2018–19 Australian region cyclone season

Last updated
2018–19 Australian region cyclone season
2018-2019 Australian region cyclone season summary.png
Season summary map
Seasonal boundaries
First system formed26 September 2018
Last system dissipated18 May 2019
Strongest storm
NameVeronica
  Maximum winds195 km/h (120 mph)
(10-minute sustained)
  Lowest pressure938 hPa (mbar)
Seasonal statistics
Tropical lows25
Tropical cyclones11
Severe tropical cyclones6
Total fatalities14 total
Total damage$2.243 billion (2018 USD)
Related articles
Australian region tropical cyclone seasons
2016–17, 2017–18, 2018–19, 2019–20 , 2020–21

The 2018–19 Australian region cyclone season was a near-average season where most tropical cyclones form in the Southern Indian Ocean and Pacific Oceans between 90°E and 160°E. The season officially began on 1 November 2018 and concluded on 30 April 2019; however, tropical cyclones can form at any time of the year, and as such, any system existing between 1 July 2018 and 30 June 2019 and would count towards the season total. This was evidenced by the formation of Tropical Low Liua during September 2018 and Tropical Cyclones Lili and Ann in May 2019. During the season, tropical cyclones were officially monitored by the Australian Bureau of Meteorology (BOM), the Indonesian Agency for Meteorology, Climatology and Geophysics (BMKG) in Jakarta, Indonesia, and the National Weather Service of Papua New Guinea in Port Moresby. The United States Navy's Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) in Hawaii, and other national meteorological services such as MetService in New Zealand, Météo-France at La Réunion, and the Fiji Meteorological Service, also monitored parts of the basin during the season in an unofficial capacity.

Indian Ocean The ocean between Africa, Asia, Australia and Antarctica (or the Southern Ocean)

The Indian Ocean is the third largest of the world's oceanic divisions, covering 70,560,000 km2 (27,240,000 sq mi). It is bounded by Asia on the north, on the west by Africa, on the east by Australia, and on the south by the Southern Ocean or, depending on definition, by Antarctica.

Pacific Ocean Ocean between Asia and Australia in the west, the Americas in the east and Antarctica or the Southern Ocean in the south.

The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of Earth's oceanic divisions. It extends from the Arctic Ocean in the north to the Southern Ocean in the south and is bounded by Asia and Australia in the west and the Americas in the east.

The Bureau of Meteorology (BOM) is an Executive Agency of the Australian Government responsible for providing weather services to Australia and surrounding areas. It was established in 1906 under the Meteorology Act, and brought together the state meteorological services that existed before then. The states officially transferred their weather recording responsibilities to the Bureau of Meteorology on 1 January 1908.

Contents

Seasonal forecasts

RegionAverage
number
Chance
of more
Chance
of less
Actual
activity
Whole1137%63%11
Western744%56%5
North-Western541%59%4
Northern346%54%5
Eastern440%60%5
Source: BOM's Seasonal Outlooks for Tropical Cyclones. [1]

During October, ahead of the tropical cyclone season, the Bureau of Meteorology issued a tropical cyclone outlook for the upcoming 2018–19 season, which would officially run from 1 November 2018 to 30 April 2019. Seasonal forecasts were issued for the basin as a whole, as well as the Eastern, Northern and Western regions and the North-Western sub-region. [1] The forecasts took into account various factors, including the latest neutral to weak El Niño conditions that had been observed in the tropical Pacific Ocean. [1]

El Niño Warm phase of a cyclic climatic phenomenon in the Pacific Ocean

El Niño is the warm phase of the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and is associated with a band of warm ocean water that develops in the central and east-central equatorial Pacific, including the area off the Pacific coast of South America. The ENSO is the cycle of warm and cold sea surface temperature (SST) of the tropical central and eastern Pacific Ocean. El Niño is accompanied by high air pressure in the western Pacific and low air pressure in the eastern Pacific. El Niño phases are known to occur close to four years, however, records demonstrate that the cycles have lasted between two and seven years. During the development of El Niño, rainfall develops between September–November. The cool phase of ENSO is La Niña, with SSTs in the eastern Pacific below average, and air pressure high in the eastern Pacific and low in the western Pacific. The ENSO cycle, including both El Niño and La Niña, causes global changes in temperature and rainfall.

The outlooks showed that activity in the basin overall, as well as for each of its individual regions, would be near to below average. [1] For the Western region between 90°E and 125°E, the BOM forecast that the area would also see activity below its average of 7, with a 56% chance of a below average number of tropical cyclones occurring. [1] TCWC Perth also noted that there was a likelihood of two tropical cyclones and a significant likelihood of at least one severe tropical cyclone impacting Western Australia. [2] For the North-Western sub-region between 105°E and 130°E, it was predicted that activity would be above average, with a 41% chance of below-average tropical cyclone activity. [1] The Northern Territory, which was defined as being between as being 125°E and 142.5°E, had a 54% chance of an above-average season. [1] The Eastern region between 142.5°E and 160°E was predicted to have a below-normal tropical cyclone season, with a 60% chance of below-average tropical cyclone activity. [1]

Seasonal summary

Cyclone Lili (2019)Tropical cyclone scales#Comparisons across basins2018-19 Australian region cyclone season

Systems

Tropical Low Liua

Tropical low (Australian scale)
Liua 2018-09-26 0247Z.jpg   Liua 2018 track.png
Duration26 September – 29 September (Out of basin on 27 September)
Peak intensity55 km/h (35 mph) (10-min)  995  hPa  (mbar)

During September 24, the JTWC started to monitor a tropical disturbance, that had developed about 990 km (615 mi) to the east-northeast of Port Moresby in Papua New Guinea. [3] The system moved southeastwards over the following few days, and was classified as a tropical depression by the Fiji Meteorological Service on 26 September while situated on the boundary between the Australian basin and the South Pacific basin. [4] [5] The system proceeded to intensify into a category 1 tropical cyclone on the Australian scale, and was named 'Liua' by the Fiji Meteorological Service. [6] The system turned westwards and began tracking back towards the Australian region the next day, [7] but was assessed as having weakened into a tropical depression prior to exiting the South Pacific basin on 28 September. [8] After re-entering the Australian region, Ex-Tropical Cyclone Liua's weakening trend continued due to unfavourable atmospheric conditions and the cool sea surface temperatures of early spring. Dissipation of the tropical low into a remnant area of low-pressure occurred the following day over the northern Coral Sea. [9]

A South Pacific tropical cyclone is a non frontal, low pressure system that has developed, within an environment of warm sea surface temperatures and little vertical wind shear aloft in the South Pacific Ocean. Within the Southern Hemisphere there are officially three areas where tropical cyclones develop on a regular basis, these areas are the South-West Indian Ocean between Africa and 90°E, the Australian region between 90°E and 160°E and the South Pacific basin between 160°E and 120°W. The South Pacific basin between 160°E and 120°W is officially monitored by the Fiji Meteorological Service and New Zealand's MetService, while others like the Australian Bureau of Meteorology and the United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration also monitor the basin. Each tropical cyclone year within this basin starts on July 1 and runs throughout the year, encompassing the tropical cyclone season which runs from November 1 and lasts until April 30 each season. Within the basin, most tropical cyclones have their origins within the South Pacific Convergence Zone or within the Northern Australian monsoon trough, both of which form an extensive area of cloudiness and are dominant features of the season. Within this region a tropical disturbance is classified as a tropical cyclone, when it has 10-minute sustained wind speeds of more than 65 km/h (35 mph), that wrap halfway around the low level circulation centre, while a severe tropical cyclone is classified when the maximum 10-minute sustained wind speeds are greater than 120 km/h (75 mph).

Tropical cyclones are ranked on one of five tropical cyclone intensity scales, according to their maximum sustained winds and which tropical cyclone basin(s) they are located in. Only a few scales of classifications are used officially by the meteorological agencies monitoring the tropical cyclones, but some alternative scales also exist, such as accumulated cyclone energy, the Power Dissipation Index, the Integrated Kinetic Energy Index, and the Hurricane Severity Index.

Fiji Meteorological Service meteorological service of Fiji

The Fiji Meteorological Service (FMS) is a Department of the government of Fiji responsible for providing weather forecasts and is based in Nadi. The current director of Fiji Meteorological Service is Ravind Kumar. Since 1985, FMS has been responsible for naming and tracking tropical cyclones in the Southwest Pacific region. Current Meteorologists working at FMS have a Graduate Diploma in Meteorology from the Australian Bureau of Meteorology.

While in the Australian region as a tropical low on 26 September, the system caused minor impacts in the Solomon Islands. Despite only existing as a tropical system in the Australian region for a short period of time, Ex-Tropical Cyclone Liua made the 2018-19 season the third in a row in which the region's tropical cyclone activity began prior to the official start date of 1 November. [8] [10] [11] [12]

Solomon Islands Country in Oceania

Solomon Islands is a sovereign state consisting of six major islands and over 900 smaller islands in Oceania lying to the east of Papua New Guinea and northwest of Vanuatu and covering a land area of 28,400 square kilometres (11,000 sq mi). The country's capital, Honiara, is located on the island of Guadalcanal. The country takes its name from the Solomon Islands archipelago, which is a collection of Melanesian islands that also includes the North Solomon Islands, but excludes outlying islands, such as Rennell and Bellona, and the Santa Cruz Islands.

Tropical Low Bouchra

Tropical low (Australian scale)
Tropical storm (SSHWS)
04S 2018-11-10 0708Z.jpg   Bouchra 2018 track.png
Duration9 November – 16 November (Exited basin)
Peak intensity55 km/h (35 mph) (10-min)  1004  hPa  (mbar)

A weak low-pressure system developed in the equatorial Indian Ocean in Météo-France's area of responsibility on 1 November and moved slowly eastwards over the following few days while showing little sign of intensification. [13] Late on 9 November, as the developing precursor depression to Severe Cyclonic Storm Gaja in the Bay of Bengal moved further away and the competing low-level airflow convergence associated with it diminished, [14] the system's structure organised sufficiently to be classified as a tropical disturbance by Météo-France. [15] Soon there-afterwards, the system crossed the 90th meridian east and entered the Australian region, where it was classified by TCWC Jakarta as a tropical depression on 10 November local time. [16] Later the same day, the JTWC assessed the developing low as having attained tropical storm status on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Wind Scale, and assigned the system the unofficial designation 04S. [17] A few hours later, at 10:00 UTC, the system moved back westwards and returned to the South-West Indian Ocean basin, [18] where it gained the name 'Bouchra' from Météo-France and underwent a twelve-hour phase of rapid intensification to severe tropical storm status. [19]

Cyclone Gaja Gaja Means Elephant

Severe Cyclonic Storm Gaja was the sixth named cyclone of the 2018 North Indian Ocean cyclone season, after Cyclones Sagar, Mekunu, Daye, Luban, and Titli. Forming on November 5 as a low pressure system over the Gulf of Thailand, the system crossed through Southern Thailand and the Malay Peninsula and eventually crossed into the Andaman Sea. The weak system intensified into a depression over the Bay of Bengal on November 10 and further intensified to a cyclonic storm on November 11, being classified 'Gaja'. After tracking west-southwestward for a number of days in the Bay of Bengal, Gaja made landfall in South India, shifted through Vedaranyam, Voimedu, Thiruthuraipoondi,Muthupet, and Adirampattinam. The storm survived it's crossing into the Arabian Sea; however, it dissipated in hostile conditions only a few days later. 45 people were killed by the storm. After Cyclone Gaja, Tamil Nadu sought Rs 15,000 crore from Centre to rebuild.

Bay of Bengal Northeastern part of the Indian Ocean between India and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands

The Bay of Bengal is the northeastern part of the Indian Ocean, bounded on the west and northwest by India, on the north by Bangladesh, and on the east by Myanmar and the Andaman Islands of India and Myanmar and the Nicobar Islands of India. Its southern limit is a line between Sri Lanka and the northwesternmost point of Sumatra (Indonesia). It is the largest water region called a bay in the world. There are countries dependent on the Bay of Bengal in South Asia and Southeast Asia. The Bay of Bengal was also called the Chola Lake.

90th meridian east

The meridian 90° east of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, Asia, the Indian Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.

After meandering just to the west of the South-West Indian Ocean border for a number of days, the system re-entered the Australian region late on 12 November. [20] By this stage, the system had weakened significantly from its peak intensity, and was only at tropical low strength. [21] The period of residence in the Australian basin proved to be short-lived once again, however, with Météo-France indicating that Ex-Tropical Cyclone Bouchra had returned to the far-eastern part of their area of responsibility early on 13 November. [20] The very next day, the Bureau of Meteorology noted that the system had once again returned to the Australian basin, and was located approximately 1,000 km (620 mi) northwest of the Cocos Islands, marking the tropical low's third period of existence in the Australian region in just five days. [22]

Severe Tropical Cyclone Owen

Category 3 severe tropical cyclone (Australian scale)
Category 1 tropical cyclone (SSHWS)
Owen 2018-12-13 0300Z.png   Owen 2018 track.png
Duration29 November – 17 December
Peak intensity150 km/h (90 mph) (10-min)  958  hPa  (mbar)

The Bureau of Meteorology noted on 29 November that a low-pressure system located over the Solomon Islands had developed into a tropical low. [23] The following day, as the system approached Tagula Island on a south-westwards track, the Joint Typhoon Warning Center issued a tropical cyclone formation alert as the system improved in organisation. [24] Fuelled by the warm sea surface temperatures of the Coral Sea, and aided by excellent upper outflow channels, the tropical low continued to strengthen. [25] At 06:00 UTC on 2 December, the Bureau of Meteorology upgraded the system to a Category 1 tropical cyclone on the Australian scale, and gave it the name 'Owen', making it the first tropical cyclone to form in the basin during the season. Owen weakened rapidly on 4 December and was downgraded to a tropical low. [26]

Owen continued travelling westwards over the Coral Sea as a tropical low and made landfall well north of Cardwell, Queensland early on 10 December. After entering the Gulf of Carpentaria and reorganizing, Owen reattained Category 1 intensity on 11 December. The storm then completed an anti-cyclonic loop and turned back to the east. Owen gradually began to intensify, peaking as a Category 3 severe tropical cyclone with maximum 10-minute sustained winds of 150 km/h (90 mph). Owen made landfall near Kowanyama early on 15 December as a low-end Category 3 severe tropical cyclone and gradually weakened thereafter due to land interaction. [27] That afternoon, Owen was downgraded to a tropical low once more. Late that day, Owen emerged into the Coral Sea once again, before transitioning into a subtropical low on 17 December. Soon afterward, the system restrengthened somewhat, before weakening again on 18 December. Afterward, Owen made a counterclockwise loop towards Australia, while steadily weakening. Owen degenerated into a remnant low on 20 December before dissipating two days later, just off the east coast of northern Queensland.

During the storm's passage over northern Queensland, Owen killed a person and produced steady rainfall throughout the region, with the highest totals predicted for the eastern coast compared to the southwestern portions of the state. [28] Innisfail recorded a daily total of 149 millimetres (5.9 in) of rain on 15 December, with Cowley Beach recording 135 millimetres (5.3 in), Copperlode Falls Dam west of Cairns recording 130 millimetres (5.1 in) and Mission Beach recording 98 millimetres (3.9 in). [29]

Tropical Cyclone Kenanga

Category 1 tropical cyclone (Australian scale)
Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Kenanga 2018-12-15 0745Z.jpg   Kenanga 2018 track.png
Duration14 December – 16 December (Exited basin)
Peak intensity75 km/h (45 mph) (10-min)  996  hPa  (mbar)

On 14 December, a tropical low formed well southwest of Sumatra. After a period of strengthening, it received the name Kenanga as it tracked roughly southwestward. Continuing on this course, it exited the basin on 16 December and subsequently strengthened into an intense tropical cyclone in the South-West Indian Ocean basin.

Tropical Cyclone Penny

Category 2 tropical cyclone (Australian scale)
Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Penny 2019-01-04 0310Z.jpg   Penny 2018 track.png
Duration30 December – 9 January
Peak intensity95 km/h (60 mph) (10-min)  987  hPa  (mbar)

In an active late December in terms of tropical low formation, the Bureau of Meteorology noted the development of a third weak tropical low [30] in the monsoon trough extending from the tropical waters of the Coral Sea in the east, to the Timor Sea in the west. [31] The revival of monsoonal and related convective activity in the region was associated with a moderate-strength pulse of the Madden-Julian Oscillation moving eastwards across the Maritime Continent. [32] The tropical low, officially designated 07U, was located near the eastern coastline of Cape York Peninsula, and was assessed by the Bureau of Meteorology as having a high chance of intensifying to tropical cyclone strength within the next three days, owing to a favourable atmospheric environment. [30]

Tropical Low 07U tracked slowly westwards, and passed over the east coast of Cape York Peninsula on 30 December, south of the town of Lockhart River. At this point, the Bureau of Meteorology issued its first tropical cyclone advice and forecast track map relating to the system. [33] Maintaining its westward motion, the system emerged over the Gulf of Carpentaria very early in the morning of 31 December, crossing the Queensland coast between Aurukun and Weipa, where generally favourable conditions fuelled intensification. [34] Tropical Low 07U turned eastwards at about midday on 31 December, and proceeded to strengthen into a category 1 tropical cyclone on the Australian scale a few hours later, being named ‘Penny’ by the Bureau of Meteorology. [34]

Tropical Cyclone Penny made landfall on the western Cape York Peninsula coastline, just south of Weipa, at approximately 15:30 local time on 1 January, [35] generating maximum ten-minute sustained winds of 75 km/h (45 mph) near the centre. The system began to weaken as it tracked over land, and was downgraded to a gale-force tropical low a few hours later, with sustained tropical cyclone-strength winds persisting in the system’s western semicircle. [35] Thursday Island in the Torres Strait recorded ten-minute sustained winds of at least 41 km/h (25 mph) for a period of more than 17 hours while the system moved eastwards across Cape York Peninsula, including sustained winds of up to 65 km/h (40 mph) and gusts to 91 km/h (56 mph). [36] Ex-Tropical Cyclone Penny crossed the east coast of Far North Queensland at Lockhart River in the early hours of the next morning, bringing the system over the warm waters of the Coral Sea for a second time. [37]

Ex-Tropical Cyclone Penny quickly tracked eastwards across the Coral Sea, while regaining the organisation and convective structure that had been eroded due to land interaction over Cape York Peninsula. At 06:00 UTC on 2 January, the Bureau of Meteorology assessed the system as having regained tropical cyclone structure and intensity, and upgraded it to a Category 1 tropical cyclone.

Tropical Low Mona

Tropical low (Australian scale)
Mona 2018-12-29 0325Z.jpg   Mona 2019 track.png
Duration28 December – 31 December (Exited basin)
Peak intensityWinds not specified  1002  hPa  (mbar)

A weak tropical low developed in a monsoon trough stretching across the northern Coral Sea on 28 December, situated in the far northeast of the Eastern Region, near the southern Solomon Islands. [30] The system meandered for a few days without any notable intensification, before moving slowly eastwards out of the Australian region late on 31 December. [38] Upon entering the South Pacific basin, the system was classified as Tropical Disturbance 04F by the Fiji Meteorological Service. The system later intensified into Tropical Cyclone Mona on 2 January.

Tropical Low 11U

Tropical low (Australian scale)
11U 2019-01-24 0700Z.jpg   11U 2019 track.png
Duration15 January – 29 January
Peak intensityWinds not specified  1004  hPa  (mbar)

Severe Tropical Cyclone Riley

Category 3 severe tropical cyclone (Australian scale)
Category 1 tropical cyclone (SSHWS)
Riley 2019-01-27 0600Z.jpg   Riley 2019 track.png
Duration19 January – 30 January
Peak intensity120 km/h (75 mph) (10-min)  974  hPa  (mbar)

Tropical Low 13U

Tropical low (Australian scale)
13U 2019-01-24 0415Z.jpg   13U 2019 track.png
Duration21 January – 25 January
Peak intensity55 km/h (35 mph) (10-min)  999  hPa  (mbar)

Tropical Cyclone Oma

Category 2 tropical cyclone (Australian scale)
Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Oma 2019-02-21 0301Z.jpg   Oma 2019 track.png
Duration7 February – 22 February
(Out of basin between 11-21 and 22 February)
Peak intensity100 km/h (65 mph) (10-min)  979  hPa  (mbar)

On 7 February, a second tropical low developed within a very active monsoon trough, east of Cardwell on the northern Queensland coast. [39] Environmental conditions over the Coral Sea in the low's vicinity were not particularly favourable for cyclogenesis, however, and the system was forecast by the Bureau of Meteorology as having only a low chance of developing into a tropical cyclone. [39] On 11 February, the system exited the basin and later strengthened into Tropical Cyclone Oma in the South Pacific basin. The system reentered the Australian region basin on 21 February, as a Category 2 tropical cyclone. However, on 22 February, the system exited the Australian region basin and reentered the South Pacific basin.

Large swells from the cyclone impacted large swathes of Queensland for approximately a week. Around Brisbane, the surf caused significant beach erosion; particularly affected was a 16 km (9.9 mi) stretch along Moore Park Beach. [40] More than 30 people required rescue, some of whom were hospitalised, from the turbulent waters. [41] One person drowned just off North Stradbroke Island after attempts to resuscitate him failed (while Oma was in the Australian region basin). [40] Winds up to 80 km/h (50 mph) destroyed approximately A$700,000 (US$500,000) worth of Cavendish bananas in Cudgen, New South Wales. [42]

Tropical Low 15U

Tropical low (Australian scale)
15U 2019-03-10 0435Z.jpg   15U 2019 track.png
Duration6 March – 11 March
Peak intensityWinds not specified  1007  hPa  (mbar)

Severe Tropical Cyclone Savannah

Category 4 severe tropical cyclone (Australian scale)
Category 3 tropical cyclone (SSHWS)
Savannah 2019-03-17 0421Z.jpg   Savannah 2019 track.png
Duration7 March – 17 March (exited basin)
Peak intensity175 km/h (110 mph) (10-min)  951  hPa  (mbar)

On 7 March, Tropical Low 17U formed to the south of Java. Over the next several days, the tropical low drifted west-northwestward, while changing little in intensity. On 12 March, 17U turned southwestward and began to organize, strengthening into Tropical Cyclone Savannah on 13 March. On 16 March, Savannah intensified into a Category 3 severe tropical cyclone, on the Australian region scale. It then reached its peak intensity early on 17 March, with maximum sustained 10-min winds of 175 km/h (110 mph). Later that day, it exited the basin and moved into the South-West Indian Ocean basin.

As a tropical low, Savannah brought heavy rainfall to the Indonesian island of Java. A five-year-old child was killed in Surabaya on 7 March, [43] in addition to five other casualties in Yogyakarta resulting from landslides. [44] Flooding in Madiun killed 2 people, [45] and the damage was up to 54 billion rupiah (US$3.82 million). [46] In Magelang, 4 tourists were washed away by the flood water, and eventually died. [47] Damage due to flooding in Ponorogo, Tulungagung and Bojonegoro was about 15 billion rupiah (US$1.06 million). [48] [49] [50]

Severe Tropical Cyclone Trevor

Category 4 severe tropical cyclone (Australian scale)
Category 3 tropical cyclone (SSHWS)
Trevor 2019-03-23 0110Z.png   Trevor 2019 track.png
Duration15 March – 26 March
Peak intensity175 km/h (110 mph) (10-min)  950  hPa  (mbar)

On March 15, a tropical low formed just off the east coast of Papua New Guinea. Over the next couple of days, the tropical low initially moved southeastward, crossing over the southeastern portion of Papua New Guinea on March 16, south of Port Moresby, and then turning southward on March 17. Late on the same day, the tropical low organised into Tropical Cyclone Trevor.[ citation needed ]

A farm in Coen, Queensland suffered losses of at least A$1 million (US$710,000) from the flooding associated with the cyclone, as a result of damage to equipment and loss of cattle. [51]

Severe Tropical Cyclone Veronica

Severe Tropical Cyclone Veronica

Category 4 severe tropical cyclone (Australian scale)
Category 4 tropical cyclone (SSHWS)
Veronica 2019-03-21 0219Z.jpg   Veronica 2019 track.png
Duration18 March – 31 March
Peak intensity195 km/h (120 mph) (10-min)  938  hPa  (mbar)

On 18 March, a tropical low formed to the southeast of East Timor. At 03:00 AWST on the morning of 20 March, the Bureau of Meteorology assessed the developing tropical low as having attained tropical cyclone strength, and named the system Veronica. Experiencing extremely favourable atmospheric conditions and very warm sea surface temperatures, Tropical Cyclone Veronica proceeded to intensify rapidly throughout the day, attaining Category 3 status on the Australian scale just 18 hours later. [52]

In preparation for passage of Veronica, major shipping ports on the Pilbara coastline were forced to cease operations in the interests of safety. The port of Port Hedland, the most valuable export hub in Australia and one of the largest iron ore loading ports in the world, was closed on 22 March, [53] with operations only resuming nearly four days later. [54] As a result of the disruption to the mining and export operations, Rio Tinto estimated that its iron ore production would suffer reductions of approximately 14 million tonnes during 2019. [55] Rio Tinto's Cape Lambert port wharf also sustained damage from waves generated by the cyclone, and repairs to the company's Robe River sorting facility following a fire earlier in the year were delayed during the event. [56] Fortescue Metals reported that exports of up to 2 million tonnes of its own iron ore were disrupted during the cyclone. [56] In total, economic costs associated with the mining disruptions and damage caused by Veronica may reach as much as A$2.2 billion (US$1.6 billion), [57] including A$1.8 billion (US$1.2 billion) for Rio Tinto. [56]

Severe Tropical Cyclone Wallace

Category 3 severe tropical cyclone (Australian scale)
Category 1 tropical cyclone (SSHWS)
Wallace 2019-04-08 0530Z.jpg   Wallace 2019 track.png
Duration1 April – 16 April
Peak intensity120 km/h (75 mph) (10-min)  980  hPa  (mbar)

Following the breakdown of the active monsoon trough which had contributed to the formation of Severe Tropical Cyclones Trevor and Veronica two weeks earlier, an increase in cross-equatorial flow from the northern Pacific Ocean led to the redevelopment of a weak monsoon trough across the tropical waters north of the Australian continent. [58] The return of this feature was responsible for the generation of atmospheric conditions which were more supportive of tropical low formation. [58] On 1 April, the Darwin office of the Bureau of Meteorology (BOM) noted that a weak tropical low had begun to form over the Arafura Sea, embedded within the newly formed weak monsoon trough. The BOM subsequently assigned this storm the identifier 21U. [59] At 02:00 AWST on 6 April (18:00 UTC on April 5), the tropical low strengthened into a Category 1 tropical cyclone on the Australian scale, and was named Wallace by the BOM. After an extended period of very slow intensification as a result of being hampered by strong vertical wind shear, the storm was upgraded to Category 2 at 00:00 UTC on 7 April. [60] The system was upgraded to a Category 3 severe tropical cyclone at 18:00 UTC on 8 April. Wallace persisted as a severe tropical cyclone for only six hours before rapidly weakening due to strong vertical wind shear. [61] At 00:00 UTC on 10 April, Wallace weakened below tropical cyclone intensity on the Australian scale to a gale-force tropical low. For the next several days, the tropical low weakened gradually while tracking steadily westwards, before finally dissipating on 16 April. [62]

Tropical Low 22U

Tropical low (Australian scale)
Tropical depression (SSHWS)
22U 2019-04-09 0511Z.jpg   22U 2019 track.png
Duration5 April – 15 April
Peak intensity65 km/h (40 mph) (10-min)  1005  hPa  (mbar)

On 5 April, the Bureau of Meteorology reported that Tropical Low 22U had formed in the far northeastern Gulf of Carpentaria. [63] The system began moving westward from the Torres Strait towards the northeastern coast of the Top End without any significant intensification due to generally unfavourable atmospheric conditions for cyclogenesis. [63] The low moved across the Arafura Sea just off the Northern Territory coastline on 6 April, [64] entering the Van Diemen Gulf the following day. [65] As the system tracked generally westwards into the Timor Sea and began to roughly retrace the path that Severe Tropical Cyclone Wallace had taken a few days earlier, [66] the low showed some signs of intensification. However, the atmospheric environment was generally unfavourable for significant strengthening, and the system remained relatively weak and devoid of gale-force winds. The tropical low passed close to Browse Island on 10 April before exiting the Timor Sea, and moving into the Indian Ocean proper.

After moving steadily southwestwards across the Indian Ocean to the northwest of Western Australia for several days, Tropical Low 22U began to approach the western Pilbara district and North West Cape of Western Australia. The Joint Typhoon Warning Center noted that despite wind shear leaving the low-level circulation centre exposed, the tropical low was relatively well-structured, with spiral banding wrapping into well-organised lower layers and a tightly defined centre. [67] Particularly strong sustained winds were present in the southern quadrants of the system due to acceleration by the steep pressure gradient with a surface high-pressure system located to the south. [67] At 00:00 UTC on 14 April, ten-minute sustained winds peaking at 63 km/h (39 mph) were observed on Varanus Island, [68] located about 60 km (35 mi) northwest of the mainland and 130 km (80 mi) west of the town of Karratha. Although such gale-force winds are equivalent to Category 1 intensity on the Australian scale, the Bureau of Meteorology's definition of a tropical cyclone requires these winds to extend more than halfway around the system's surface circulation for the system to be upgraded from a tropical low. [69]

The tropical low made landfall on the coast of Western Australia near the town of Onslow, to the east of the Exmouth Gulf, on the afternoon of 14 April (local time). [70] By this stage, the system had become trapped beneath strong upper-level westerly flow, which was acting to further displace the remaining fragmented convection to the east of the storm's centre. [71] The weakened and shallow system proceeded eastwards towards the Northern Interior district of Western Australia, while continuing to unravel, dissipating by 05:00 UTC on 15 April, while located over the Great Sandy Desert. [72]

Tropical Low 22U delivered sustained moderate to heavy rainfall to large areas of the Arnhem District during its track across the Gulf of Carpentaria and the Top End. The town of Nhulunbuy received especially large precipitation totals, with the nearby Gove Airport recording 229.6 mm (9.04 in) of rain during the 72-hour period to 09:00 local time (ACST) on 8 April—its largest three-day total since March 2015 during the passage of Cyclone Nathan. [73] [74] Central Plateau in the west of the Arnhem Land region also received 81 mm (3.2 in) in the 20-hour period up to 05:00 ACST on 7 April. [75] Browse Island, situated approximately 175 km (110 mi) northwest of Western Australia's Kimberley coastline, experienced relatively strong winds on 10 April as Tropical Low 22U passed nearby, with ten-minute mean winds peaking at 54 km/h (34 mph), with gusts as high as 69 km/h (43 mph) also recorded. [76] Upon nearing land in the far western Pilbara, the tropical low delivered moderate rainfall and gusty winds to locations throughout the region's coastal fringe and nearby islands. Varanus Island recorded gusts of up to 87 km/h (54 mph), coincident with sustained gale-force winds, [68] and gusts reached 65 km/h (40 mph) and 61 km/h (38 mph) at Onslow and Barrow Island, respectively. [77] [78] Widespread wind gusts in excess of 50 km/h (31 mph) were observed in numerous areas, including at Roebourne, Mardie, Karratha and Thevenard Island. [79] [80] [81] [82] Learmonth Airport, near Exmouth on the North West Cape, accumulated 37.6 mm (1.48 in) of rainfall in the seven-hour period to 09:00 local time (AWST) on 14 April. [83]

Tropical Low

Tropical low (Australian scale)
Tropical depression (SSHWS)
23U 2019-04-25 0717Z.jpg   TL 92S Apr 2019 track.png
Duration21 April – 26 April
Peak intensity55 km/h (35 mph) (10-min)  998  hPa  (mbar)

During mid-April, a low-pressure system and its associated low-pressure trough generated heavy precipitation over the central-eastern Indian Ocean, including significant rainfall totals in the region of the Cocos (Keeling) Islands, a populated Australian external territory. [84] On 21 April, as the low began to deepen, the system embedded within the trough was classified by the Bureau of Meteorology as a tropical low, while located southwest of the Indonesian island of Sumatra. [84] The storm moved steadily southwestwards before stalling on 22 April, then assumed a more southerly motion on 24 April. [85] The Joint Typhoon Warning Center classified the system as a tropical depression on 25 April in accordance with the low's improved structure and organisation. [86] It was noted that environmental conditions in the vicinity were largely favourable for continued development, with good poleward upper-level outflow and warm sea surface temperatures, with the only mitigating factor being moderate to high vertical wind shear to the north and south of the low. Organisation proceeded in response to the conducive conditions, with sustained convection and formative cloud banding developing around the consolidating low-level circulation centre.

Despite initial forecasts of a medium chance to develop into a tropical cyclone, the tropical low began to degrade later on 25 April, [87] and it was indicated that the system was unlikely to intensify further. [88] By this stage, the tropical low had commenced a direct binary interaction (consistent with the Fujiwhara Effect) with the significantly stronger Severe Tropical Storm Lorna, located less than ten degrees of longitude to the west, in the South-West Indian Ocean basin. [87] As Lorna tracked east-southeastward towards the Australian region, the low-level circulation of the tropical low began to elongate, with the distribution of deep convective activity becoming increasingly fragmented. [87] Now increasingly displaying features consistent with a vigorous low-pressure trough, the tropical low continued to weaken into 26 April, as it maintained its southward track. [87] Having lost its structure, the Bureau of Meteorology indicated that the storm had dissipated as a tropical low by 06:00 UTC on 26 April. [89] The ex-tropical low was fully absorbed by the intensifying Cyclone Lorna the following day.

The tropical low's track brought the system within a few hundred kilometres of the Cocos Islands on 23–25 April. [88] As a result of the close proximity of the storm, strong winds and moderate rainfall were experienced for an extended period on the islands. At Cocos Islands Airport on West Island, the capital of the Cocos Islands, sustained winds peaked at 59 km/h (37 mph)—slightly below gale-force—at 11:30 p.m. local time (17:00 UTC) on 24 April, with gusts of up to 76 km/h (47 mph) also recorded. Including associated heavy rainfall prior to the system's classification as a tropical low, [84] West Island received 457.6 mm (18.0 in) of rainfall from 17–27 April. [90]

Tropical Cyclone Lili

Category 1 tropical cyclone (Australian scale)
Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Lili 2019-05-09 0500Z.jpg   Lili 2019 track.png
Duration4 May – 11 May
Peak intensity75 km/h (45 mph) (10-min)  997  hPa  (mbar)

Cyclone Lili (2019)

A moderate to strong pulse of the Madden-Julian Oscillation moved eastwards across the Maritime Continent during early May, generating unseasonal monsoonal activity throughout the Indonesian archipelago and far-northern parts of Australia. [91] As this pulse had tracked across the Indian Ocean during the preceding fortnight, [91] it had contributed to the favourable conditions which facilitated the intensification of the Extremely Severe Cyclonic Storm Fani in the Bay of Bengal. Similarly, the presence of the pulse in the Maritime Continent generated favourable conditions for cyclogenesis in the tropical seas to the north of the Australian continent, [91] despite May being outside the traditional bounds of the Australian region cyclone season. On 4 May, the Bureau of Meteorology noted the formation of a weak tropical low approximately 750 km (465 mi) to the north-northwest of Darwin, embedded within a low-pressure trough extending from Borneo to New Guinea. [92] [93] Over the next few days, the tropical low slowly moved southward over the Banda Sea while its central barometric pressure gradually deepened. Strong flaring convection began to surround the system as its low-level circulation centre consolidated on 7 May, and as a result, the JTWC issued a Tropical Cyclone Formation Alert at 17:30 UTC. [94] Located within an environment regarded as favourable for development, the JTWC forecast the system to strengthen into a tropical storm within the next 24 hours. [94] The tropical low was upgraded to a Category 1 tropical cyclone on the Australian scale at 03:00 UTC on 9 May, by the Indonesian Agency for Meteorology, Climatology and Geophysics (BMKG), [95] while centred approximately 570 km east of Kupang. [96] Located just inside the area of responsibility of TCWC Jakarta upon reaching tropical cyclone status, the system was officially named Lili by the BMKG. [95]

Soon afterwards, the JTWC followed suit, indicating that the storm's sustained winds had increased to the equivalent of tropical-storm-force on the Saffir-Simpson hurricane wind scale (SSHWS). After turning towards the west-southwest at 00:00 UTC on 10 May, Lili soon began to weaken. [97] [98] Despite the marginally favourable environment for strengthening, land interaction and significant dry-air intrusion caused the system to deteriorate. [99] Lili was downgraded to a tropical low at 12:00 UTC on 10 May, [100] and dissipated by 06:00 UTC on 11 May, upon making landfall in northern East Timor. [101] [102]

Tropical Cyclone Ann

Category 2 tropical cyclone (Australian scale)
Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Ann 2019-05-13 0251Z.jpg   Ann 2019 track.png
Duration9 May (Entered basin) – 18 May
(Out of basin on 10 May)
Peak intensity95 km/h (60 mph) (10-min)  993  hPa  (mbar)

On 7 May, the Bureau of Meteorology indicated that a tropical low had developed within the South Pacific basin. The weak system tracked slowly towards the southwest, passing close to Honiara in the Solomon Islands on 8 May. [103] At 06:00 UTC on 9 May, the tropical low crossed the 160th meridian east and entered the Australian region from the South Pacific basin. [104] The environment was generally favourable for further development, with warm sea surface temperatures and good upper outflow, as well as relatively low vertical wind shear. [105] [106] The system turned back eastward on 10 May, exiting the region by 06:00 UTC. [107] The Bureau of Meteorology noted that the environment had become unfavourable for further intensification; [108] however, contradicting this, the Joint Typhoon Warning Center forecast a gradual strengthening to tropical cyclone intensity over the following days in a supportive environment for cyclogenesis. [109] Just twelve hours later, at 18:00 UTC on 10 May, the tropical low tracked back westward, re-entering the Australian region for the second time. [110]

The storm's low-level circulation proceeded to organise as deep convection developed around the centre, and the BOM upgraded the system to a Category 1 tropical cyclone at 18:00 UTC on 11 May, assigning the name Ann. [111] Ann continued to strengthen, and the system attained Category 2 intensity at 18:00 UTC on the next day. However, the storm encountered unfavourable conditions soon afterward, weakening back to a Category 1 tropical cyclone on 13 May, as the system approached the far-northern coast of Queensland. Weakening continued in the only marginally-supportive environment, with deep convection becoming displaced to the south of an increasingly-exposed low-level circulation centre. Ann was re-classified as a tropical low by the BOM at 03:00 UTC on 14 May, despite still producing gale-force winds, while located approximately 335 km (210 mi) east-northeast of Cooktown. Weakening continued, and the system made landfall near the town of Lockhart River on Cape York Peninsula at approximately 04:30 UTC on 15 May. Ex-Tropical Cyclone Ann emerged over the Gulf of Carpentaria after 06:00 UTC as a shallow circulation, and degenerated into a weak remnant low twelve hours later. [112] [113] Ann later entered the Arafura Sea on 16 May while continuing to drift westward, and was last mentioned by the BoM on 18 May, as the system dissipated near East Timor. [114]

Other systems

On the morning of 14 November, the Bureau of Meteorology noted the development of a tropical low in an area of thunderstorms situated about 490 km (305 mi) to northwest of Christmas Island. [22] Located over the warm waters of the tropical Indian Ocean off the coast of Java, the system was forecast to track southeastward over the following days, and was assessed as having a moderate chance of developing into a tropical cyclone. [22] The tropical low tracked in a generally south-southwesterly direction over the following few days, but remained below tropical cyclone intensity, due to atmospheric conditions that were unconductive to cyclogenesis. The system later dissipated on 18 November.

On 9 December, the Bureau of Meteorology announced the development of a weak tropical low from a low-pressure system moving westwards through the mid-eastern Coral Sea, located approximately 1100 km (680 mi) east-northeast of Townsville. [115]

On 27 December, the Bureau of Meteorology indicated that a weak tropical low had developed over the Timor Sea, approximately 490 km (305 mi) northwest of Darwin. [116] In accordance with official forecasts, the tropical low did not strengthen, and dissipated on 28 December.

On 30 December, a weak tropical low developed over the Indian Ocean, south of the main Indonesian island of Java. [117] Atmospheric conditions were unfavourable for significant development of the system, however, and as such, the tropical low did not intensify. The system meandered south of Indonesia before dissipating on 2 January. [118]

On 14 February, the post-tropical remnants of Cyclone Gelena from the South-West Indian Ocean entered the Australian region basin, before dissipating on 15 February.

The Bureau of Meteorology noted that a weak tropical low pressure system had developed within a newly formed monsoon trough over the Coral Sea on 31 March, southeast of Papua New Guinea. [119] The tropical low remained slow moving over the following days, and in accordance with official forecasts, showed no signs of development, despite the warm sea surface temperatures in the region. [120] A few days later, the system weakened below tropical low status and dissipated on 3 April. [121]

Storm names

Bureau of Meteorology

Since the start of the 2008–09 season, there has only been one list from which the Bureau of Meteorology has assigned names to tropical cyclones, despite still operating three separate tropical cyclone warning centres (TCWCs) in Perth, Darwin and Brisbane. [122] These warning centres monitor all tropical cyclones that form within the Australian region, including any within the areas of responsibility of TCWC Jakarta or TCWC Port Moresby. The next 12 names on the naming list are listed below:

  • Owen
  • Penny
  • Riley
  • Savannah
  • Trevor
  • Veronica
  • Wallace
  • Ann
  • Blake (unused)
  • Claudia (unused)
  • Damien (unused)
  • Esther (unused)

TCWC Jakarta

The tropical cyclone warning centre in Jakarta monitors tropical cyclones from the Equator to 11°S and between the longitudes 90°E and 145°E. Should a tropical depression reach tropical cyclone strength within TCWC Jakarta's area of responsibility, it will be assigned the next name from the following list: [122]

TCWC Port Moresby

Tropical cyclones that develop between the Equator and 11°S, between 151°E and 160°E, are assigned names by the tropical cyclone warning centre in Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea. Tropical cyclone formation in this area is rare, with no cyclones being named in it since 2007. [123] As names are assigned in a random order the whole list is shown below:

  • Alu (unused)
  • Buri (unused)
  • Dodo (unused)
  • Emau (unused)
  • Fere (unused)
  • Hibu (unused)
  • Ila (unused)
  • Kama (unused)
  • Lobu (unused)
  • Maila (unused)

Others

Tropical Cyclone Oma re-entered the Australian region in the Coral Sea on 21 February as a Category 2 tropical cyclone. Its name was assigned by the Fiji Meteorological Service, as it first intensified to tropical cyclone strength while located in the South Pacific cyclone region.

Season effects

NameDates active Peak
classification
Sustained
wind speeds
PressureAreas affectedDamages
(AUD)
Damages
(USD)
DeathsRefs
Liua26  29 SeptemberTropical low55 km/h (35 mph)995 hPa (29.38 inHg) Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands NoneNone0
Bouchra9  16 NovemberTropical low55 km/h (35 mph)1004 hPa (29.65 inHg)NoneNoneNone0
TL14  18 NovemberTropical lowNot specified1004 hPa (29.65 inHg) Java, Christmas Island NoneNone0
Owen29 November – 17 DecemberCategory 3 severe tropical cyclone150 km/h (90 mph)958 hPa (28.29 inHg)Solomon Islands, Papua New Guinea, Queensland, Northern Territory $34.8 million$25 million1 [28] [124]
TL9  12 DecemberTropical lowNot specified1005 hPa (29.68 inHg)Solomon Islands, QueenslandNoneNone0
Kenanga14  16 DecemberCategory 1 tropical cyclone75 km/h (45 mph)996 hPa (29.41 inHg)NoneNoneNone0
Penny26 December – 9 JanuaryCategory 2 tropical cyclone95 km/h (60 mph)987 hPa (29.15 inHg)Papua New Guinea, QueenslandMinimalMinimal0
TL27  28 DecemberTropical lowNot specified1001 hPa (29.56 inHg) Timor, Northern TerritoryNoneNone0
Mona28  31 DecemberTropical lowNot specified1002 hPa (29.59 inHg)Solomon IslandsNoneNone0
TL30 December – 2 JanuaryTropical lowNot specified1005 hPa (29.68 inHg)NoneNoneNone0
11U15  29 JanuaryTropical lowNot specified1004 hPa (29.65 inHg)NoneNoneNone0
Riley19 – 30 JanuaryCategory 3 severe tropical cyclone120 km/h (75 mph)974 hPa (28.76 inHg) Western Australia NoneNone0
13U21  25 JanuaryTropical low55 km/h (35 mph)999 hPa (29.50 inHg)QueenslandNoneNone0
Oma7  22 FebruaryCategory 2 tropical cyclone100 km/h (65 mph)979 hPa (28.91 inHg)Solomon Islands, Queensland, New South Wales $700 thousand$500 thousand1
15U6  11 MarchTropical lowNot specified1007 hPa (29.74 inHg) Maluku Islands, East Timor NoneNone0
Savannah7 –17 MarchCategory 4 severe tropical cyclone175 km/h (110 mph)951 hPa (28.08 inHg) Java, Christmas Island, Cocos (Keeling) Islands $6.87 million$4.84 million12 [43] [44]
18U13  14 MarchTropical lowNot specified1006 hPa (29.71 inHg)NoneNoneNone0
Trevor15  26 MarchCategory 4 severe tropical cyclone175 km/h (110 mph)950 hPa (28.05 inHg)Papua New Guinea, Queensland, Northern Territory$1 million$710 thousand0
Veronica18  31 MarchCategory 4 severe tropical cyclone195 km/h (120 mph)938 hPa (27.70 inHg) Timor, Western Australia$2.2 billion$1.6 billion0 [56]
TL31 March –3 AprilTropical lowNot specified1005 hPa (29.68 inHg)Southeastern Papua New GuineaNoneNone0
Wallace1 – 16 AprilCategory 3 severe tropical cyclone120 km/h (75 mph)980 hPa (28.94 inHg)Eastern Indonesia, Northern Territory, East Timor, Western Australia, Cocos (Keeling) IslandsNoneNone0
22U5 – 15 AprilTropical low65 km/h (40 mph)1005 hPa (29.68 inHg) New Guinea, Queensland, Northern Territory, Western AustraliaNoneNone0
TL21 – 26 AprilTropical low55 km/h (35 mph)998 hPa (29.47 inHg) Sumatra, Cocos (Keeling) IslandsNoneNone0
Lili 4 – 11 MayCategory 1 tropical cyclone75 km/h (45 mph)997 hPa (29.44 inHg)Eastern Indonesia, East Timor, Top End, Northern Kimberley ModerateModerate0
Ann9  – 18 MayCategory 2 tropical cyclone95 km/h (60 mph)993 hPa (29.32 inHg)Solomon Islands, New Caledonia, Papua New Guinea, Queensland, Top End, East TimorNoneNone0
Season Aggregates
25 systems26 September – 18 May195 km/h (120 mph)938 hPa (27.70 inHg)$2.24 billion$1.63 billion14

See also

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The 2018–19 South Pacific cyclone season is the period of the year when most tropical cyclones form within the South Pacific Ocean to the east of 160°E. The season officially runs from November 1, 2018 to April 30, 2019; however, a tropical cyclone could form at any time between July 1, 2018 and June 30, 2019 and would count towards the season total. During the season, tropical cyclones will be officially monitored by the Fiji Meteorological Service, Australian Bureau of Meteorology, and New Zealand's MetService. The United States Armed Forces through the Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) also monitored the basin and issued warnings for American interests. RSMC Nadi attaches a number and an F suffix to tropical disturbances that form in or move into the basin, while the JTWC designates significant tropical cyclones with a number and a P suffix. The FMS, the BoM and MetService all use the Australian Tropical Cyclone Intensity Scale and estimate wind speeds over a period of ten minutes, while the JTWC estimates sustained winds over a 1-minute period, which are subsequently compared to the Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale (SSHWS).

Cyclone Alessia

Tropical Cyclone Alessia was the first tropical cyclone to affect the Northern Territory of Australia in November since Cyclone Joan in 1975. The storm was first identified as a tropical low on 20 November 2013 well to the northwest of Australia. Tracking generally west to west-southwest, the small system steadily organized into a tropical cyclone by 22 November. Maintaining a small central dense overcast, Alessia brushed the Kimberley region before making landfall in the Top End region with winds of 65 km/h (40 mph) on 23 and 24 November respectively. Some weakening took place as the system moved over land; however, reorganization occurred as it neared the Gulf of Carpentaria. After moving over water on 26 November, it redeveloped gale-force winds. Alessia reached its peak intensity on 27 November with winds of 85 km/h (50 mph) and a barometric pressure of 991 mbar and subsequently made its final landfall near Wollogorang. Weakening ensued once more as the storm traveled over land; though, Alessia's remnants looped eastward back over water before doubling back to the west. The system was last noted moving inland again over the Northern Territory on 1 December.

Cyclone Gillian

Severe Tropical Cyclone Gillian was the second most powerful of the 2013–14 Australian region cyclone season and the strongest in the basin in four years. It developed on 8 March, 2014, in the Gulf of Carpentaria offshore northern Australia. It drifted southeastward, moving over northwestern Queensland on 10 March as a weak tropical cyclone, and subsequently turned to the southwest and later to the west. Unfavourable wind shear, land interaction, and dry air prevented much restrengthening, and for several days, Gillian was a weak tropical low. The storm moved northward and curved westward around the Top End of northwestern Australia, and subsequently moved across several islands in Indonesia, first Timor on 18 March. On 21 March, Gillian again became a tropical cyclone as it moved away from Indonesia. On the next day, it passed just southeast of Christmas Island as an intensifying storm, and subsequently Gillian underwent rapid deepening. On 23 March, the Bureau of Meteorology (BoM) estimated peak 10-minute sustained winds of 220 km/h (140 mph). On the same day, the Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) estimated peak 1-minute sustained winds of 260 km/h (160 mph), making it a Category 5 on the Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale. Increased wind shear caused the cyclone to rapidly weaken, and both BoM and JTWC discontinued advisories on Gillian on 26 March.

Cyclone Marcia

Severe Tropical Cyclone Marcia was a powerful tropical cyclone that made landfall at its peak strength over central Queensland, near Shoalwater Bay on 20 February 2015. The cyclone went on to affect various areas including Yeppoon and Rockhampton. It passed just to the west of Yeppoon as a Category 4 system, then traversed over the regional city of Rockhampton as a Category 2 system on the same day. Eventually, the cyclone weakened, moved southeast out to sea, before dissipating. Marcia caused at least A$750 million (US$587 million) worth of damage.

2019 North Indian Ocean cyclone season North Indian Ocean Ocean cyclone season in 2019

The 2019 North Indian Ocean cyclone season is an ongoing event in the annual cycle of tropical cyclone formation. The North Indian Ocean cyclone season has no official bounds, but cyclones tend to form between April and December, with the two peaks in May and November. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the northern Indian Ocean. The season's first named storm, Pabuk, entered the basin on January 4, becoming the earliest-forming cyclonic storm of the North Indian Ocean on record. The second cyclone of the season, Fani, was the strongest tropical cyclone in the Bay of Bengal by 3-minute maximum sustained wind speed and minimum barometric pressure since the 1999 Odisha cyclone.

2018–19 South-West Indian Ocean cyclone season Period of the cyclone season in the southwest Indian Ocean between 2018 and 2019

The 2018–19 South-West Indian Ocean cyclone season was the costliest and most active season ever recorded since records began in 1967. Additionally, it is also the second-deadliest cyclone season recorded in the South-West Indian Ocean, behind only the 1891–92 season, in which the 1892 Mauritius cyclone devastated the island of Mauritius. The season was an event of the annual cycle of tropical cyclone and subtropical cyclone formation in the South-West Indian Ocean basin. It officially began on November 15, 2018, and ended on April 30, 2019, with the exception for Mauritius and the Seychelles, for which it will end on May 15, 2019. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical and subtropical cyclones form in the basin, which is west of 90°E and south of the Equator. Tropical and subtropical cyclones in this basin are monitored by the Regional Specialised Meteorological Centre in Réunion.

Cyclone Lili (2019) A tropical cyclone which affected eastern Indonesia, East Timor and far-northern Australia in May 2019.

Tropical Cyclone Lili was a small and relatively weak off-season tropical cyclone that brought moderate impacts to the Maluku Islands and East Timor, and mild impacts to other parts of eastern Indonesia and far-northern Australia. The storm was the latest tropical cyclone to exist in the Australian Bureau of Meteorology's northern tropical cyclone region on record, surpassing Severe Tropical Cyclone Verna of 1977. The tenth tropical cyclone of the 2018–19 Australian region cyclone season, and the second named by the Indonesian Agency for Meteorology, Climatology and Geophysics, Tropical Cyclone Lili originated from a tropical low which formed over the Banda Sea on 4 May 2019. Located approximately 750 km (465 mi) north-northwest of Darwin and embedded within a newly developed unseasonal monsoon trough, the tropical low tracked slowly southwards over the following days while gradually deepening. Encountering environmental conditions which were generally supportive of tropical cyclogenesis, the system strengthened into a Category 1 tropical cyclone on the Australian scale on 9 May. Upon reaching peak intensity at 18:00 UTC later that day, the storm had ten-minute sustained winds of 75 km/h (45 mph) and a central barometric pressure of 997 hPa (29.44 inHg). The United States' Joint Typhoon Warning Center estimated one-minute sustained winds at this time to be 85 km/h (50 mph), equivalent to a tropical storm on the Saffir-Simpson hurricane wind scale. Weakening commenced soon thereafter, as the storm assumed a track towards the west. The deterioration of the cyclone's structure due to the intrusion of dry air led the system to be downgraded to a tropical low at 12:00 UTC on 10 May. Ex-Tropical Cyclone Lili made landfall in northern East Timor in the afternoon of 11 May, and proceeded to rapidly degenerate due to the frictional effects of land interaction, dissipating as a tropical low by 06:00 UTC.

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