnknownUnknown41 [10]
04U24 – 29 NovemberTropical lowNot specified1005 hPa (29.68 inHg) Indonesia NoneNoneNone
Dahlia26 November 
4 December
Category 2 tropical cyclone95 km/h (60 mph)985 hPa (29.09 inHg) Sumatra, JavaNoneNoneNone
05U1 – 2 DecemberTropical lowNot specifiedNot specifiedNoneNoneNoneNone
Hilda26 – 29 DecemberCategory 2 tropical cyclone100 km/h (65 mph)980 hPa (28.94 inHg) Western Australia MinorMinorNone
07U1 – 2 JanuaryTropical lowNot specified1006 hPa (29.71 inHg)NoneNoneNoneNone
Irving3 – 6 JanuaryCategory 1 tropical cyclone75 km/h (45 mph)993 hPa (29.32 inHg)NoneNoneNoneNone
Joyce6 – 13 JanuaryCategory 1 tropical cyclone85 km/h (50 mph)978 hPa (28.88 inHg)Western AustraliaNoneNoneNone
10U14 – 19 JanuaryTropical lowNot specifiedNot specifiedChristmas IslandNoneNoneNone
11U20 January 
1 February
Tropical low75 km/h (45 mph)985 hPa (29.09 inHg) Top End, Western AustraliaNoneNoneNone
12U23 – 24 JanuaryTropical lowNot specifiedNot specifiedNoneNoneNoneNone
Fehi27 – 28 JanuaryTropical lowNot specified990 hPa (29.23 inHg) Solomon Islands NoneNoneNone
14U1 FebruaryTropical lowNot specifiedNot specifiedNoneNoneNoneNone
15U9 – 12 FebruaryTropical lowNot specifiedNot specifiedNoneNoneNoneNone
Kelvin 11 – 21 FebruaryCategory 3 severe tropical cyclone150 km/h (90 mph)955 hPa (28.20 inHg)Top End, Western Australia,
South Australia
$31.6 million$25 millionNone [78] [79]
18U4 – 9 MarchTropical lowNot specified1001 hPa (29.56 inHg)Northern Territory$50.9 million$40 millionNone [79]
Linda13 – 16 MarchCategory 1 tropical cyclone75 km/h (45 mph)993 hPa (29.32 inHg)Solomon Islands, New Caledonia,
South East Queensland
NoneNoneNone
Marcus 14 – 24 MarchCategory 5 severe tropical cyclone230 km/h (145 mph)912 hPa (26.93 inHg) Tanimbar Islands, East Timor, Top End,
Kimberley
$97.2 million$75 millionNone [79]
Nora20 – 26 MarchCategory 3 severe tropical cyclone155 km/h (100 mph)958 hPa (28.29 inHg) Cape York Peninsula, New Guinea,
Top End
$32.5 million$25 millionNone [79]
23U23 – 25 MarchTropical lowNot specified1004 hPa (29.65 inHg)NoneNoneNoneNone
Iris24 March – 9 AprilCategory 2 tropical cyclone100 km/h (65 mph)987 hPa (29.15 inHg)Solomon Islands, Queensland, Papua New Guinea NoneNoneNone
Flamboyan27 – 28 AprilCategory 1 tropical cyclone65 km/h (40 mph)1002 hPa (29.59 inHg)NoneNoneNoneNone
Season Aggregates
23 systems8 August 
28 April
230 km/h (145 mph)912 hPa (26.93 inHg)$212 million$165 million41

See also

Related Research Articles

2007–08 Australian region cyclone season cyclone season in the Australian region

The 2007–08 Australian region cyclone season was a slightly below-average tropical cyclone season. The season began with an early start, with the formation of the first tropical cyclone on 29 July, which was only recognized as a tropical cyclone during post-season analysis. This was the second time that a tropical cyclone had formed during the month of July. The other one was Cyclone Lindsay in the 1996-1997 season. The next tropical cyclone that formed was Cyclone Guba which formed on 13 November with TCWC Port Moresby assigning the name Guba on 14 November which was the first named storm within TCWC Port Moresby's area of responsibility since Cyclone Epi in June 2003. Guba was also the first cyclone to occur in the Queensland region in the month of November since 1977.

2006–07 Australian region cyclone season cyclone season in the Australian region

The 2006–07 Australian region cyclone season was a below average tropical cyclone season. It began on 1 November 2006 and ended on 30 April 2007; however, Tropical Cyclone Pierre formed on 17 May, after the official end date. The regional tropical cyclone operational plan also defines a tropical cyclone year separately from a tropical cyclone season, which runs from 1 July 2006 to 30 June 2007.

2005–06 Australian region cyclone season cyclone season in the Australian region

The 2005–06 Australian region cyclone season was an above average tropical cyclone season. It began on 1 November 2005 and ended on 30 April 2006. The regional tropical cyclone operational plan also defines a tropical cyclone year separately from a tropical cyclone season, which runs from 1 July 2005 to 30 June 2006.

2002–03 Australian region cyclone season cyclone season in the Australian region

The 2002–03 Australian region cyclone season included Cyclone Inigo, which tied with Cyclone Gwenda in 1999 as the most intense tropical cyclone on record in the Australian basin. It began on 1 November 2002 and ended on 30 April 2003. The regional tropical cyclone operational plan also defines a tropical cyclone year separately from a tropical cyclone season, which runs from 1 July 2002 to 30 June 2003. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the Australian region, which is defined as in the southern hemisphere between 90°E and 180°E. The season's ten tropical depressions existed within these dates, with the first, designated as Tropical Cyclone 07S, entering the basin on 27 December 2002. The last system, Cyclone Epi, dissipated on 6 June 2003. Tropical cyclones in this area were monitored by four Tropical Cyclone Warning Centres (TCWCs): the Australian Bureau of Meteorology (BOM) in Perth, Darwin, and Brisbane and one in Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea.

The 2007–08 Australian region cyclone season was only the second season to have a tropical cyclone form in July. This timeline documents all the storm formations, strengthening, weakening, landfalls, extratropical transitions, as well as dissipation. The season officially began on 1 November 2007, and lasted until 30 April 2008. However a tropical cyclone moving into the region from the South-West Indian Ocean cyclone season on 29 July, meant that the season started 29 days after the Southern Hemisphere Tropical Cyclone Year started on 1 July 2007. The timeline includes information which was not operationally released, meaning that information from post-storm reviews by the Australian Bureau of Meteorology, such as information about a Cyclone that was not upgraded operationally, has been included.

2008–09 Australian region cyclone season cyclone season in the Australian region

The 2008–09 Australian region cyclone season was a near average tropical cyclone season. It officially started on 1 November 2008, and officially ended on 30 April 2009. This season was also the first time that the BoM implemented a "tropical cyclone year." The regional tropical cyclone operational plan defines a "tropical cyclone year" separately from a "tropical cyclone season"; the "tropical cyclone year" began on 1 July 2008 and ended on 30 June 2009.

1996–97 Australian region cyclone season cyclone season in the Australian region

The 1996–97 Australian region cyclone season was an above average tropical cyclone season. It ran from 1 November 1996 to 30 April 1996. The regional tropical cyclone operational plan also defines a tropical cyclone year separately from a tropical cyclone season, and the "tropical cyclone year" ran from 1 July 1996 to 30 June 1997.

2009–10 Australian region cyclone season cyclone season in the Australian region

The 2009–10 Australian region cyclone season was a below average tropical cyclone season, with eight tropical cyclones forming compared to an average of 12. The season began on 1 November 2009 and ran through until it end on 30 April 2010. The Australian region is defined as being to south of the equator, between the 90th meridian east and 160th meridian east. Tropical cyclones in this area are monitored by five Tropical Cyclone Warning Centres (TCWC's): Jakarta, Port Moresby, Perth, Darwin, and Brisbane, each of which have the power to name a tropical cyclone. The TCWC's in Perth, Darwin, and Brisbane are run by the Australian Bureau of Meteorology, who designate significant tropical lows with a number and the U suffix. The Joint Typhoon Warning Center also issues unofficial warnings for the region, designating significant tropical cyclones with the "S" suffix when they form west of 135°E, and the "P" suffix when they form east of 135°E.

2010–11 Australian region cyclone season cyclone season in the Australian region

The 2010–11 Australian region cyclone season was a near average tropical cyclone season, with eleven tropical cyclones forming compared to an average of 12. The season was also the costliest recorded in the Australian region basin, with a total of $3.62 billion in damages, mostly from the destructive Cyclone Yasi. The season began on 1 November 2010 and ended on 30 April 2011, although the first tropical cyclone formed on 28 October. The Australian region is defined as being to the south of the equator, between the 90th meridian east and 160th meridian east. Tropical cyclones in this area are monitored by five Tropical Cyclone Warning Centres (TCWC's): Jakarta, Port Moresby, Perth, Darwin, and Brisbane, each of which have the power to name a tropical cyclone. The TCWC's in Perth, Darwin, and Brisbane are run by the Bureau of Meteorology, who designate significant tropical lows with a number and the U suffix. The Joint Typhoon Warning Center also issues unofficial warnings for the region, designating significant tropical cyclones with the "S" suffix when they form west of 135°E, and the "P" suffix when they form east of 135°E.

2011–12 Australian region cyclone season cyclone season in the Australian region

The 2011–12 Australian region cyclone season was a below average tropical cyclone season, with 7 cyclones forming rather than the usual 11. It began on 1 November 2011, and ended on 14 May 2012. The regional tropical cyclone operational plan defines a "tropical cyclone year" separately from a "tropical cyclone season"; the "tropical cyclone year" began on 1 July 2011 and ended on 30 June 2012.

1990–91 Australian region cyclone season cyclone season in the Australian region

The 1990–91 Australian region cyclone season was a slightly below average cyclone season, with ten tropical cyclones occurring within the region between 90°E and 160°E. The season officially ran from November 1, 1990, to April 30, 1991, with the first disturbance of the season forming on 10 December and the last disturbance moving out of the region during 11 May. Six people were killed by Cyclone Joy when it made landfall on Australia. During the season, tropical cyclones were monitored by the Australian Bureau of Meteorology, who ran Tropical Cyclone Warning Centers (TCWC) in Perth, Darwin, and Brisbane. The United States Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) and Papua New Guinea National Weather Service also monitored systems within the basin during the season. The JTWC designated systems with a number and either a S or a P suffix depending on which side of 135E. The Bureau of Meteorology and Papua New Guinea national Weather Service both used the Australian Tropical Cyclone Intensity Scale, and estimated windspeeds over a ten-minute period, while the JTWC estimated sustained winds over a one-minute period and are comparable to the Saffir–Simpson Hurricane Scale.

2010–11 South Pacific cyclone season cyclone season in the South Pacific ocean

The 2010–11 South Pacific cyclone season was an average tropical cyclone season, with seven tropical cyclones and five severe tropical cyclones developing during the season. The season ran from November 1, 2010 until April 30, 2011, though if any tropical cyclones had developed between July 1, 2010 and June 30, 2011, the official tropical cyclone year, they would have been counted towards the season's total. Within the South Pacific basin tropical cyclones were officially monitored by the Fiji Meteorological Service's Regional Specialized Meteorological Center in Nadi, Fiji, north of 25°S, and to the south the Meteorological Service of New Zealand's Tropical Cyclone Warning Center in Wellington, New Zealand. Any disturbances forming in the region were designated with a sequential number suffixed by the letter F. In addition, the United States Military's Joint Typhoon Warning Center unofficially monitored parts of the basin during the season, where any systems judged to have achieved tropical storm strength or greater received a number suffixed with the letter P. RSMC Nadi and TCWC Wellington both use the Australian Tropical Cyclone Intensity Scale, and measure wind speeds over a period of ten minutes, while the JTWC measures sustained winds over a period of one minute which can be applied to the Saffir–Simpson Hurricane Scale. Seven named storms formed or moved into the South Pacific basin during the 2010–11 season, the strongest of which was Severe Tropical Cyclone Wilma in late January.

2012–13 Australian region cyclone season cyclone season in the Australian region

The 2012–13 Australian region cyclone season was a slightly below average tropical cyclone season event in the ongoing cycle of tropical cyclone formation. It officially started on 1 November 2012, and officially ended on 30 April 2013, despite Cyclone Zane being an active system at the time. The regional tropical cyclone operational plan defines a "tropical cyclone year" separately from a "tropical cyclone season"; the "tropical cyclone year" began on 1 July 2012 and ended on 30 June 2013.

Timeline of the 2004–05 Australian region cyclone season

The 2004–05 Australian region cyclone season was a near-average season with eleven tropical cyclones occurring within the Australian region south of the equator and from 90°E to 160°E. The season officially ran from 1 November 2004 to 30 April 2005 with pre-season Tropical Cyclone Phoebe forming on 1 September and an unnamed tropical cyclone dissipating on 15 April. This is the period of the year when most tropical cyclones form within the Australian region.

2013–14 Australian region cyclone season

The 2013–14 Australian region cyclone season was a slightly below-average tropical cyclone season, with 10 tropical cyclones occurring within the Australian region. It officially started on 1 November 2013, and ended on 30 April 2014. The regional tropical cyclone operational plan defines a "tropical cyclone year" separately from a "tropical cyclone season"; the "tropical cyclone year" began on 1 July 2013 and ended on 30 June 2014.

2014–15 Australian region cyclone season

The 2014–15 Australian region cyclone season was a slightly below average tropical cyclone season. The season officially ran from 1 November 2014, to 30 April 2015, however, a tropical cyclone could form at any time between 1 July 2014, and 30 June 2015, and would count towards the season total. During the season, tropical cyclones were officially monitored, by one of the five Tropical Cyclone Warning Centres (TCWCs) that are operated in this region.

2015–16 Australian region cyclone season

The 2015–16 Australian region cyclone season was the least active tropical cyclone season since reliable records started during 1969, with only three named tropical cyclones developing in the region. Reasons for the low activity during the year included a positive Indian Ocean Dipole occurring and the 2014–16 El Niño event. Ahead of the season starting; the Australian Bureau of Meteorology predicted that there was a 91% chance that the season would be below average. As the 2015–16 tropical cyclone year opened on 1 July 2015, the newly named Tropical Cyclone Raquel moved south-westward into the Australian region. Over the next couple of days, the system meandered around 160°E and moved through the Solomon Islands, before it was last noted on 5 July. The basin subsequently remained quiet with only several weak tropical lows developing, before the first named tropical cyclone of the season was named Stan during 29 January 2016.

2016–17 Australian region cyclone season

The 2016–17 Australian region cyclone season was a slightly below-average season in terms of activity, with nine tropical cyclones, three of which intensified further into severe tropical cyclones; though it was much more active than the previous season. The season was the first to have a severe tropical cyclone since the 2014–15 season. It was the period of the year when most tropical cyclones form in the Southern Indian Ocean and Pacific Oceans between 90°E and 160°E. The season officially ran from 1 November 2016 to 30 April 2017, however, a tropical cyclone could form at any time between 1 July 2016 and 30 June 2017 and would count towards the season total. The first named storm, Yvette, developed during 21 December, and the final named storm, Greg, left the region on 3 May as a remnant low. This season was also the second-costliest tropical cyclone season on record in the Australian region basin, behind only the 2010–11 season, with a total of AUD$3.7 billion in damages incurred by the various storms, mostly from Cyclone Debbie.

2017–18 South Pacific cyclone season

The 2017–18 South Pacific cyclone season was a slightly below-average season that produced 6 tropical cyclones, 3 of which became severe tropical cyclones. The season officially began on November 1, 2017 and ended on April 30, 2018; however, a tropical cyclone could form at any time between July 1, 2017 and June 30, 2018 and would count towards the season total. During the season, tropical cyclones were officially monitored by the Fiji Meteorological Service, MetService and the Australian Bureau of Meteorology, while the United States Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) also monitored the basin and issued warnings for American interests. The FMS attaches a number and an F suffix to significant tropical disturbances that form in or move into the basin, while the JTWC designates significant tropical cyclones with a number and a P suffix. The BoM, FMS and MetService all use the Australian Tropical Cyclone Intensity Scale and estimate wind speeds over a period of ten minutes, while the JTWC estimates sustained winds over a 1-minute period, which are subsequently compared to the Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale (SSHWS).

Cyclone Lua

Severe Tropical Cyclone Lua affected a sparsely populated region of Western Australia during mid-March 2012. Originating in a broad low pressure area that formed northwest of Australia by 8 March, the storm was plagued by inhibiting wind shear for the duration of its formative stages. However, it gradually organised, and received the name Lua on 13 March. The cyclone meandered for the first several days of its existence, caught between weak and competing steering currents. After the cyclone drifted northwestward, a building ridge of high pressure to the north drove Lua southeastward toward the Pilbara region. Ultimately intensifying into an upper-end Category 3 severe tropical cyclone with maximum sustained 10-minute winds of 155 km/h (100 mph), Lua made landfall near the remote community of Pardoo, about 150 km (95 mi) east of Port Hedland. It steadily weakened as it progressed south over interior Western Australia, diminishing below tropical cyclone status on 18 March.

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