2018 Pacific hurricane season

Last updated
2018 Pacific hurricane season
2018 Pacific hurricane season summary map.png
Season summary map
Seasonal boundaries
First system formedMay 10, 2018
Last system dissipatedNovember 5, 2018
Strongest storm
Name Walaka
  Maximum winds160 mph (260 km/h)
(1-minute sustained)
  Lowest pressure920 mbar (hPa; 27.17 inHg)
Seasonal statistics
Total depressions26, 1 unofficial
Total storms23, 1 unofficial
Hurricanes13
Major hurricanes
(Cat. 3+)
10
Total fatalities52 total
Total damage> $1.57 billion (2018 USD)
Related articles
Pacific hurricane seasons
2016, 2017, 2018, 2019, 2020

The 2018 Pacific hurricane season produced the highest accumulated cyclone energy (ACE) value on record. With 23 named storms, it was the fourth-most active season on record, tied with 1982. The season officially began on May 15 in the eastern Pacific, and on June 1 in the central Pacific; they both ended on November 30. [1] These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the Pacific basin, as illustrated when the first tropical depression formed on May 10.

Accumulated cyclone energy (ACE) is a measure used by various agencies including the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the India Meteorological Department to express the activity of individual tropical cyclones and entire tropical cyclone seasons. It uses an approximation of the wind energy used by a tropical system over its lifetime and is calculated every six hours. The ACE of a season is the sum of the ACEs for each storm and takes into account the number, strength, and duration of all the tropical storms in the season. The highest ACE calculated for a single storm is 82, for Hurricane/Typhoon Ioke in 2006.

1982 Pacific hurricane season hurricane season in the Pacific Ocean

The 1982 Pacific hurricane season, with 23 named storms, ranks as the fourth-most active Pacific hurricane season on record, tied with 2018. It was at that time the most active season in the basin until it was later surpassed by the 1992 season. It officially started June 1, 1982, in the eastern Pacific, and June 1, 1982, in the central Pacific, and lasted until October 31, 1982, in the central Pacific and until November 15, 1982, in the Eastern Pacific. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the northeastern Pacific Ocean. At that time, the season was considered as the most active season within the basin; however, the 1992 season surpassed these numbers a decade later.

Pacific hurricane mature tropical cyclone that develops within the eastern and central Pacific Ocean

A Pacific hurricane is a mature tropical cyclone that develops within the eastern and central Pacific Ocean to the east of 180°W, north of the equator. For tropical cyclone warning purposes, the northern Pacific is divided into three regions: the eastern, central, and western, while the southern Pacific is divided into 2 sections, the Australian region and the southern Pacific basin between 160°E and 120°W. Identical phenomena in the western north Pacific are called typhoons. This separation between the two basins has a practical convenience, however, as tropical cyclones rarely form in the central north Pacific due to high vertical wind shear, and few cross the dateline.

Contents

The second named storm of the season, Hurricane Bud, struck Baja California Sur in mid-June, causing minor damage. Tropical Storm Carlotta stalled offshore of the Mexican coastline, where it also caused minor damage. In early August, Hurricane Hector became one of the few tropical cyclones to cross into the Western Pacific from the Eastern Pacific, while also affecting Hawaii. A few weeks later, Hurricane Lane obtained Category 5 intensity while also becoming Hawaii's wettest tropical cyclone on record, and the second wettest tropical cyclone in US history, only behind Hurricane Harvey of the previous year. Hurricane Olivia also struck Hawaii, resulting in slight damage. In late September, Hurricanes Rosa and Sergio formed, both of which eventually brought thunderstorms and flash flooding to the Baja California Peninsula and the Southwestern United States. Meanwhile, Hurricane Walaka attained Category 5 intensity before causing disruptions in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. In late October, Hurricane Willa became the record-tying third Category 5 hurricane of the season (tied with the 1994 and 2002 seasons) before striking Sinaloa as a major hurricane. Damage across the basin reached $1.57 billion (2018  USD), while 49 people were killed by the various storms.

Hurricane Bud (2018) Category 4 Pacific hurricane in 2018

Hurricane Bud was a powerful tropical cyclone that produced heavy rainfall and flash flooding across Northwestern Mexico and the Southwestern United States. The second named storm and major hurricane of the 2018 Pacific hurricane season, Bud originated from a tropical wave that departed from Africa on May 29. It then travelled across the Atlantic Ocean before crossing over South America and entering the Northeast Pacific Ocean late on June 6. The system then moved northwest and steadily organized, becoming a tropical depression late on June 9 and Tropical Storm Bud early the next day. Favorable upper-level winds and ample moisture allowed the storm to rapidly intensify to a hurricane late on June 10 and further to a major hurricane on June 11. Bud ultimately peaked the next morning with maximum sustained winds of 140 mph (220 km/h) and a minimum barometric pressure of 943 mbar. It curved north while rapidly succumbing to the effects of ocean upwelling, making landfall on Baja California Sur as a minimal tropical storm early on June 15. On the next day, land interaction and increasing wind shear caused Bud to degenerate to a remnant low, and Bud dissipated completely on June 16.

Baja California Sur State of Mexico

Baja California Sur, officially the Estado Libre y Soberano de Baja California Sur, is the second-smallest Mexican state by population and the 31st admitted state of the 31 states which, with Mexico City, make up the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico.

Tropical Storm Carlotta (2018) Tropical Storm in the Pacific of 2018

Tropical Storm Carlotta was a tropical cyclone that caused flooding within several states in southwestern and central Mexico. Carlotta formed as the result of a breakdown in the Intertropical Convergence Zone to the south of Mexico. On June 12, a broad area of low pressure formed several hundred miles south of the aforementioned country and strengthened into a tropical storm by June 15. On the next day, the storm unexpectedly stalled within a favorable environment, which led to more intensification than originally anticipated. Early on June 17, Carlotta reached peak intensity with maximum sustained winds of 65 mph and a minimum central pressure of 997 mbar while located only 30 mi south-southeast of Acapulco. Soon after, Carlotta began to interact with land and experience wind shear, which resulted in the system weakening to tropical depression status later in the day. The storm weakened to a remnant low early on June 19 and dissipated several hours later.

Seasonal forecasts

RecordNamed
storms
HurricanesMajor
hurricanes
Ref
Average (1981–2010):15.47.63.2 [2]
Record high activity: 1992: 27 2015: 16 2015: 11 [3]
Record low activity: 2010: 8 2010: 3 2003: 0 [3]
DateSourceNamed
storms
HurricanesMajor
hurricanes
Ref
May 24, 2018 NOAA 142071237 [4]
May 25, 2018 SMN 1864 [5]
AreaNamed
storms
HurricanesMajor
hurricanes
Ref
Actual activity:EPAC22129
Actual activity:CPAC111
Actual activity:231310

On May 24, 2018, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration released its annual forecast, predicting an 80% chance of a near- to above-average season in both the Eastern and Central Pacific basins, with a total of 1420 named storms, 712 hurricanes, and 37 major hurricanes. [4] The reason for their outlook was the possible development of an El Niño, which reduces vertical wind shear across the basin and increases sea surface temperatures. In addition, many global computer models expected a positive Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO), a phase of a multi-decade cycle that favored much warmer than average sea surface temperatures that had been ongoing since 2014 to continue, in contrast to the 1995–2013 period, which featured below normal activity. [6] On May 25, the Servicio Meteorológico Nacional (SMN) issued its first forecast for the season, predicting a total of 18 named storms, 6 hurricanes, and 4 major hurricanes to develop. [5]

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration An American scientific agency within the US Department of Commerce that focuses on the oceans and the atmosphere

The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration is an American scientific agency within the United States Department of Commerce that focuses on the conditions of the oceans, major waterways, and the atmosphere.

El Niño Warm phase of a cyclic climatic phenomenon in the Pacific Ocean

El Niño is the warm phase of the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and is associated with a band of warm ocean water that develops in the central and east-central equatorial Pacific, including the area off the Pacific coast of South America. The ENSO is the cycle of warm and cold sea surface temperature (SST) of the tropical central and eastern Pacific Ocean. El Niño is accompanied by high air pressure in the western Pacific and low air pressure in the eastern Pacific. El Niño phases are known to occur close to four years, however, records demonstrate that the cycles have lasted between two and seven years. During the development of El Niño, rainfall develops between September–November. The cool phase of ENSO is La Niña, with SSTs in the eastern Pacific below average, and air pressure high in the eastern Pacific and low in the western Pacific. The ENSO cycle, including both El Niño and La Niña, causes global changes in temperature and rainfall.

Wind shear

Wind shear, sometimes referred to as wind gradient, is a difference in wind speed or direction over a relatively short distance in the atmosphere. Atmospheric wind shear is normally described as either vertical or horizontal wind shear. Vertical wind shear is a change in wind speed or direction with change in altitude. Horizontal wind shear is a change in wind speed with change in lateral position for a given altitude.

Seasonal summary

Hurricane WillaTropical Storm Vicente (2018)Hurricane WalakaHurricane Sergio (2018)Hurricane Rosa (2018)Tropical Depression Nineteen-E (2018)Hurricane Olivia (2018)Hurricane Lane (2018)Tropical Storm Ileana (2018)Hurricane Hector (2018)Tropical Storm Carlotta (2018)Hurricane Bud (2018)Saffir–Simpson scale2018 Pacific hurricane season
Four tropical cyclones active on August 7: Hector (left), Kristy (middle), John (right), and Ileana (merging with John on the right). Hector, 13E, John and Ileana 2018-08-06.jpg
Four tropical cyclones active on August 7: Hector (left), Kristy (middle), John (right), and Ileana (merging with John on the right).
Most intense Pacific
hurricane seasons
Rank Season ACE
1 2018 318
2 1992 295
3 2015 287
4 1990 245
5 1978 207
6 1983 206
7 1993 201
8 2014 199
9 1984 193
10 1985 192

The Accumulated Cyclone Energy index for the 2018 Pacific hurricane season is 318.2 units (202.2925 units for the Eastern Pacific and 115.9075 units for the Central Pacific). [nb 1] Broadly speaking, ACE is a measure of the power of a tropical or subtropical storm multiplied by the length of time it existed. Therefore, a stronger storm with a longer duration, such as Hurricane Hector, contributes more to the seasonal total than several short-lived, weaker storms combined. 2018 has the highest total ACE of any Pacific hurricane season on record, having surpassed the 1992 Pacific hurricane season.

Hurricane Hector (2018) Category 4 hurricane

Hurricane Hector was a powerful and long-lived tropical cyclone that was the first to traverse all three North Pacific basins since Genevieve in 2014. The eighth named storm, fourth hurricane, and third major hurricane of the 2018 Pacific hurricane season, Hector originated from an area of low pressure that formed a couple hundred miles west-southwest of Mexico on July 28. Amid favorable weather conditions, a tropical depression formed a few days later on July 31. The depression continued strengthening and became Tropical Storm Hector on the next day. Hector became a hurricane on August 2, and rapidly intensified into a strong Category 2 hurricane later in the day. After weakening while undergoing an eyewall replacement cycle, Hector quickly strengthened into a Category 4 hurricane late on August 5. Over the next week, Hector fluctuated in intensity multiple times due to eyewall replacement cycles and shifting wind shear. Hector achieved its peak intensity on August 6, as a high-end Category 4 hurricane with winds of 155 mph (250 km/h). On the following day, the hurricane bypassed Hawaii approximately 200 mi (320 km) to the south. Increasing wind shear resulted in steady weakening of the storm, beginning on August 11. At that time, Hector accumulated the longest continuous stretch of time as a major hurricane in the northeastern Pacific since reliable records began. Eroding convection and dissipation of its eye marked its degradation to a tropical storm on August 13. The storm subsequently traversed the International Dateline that day. Hector later weakened into a tropical depression on August 15, before dissipating late on August 16.

1992 Pacific hurricane season hurricane season in the Pacific Ocean

The 1992 Pacific hurricane season was the most active Pacific hurricane season on record, featuring 27 named storms, and the second-costliest Pacific hurricane season in history, behind only the 2013 season. The season also produced the second-highest ACE value on record in the basin, surpassed by the 2018 season. The season officially started on May 15 in the eastern Pacific, and on June 1 in the central Pacific, and lasted until November 30. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the northeastern Pacific Ocean. However, these bounds were easily exceeded when Hurricane Ekeka formed on January 28 and again a couple months later with Tropical Storm Hali.

The 2018 season began early with the formation of Tropical Depression One-E on May 10, which formed five days prior to the official start of the season. June was an extraordinarily active month throughout the basin, breaking the record for number of tropical cyclones (six), as well as tying the records for the number of named storms (five) and major hurricanes (two). [7] Fabio's intensification into a tropical storm on July 1 marked the earliest date of a season's sixth named storm, beating the previous record of July 3 set in both 1984 and 1985. [8] Activity abruptly slowed thereafter, with only three tropical cyclones forming during the month of July. [9] One of those cyclones continued to intensify into Hurricane Hector in August, which became the third major hurricane of the season. In August, activity increased dramatically, with Tropical Storm Ileana and Hurricane John forming just a day apart on August 4 and August 5, respectively, followed by Tropical Storm Kristy two days later. Hurricane Lane formed in mid-August and became the first Category 5 storm of the season as well as the wettest tropical cyclone on record in Hawaii. [10] Hurricanes Miriam and Norman soon followed, forming in late August, becoming the seventh and eighth hurricanes of the season, respectively, while Norman became the fifth major hurricane of the season. [11] Hurricane Olivia formed soon after in early September, and became the sixth major hurricane of the season. Short-lived Tropical Storm Paul followed, forming on September 8 and dissipating three days later far from land. The short-lived Tropical Depression Nineteen-E brought destructive floods to western Mexico from September 19 to September 20. During the last days of the month, Hurricane Rosa became the seventh major hurricane of the season, striking Baja California before dissipating on October 2. [12] Forming on September 29, Hurricane Walaka became the second Category 5 hurricane of the season on October 1, making 2018 the first season since 2002 to feature multiple Category 5 hurricanes, and the first since 1994 to feature multiple Category 5 hurricanes in the Central Pacific.[ citation needed ]

1984 Pacific hurricane season hurricane season in the Pacific Ocean

The 1984 Pacific hurricane season was a very active season, producing 21 named storms. When Fausto became a tropical storm on July 3, it was the earliest the sixth named storm was named. This record would be tied in 1985 and broken 34 years later. The season produced 26 tropical cyclones, of which 21 developed into named storms; 13 cyclones attained hurricane status, of which three reached major hurricane status. The season officially started on May 15, 1984, in the eastern Pacific, and June 1, 1984, in the central Pacific, and lasted until November 30, 1984. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when the vast majority tropical cyclones form in the northeastern Pacific Ocean. The strongest hurricane of the season was Hurricane Douglas, which attained Category 4 status on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale in the open Pacific.

1985 Pacific hurricane season hurricane season in the Pacific Ocean

The 1985 Pacific hurricane season is the third-most active Pacific hurricane season on record. It officially started on May 15, 1985, in the eastern Pacific, and on June 1, 1985, in the central Pacific, and lasted until November 30, 1985. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the northeastern Pacific Ocean. At the time, the 1985 season was the most active on record in the eastern north Pacific, with 28 tropical cyclones forming. Of those, 24 were named, 13 reached hurricane intensity, and 8 became major hurricanes by attaining Category 3 status or higher on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale. At that time, the 24 named storms was a record; however, this record was broken seven years later in 1992, and was therefore recognized as the second busiest season within the basin, until it was surpassed exactly thirty years later by the 2015 season.

2002 Pacific hurricane season hurricane season in the Pacific Ocean

The 2002 Pacific hurricane season was a slightly above average Pacific hurricane season that saw three tropical cyclones reach Category 5 intensity on the Saffir–Simpson scale, tied for the most in a season with 1994 and 2018. The strongest storm this year was Hurricane Kenna, which reached Category 5 on the Saffir–Simpson scale. It made landfall near Puerto Vallarta, located in the Mexican state of Jalisco, on October 25. Elsewhere, Tropical Storm Julio made landfall in Mexico, and Tropical Storm Boris dumped torrential rain along the Mexican coast, despite remaining offshore.

On October 4, Hurricane Sergio became the eighth Category 4 hurricane of the season in the eastern Pacific region, breaking the previous record of seven, which was set in 2015. [13] Activity resumed on October 14 when Tropical Storm Tara formed and hugged the Mexican coast. After a few days of inactivity, two tropical storms developed, named Vicente and Willa. Willa later rapidly intensified and became the thirteenth hurricane of the season. [14] On the next day, Willa strengthened further into a Category 4 hurricane, becoming the season's tenth major hurricane. [15] A day later, Willa strengthened to Category 5 status, making 2018 the third Pacific hurricane season on record to feature three Category 5 hurricanes, after 1994 and 2002. [16] The season concluded with Tropical Storm Xavier, which developed on November 2 and hugged the southwest coast of Mexico before rapidly degenerating into a remnant low on November 6. [17]

2015 Pacific hurricane season hurricane season in the Pacific Ocean

The 2015 Pacific hurricane season was the second-most active Pacific hurricane season on record, with 26 named storms, only behind the 1992 season. A record-tying 16 of those storms became hurricanes, and a record 11 storms further intensified into major hurricanes throughout the season. The Central Pacific, the portion of the Northeast Pacific Ocean between the International Date Line and the 140th meridian west, had its most active year on record, with 16 tropical cyclones forming in or entering the basin. Moreover, the season was the third-most active season in terms of accumulated cyclone energy, amassing a total of 287 units. The season officially started on May 15 in the Eastern Pacific and on June 1 in the Central Pacific; they both ended on November 30. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the Northeast Pacific basin. However, the formation of tropical cyclones is possible at any time of the year. This was shown when a tropical depression formed on December 31. The above-average activity during the season was attributed in part to the very strong 2014–16 El Niño event.

1994 Pacific hurricane season hurricane season in the Pacific Ocean

The 1994 Pacific hurricane season was the final season of the eastern north Pacific's consecutive active hurricane seasons that unofficially started in 1982. The season officially started on May 15, 1994, in the eastern Pacific, and on June 1, 1994, in the central Pacific, and lasted until November 30, 1994. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the northeastern Pacific Ocean. The first tropical cyclone formed on June 18, while the last system dissipated on October 26. This season, twenty-two tropical cyclones formed in the north Pacific Ocean east of the dateline, with all but two becoming tropical storms or hurricanes. A total of 10 hurricanes occurred, including five major hurricanes.

Systems

Tropical Depression One-E

Tropical depression (SSHWS)
01E 2018-05-11 2100Z.jpg   One-E 2018 track.png
DurationMay 10 – May 11
Peak intensity35 mph (55 km/h) (1-min)  1007  mbar  (hPa)

In early May, a westward-tracking trough or tropical wave embedded in the monsoon trough interacted with a convectively-coupled Kelvin wave. This interaction led to a large area of shower and thunderstorm activity well southwest of Mexico, [18] which the National Hurricane Center began monitoring for tropical cyclone formation on May 7. [19] The disturbance organized over the next 48 hours but lacked a well-defined center needed for classification; [20] by late on May 9, environmental conditions were becoming less favorable for development. [21] In spite of this, an increase in convection and formation of a well-defined circulation led to the designation of the season's first tropical depression at 21:00 UTC on May 10. [22] The system failed to intensify after formation and, owing to strong westerly wind shear, ultimately degenerated into a remnant low by 18:00 UTC on May 11. [23]

Hurricane Aletta

Category 4 hurricane (SSHWS)
Aletta 2018-06-08 1825Z.jpg   Aletta 2018 track.png
DurationJune 6 – June 11
Peak intensity140 mph (220 km/h) (1-min)  943  mbar  (hPa)

A tropical wave departed western Africa on May 22, moving inconspicuously across the Atlantic and failing to develop convection until it was south of the Gulf of Tehuantepec on June 3. Following the formation of a well-defined center, the system was upgraded to a tropical depression around 00:00  UTC on June 6. It intensified into Tropical Storm Aletta six hours later. Subtropical ridging over the United States directed the system west-northwest, while ideal environmental conditions allowed Aletta to reach hurricane strength around 18:00 UTC on June 7. [24] A period of rapid deepening ensued shortly thereafter, with maximum winds increasing from 75 mph (120 km/h) to 140 mph (220 km/h) within an 18-hour period. [25] At peak, the hurricane was characterized by a distinct eye embedded within cloud tops colder than -70 °C (-94 °F). [26] A track into cooler waters and a more stable air mass caused Aletta to weaken as quickly as it intensified, falling from Category 4 strength to a tropical storm within 30 hours. After losing its associated deep convection, the system degenerated to a remnant low around 12:00 UTC on June 11. The low meandered for several days, before dissipating early on June 16. [25]

Hurricane Bud

Category 4 hurricane (SSHWS)
Bud 2018-06-11 2024Z.jpg   Bud 2018 track.png
DurationJune 9 – June 15
Peak intensity140 mph (220 km/h) (1-min)  943  mbar  (hPa)

A broad area of disturbed weather formed west of Costa Rica on June 5 in association with a westward-moving tropical wave. [27] Gradual organization occurred as the wave tracked generally westward across the eastern Pacific Ocean. On June 9, the disturbance developed a well-defined surface circulation, leading to the classification of a tropical depression at 21:00 UTC. [28] Six hours later, the depression strengthened into Tropical Storm Bud. [29] A mid-level ridge to the storm's north directed it on a northwest heading for several days, [30] while favorable environmental conditions led to rapid intensification. Bud attained hurricane strength by 21:00 UTC on June 10, [31] and continued intensification up to its peak as a Category 4 hurricane with winds of 140 mph (220 km/h) around 00:00 UTC on June 12. [32] The effects of cold water upwelling prompted a rapid weakening trend shortly after peak, with Bud falling to a tropical storm by 12:00 UTC on June 13. [33] The system made landfall near Cabo San Lucas with winds of 45 mph (75 km/h), shortly after 00:00 UTC on June 15, before progressing into the Gulf of California, [34] where it ultimately degenerated to a remnant low around 21:00 UTC that day. [35]

Tropical Storm Carlotta

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Carlotta 2018-06-16 2001Z.jpg   Carlotta 2018 track.png
DurationJune 14 – June 18
Peak intensity65 mph (100 km/h) (1-min)  997  mbar  (hPa)

A broad area of low pressure formed south of Mexico on June 12, [36] organizing into the season's fourth tropical depression by 21:00 UTC on June 14 and further into Tropical Storm Carlotta around 18:00 UTC on June 15. [37] [38] Initial forecasts showed the storm only slightly intensifying before moving ashore the coastline of Mexico; [39] instead, Carlotta stalled just offshore and strengthened to attain peak winds of 65 mph (100 km/h) as it established an inner core and eye. [40] Interaction between the system's eyewall and land prompted a swift weakening trend as it paralleled the Mexican shoreline, and Carlotta fell to tropical depression intensity by 18:00 UTC on June 17, before degenerating to a remnant low at 00:00 UTC on June 19. [41] [42]

Tropical Storm Daniel

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Daniel 2018-06-24 1830Z.jpg   Daniel 2018 track.png
DurationJune 24 – June 26
Peak intensity45 mph (75 km/h) (1-min)  1004  mbar  (hPa)

Late on June 21, the NHC began monitoring a surface trough and its associated disorganized convection several hundred miles southwest of Baja California. Environmental conditions were expected to be marginally conducive for development as it moved north-northwestward. [43] Convection began to show signs of organization early on June 23, [44] and this process led to the formation of a tropical depression by 03:00 UTC on the next morning, as spiral bands wrapped into the storm's well-defined center. [45] At 15:00 UTC on June 24, the depression was upgraded to a tropical storm and was assigned the name Daniel. [46] At 18:00 UTC on June 24, Tropical Storm Daniel reached peak intensity with sustained winds of 45 mph (75 km/h). [47] At 15:00 UTC on June 25, Daniel began to weaken as it moved over seas cooler than 25 °C (77 °F). [48] The system weakened to a tropical depression at 18:00 UTC that day. [49] At 15:00 UTC on June 26, Daniel degenerated into a remnant low, as it lost all convection and was reduced to a swirl of low-level clouds. [50] The remnants of Daniel dissipated completely on June 28. [51]

Tropical Storm Emilia

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Emilia 2018-06-29 2100Z.jpg   Emilia 2018 track.png
DurationJune 27 – July 1
Peak intensity60 mph (95 km/h) (1-min)  997  mbar  (hPa)

The fifth storm of an exceptionally active June, on June 23, the NHC noted the potential for tropical cyclogenesis from a tropical wave crossing over Costa Rica. Environmental conditions were expected to be conducive for development as it moved westward. [52] The system then steadily organized over warm waters, developing into Tropical Depression Six-E at 18:00 UTC June 27, about 480 miles (770 km) southwest of Manzanillo, Mexico. [53] It gradually strengthened into Tropical Storm Emilia at 12:00 UTC on June 28. [53] At 12:00 UTC on June 29, Emilia reached its peak intensity with maximum sustained winds of 60 mph (95 km/h); however, it was then subject to strong wind shear. [53] The shear took its toll on Emilia, and by 12:00 UTC the next day, it weakened into a tropical depression. [53] Finally, at 00:00 UTC on July 2, Emilia degenerated into a remnant low, as it lost its convection and was reduced to a swirl of clouds. [53]

Hurricane Fabio

Category 2 hurricane (SSHWS)
Fabio 2018-07-03 2050Z.jpg   Fabio 2018 track.png
DurationJune 30 – July 6
Peak intensity110 mph (175 km/h) (1-min)  964  mbar  (hPa)

The NHC first noted the potential for tropical cyclogenesis from a tropical wave crossing over Honduras and Nicaragua at 18:00 UTC on June 24. [54] Subsequent development was expected of the system as it moved westward. It steadily organized over warm waters and transitioned into Tropical Depression Seven-E at 21:00 UTC June 30, 490 miles (790 km) southwest of Acapulco, Mexico. [55] The system gradually strengthened into Tropical Storm Fabio at 09:00 UTC on July 1. [56] With SSTs of 30 °C (86 °F) and almost no wind shear, Fabio began to intensify, quickly strengthening into a hurricane by 15:00 UTC on July 2. [57] Initially, forecasters at the NHC predicted that Fabio would intensify further and become a major hurricane, although it failed to do so and peaked with maximum sustained winds of 110 mph (175 km/h), just shy of major hurricane status. [58] Afterward, Fabio began to rapidly weaken as it moved over cooler waters. At 15:00 UTC on July 6, Fabio degenerated into a remnant low as it lost its convection while located 1,285 miles (2,065 km) off the coast of the Baja Peninsula. [59]

Tropical Storm Gilma

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Gilma 2018-07-26 2135Z.jpg   Gilma 2018 track.png
DurationJuly 26 – July 29
Peak intensity45 mph (75 km/h) (1-min)  1005  mbar  (hPa)

On July 18, the NHC forecast the development of an area of low pressure over the east Pacific Ocean within the next few days. [60] A weak area of low pressure developed several hundred miles south-southeast of the Gulf of Tehuantepec on July 22. Little development occurred over the next few days as the low moved northwestward across the Pacific Ocean. However, shower and thunderstorm activity associated with the low began to quickly organize on July 26, leading to the formation of a tropical depression at 12:00 UTC on July 26. [61] Six hours later, the depression strengthened into Tropical Storm Gilma. [61] However, northwesterly wind shear soon exposed the center of circulation, causing Gilma to weaken to a tropical depression at 18:00 UTC the following day. [61] At 12:00 UTC on July 29, the system degenerated into a remnant low shortly before entering the Central Pacific basin. [61]

Tropical Depression Nine-E

Tropical depression (SSHWS)
09E 2018-07-26 2230Z.jpg   Nine-E 2018 track.png
DurationJuly 26 – July 27
Peak intensity35 mph (55 km/h) (1-min)  1007  mbar  (hPa)

The NHC began monitoring a disorganized area of low pressure in the deep tropical Pacific Ocean on July 24 for tropical cyclone development. [62] Gradual organization ensued as the low moved westward, and by July 26, it had organized sufficiently to be classified as a tropical depression. [63] The tropical depression failed to organize, however, and the center soon became difficult to locate on satellite imagery. [64] After having lasted less than a day as a tropical cyclone, the depression opened up into a trough, as it became embedded within the Intertropical Convergence Zone at 12:00 UTC on July 27. [65] Although Nine-E's remnants produced intermittent convection; high wind shear and dry air prevented it from regenerating back into a tropical cyclone, and the storm's remnants dissipated a few days later. [66]

Hurricane Hector

Category 4 hurricane (SSHWS)
Hector 2018-08-06 2255Z.jpg   Hector 2018 track.png
DurationJuly 31 – August 13 (Exited basin)
Peak intensity155 mph (250 km/h) (1-min)  936  mbar  (hPa)

Late on July 26, the NHC noted the development of an area of low pressure that was forecast to form a couple hundred miles west-southwest of Mexico. [67] A broad area of low pressure formed several hundred miles south-southeast of Acapulco, Mexico, at 12:00 UTC on July 28. [68] The system gradually developed into a tropical depression at 21:00 UTC on July 31. [69] The depression quickly organized, developing a more defined center and spiral banding, and at 03:00 UTC on August 1, it strengthened into Tropical Storm Hector. [70] Hector further strengthened and became a hurricane at 14:00 UTC on August 2. [71] Afterward, the small hurricane rapidly strengthened, becoming a strong Category 2 hurricane just six hours later. [72] However, the eye became clouded and ill-defined shortly afterward, while the storm underwent an eyewall replacement cycle, and Hector's intensification halted momentarily, as northeasterly shear and dry air impinged on the system, weakening the system back to a Category 1 hurricane. [73] Yet, the hurricane quickly intensified yet again, and restrengthened back into a Category 2 hurricane, and later to a Category 3 hurricane, making it the third major hurricane of the season. A strong convective band soon wrapped into Hector's central dense overcast (CDO), strengthening it to a Category 4 major hurricane. [74] On the next morning, a shrinking CDO weakened Hector back into a Category 3 storm. [75] In the following hours, Hector underwent another eyewall replacement cycle and was set to weaken thereafter. After the completion of the eyewall replacement cycle, Hector rapidly intensified back to a high-end Category 4 storm on August 6. At 09:00 UTC on August 8, Hector weakened to a Category 3 hurricane. At 21:00 UTC, the CPHC reported that Hector was passing about 200 miles (320 km) south of the Big Island with winds of 115 mph. At the same time, Hector began a third eyewall replacement cycle. By 09:00 UTC on August 9, Hector completed the eyewall replacement cycle. [76]

By 15:00 UTC on the same day, Hector began to intensify once again, as it moved due west. At 21:00 UTC on August 10, Hector reached its secondary peak intensity with winds of 140 mph (220 km/h) as it began to turn west-northwest. On August 11, Hector began another weakening trend as increasing wind shear began to take a toll on the system. By this time, the hurricane set a record for the longest consecutive duration as a major hurricane in the northeastern Pacific. Late on August 11, Hector weakened below major hurricane strength due to increasing wind shear, a status it had held for nearly eight days. Hector weakened to Category 1 status on August 12. On August 13 at 15:00 UTC, Hector crossed the International Date Line as a tropical storm. [77]

Tropical Storm Ileana

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Ileana 2018-08-05 1725Z.jpg   Ileana 2018 track.png
DurationAugust 4 – August 7
Peak intensity65 mph (100 km/h) (1-min)  998  mbar  (hPa)

A tropical wave entered the eastern Pacific Ocean on August 3, where the NHC began to monitor the system for tropical development. [78] Although the system was initially disorganized, it rapidly organized over the next two days, and on August 4, the system developed into a tropical depression while located south of the Gulf of Tehuantepec. [79] The depression continued to organize that night through the next day, and at 21:00 UTC on August 5, the system strengthened into Tropical Storm Ileana. [80] After strengthening to peak winds of 65 mph (100 km/h), Ileana weakened as it began to feel the influence of the much larger Hurricane John, with the two systems experiencing the Fujiwhara effect. On August 7, the small circulation of Ileana dissipated, as the storm was absorbed by John. [81]

Heavy rain in Guerrero resulted in three deaths, while rip currents caused an additional fatality along the coast of Chilpancingo. [82]

Hurricane John

Category 2 hurricane (SSHWS)
John 2018-08-07 2030Z.jpg   John 2018 track.png
DurationAugust 5 – August 10
Peak intensity110 mph (175 km/h) (1-min)  964  mbar  (hPa)

On July 29, the NHC began forecasting the development of an area of low pressure that was expected to form several hundred miles off the Mexican coast. [83] A broad area of low pressure formed several hundred miles south of the Gulf of Tehuantepec on August 2. [84] Gradual organization occurred as the low moved slowly west-northwestward, and at 21:00 UTC on August 5, the low had organized sufficiently to be classified as the season's twelfth tropical depression. [85] The depression quickly strengthened into Tropical Storm John six hours later. [86] Amid very favorable environmental conditions, John rapidly intensified, and by 21:00 UTC on August 6, John had become the fifth hurricane of the season, and soon began to interact with Tropical Storm Ileana to the east, due to the Fujiwhara effect. [87] On August 7, Hurricane John absorbed the smaller Tropical Storm Ileana, while continuing to strengthen. [81] At 15:00 UTC August 7, John reached peak intensity with winds of 105 mph (165 km/h). [88] However, John began to move over cooler waters and began to weaken. The cyclone weakened to a Category 1 hurricane by 15:00 UTC on August 8, and to tropical storm status by 09:00 UTC on August 9, until it finally degenerated into a remnant low at 15:00 UTC on August 10. [89]

Although John never made landfall, it produced high surf along the coastlines of Baja California and Southern California. [90]

Tropical Storm Kristy

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Kristy 2018-08-10 1925Z.jpg   Kristy 2018 track.png
DurationAugust 7 – August 12
Peak intensity70 mph (110 km/h) (1-min)  991  mbar  (hPa)

On August 2, an area of disturbed weather associated with a tropical wave formed south of Mexico, [91] the NHC began monitoring the disturbance for potential tropical development. The system lingered for days without developing as it tracked generally towards the west, finally at 05:00 UTC August 7, the well-defined low was embedded within a developing area of convection, along with tight banding near the center and was classified as Tropical Depression Thirteen-E accordingly. [92] The depression developed into Tropical Storm Kristy by 09:00 UTC the same day. [93] Kristy gradually strengthened over the next few days, and at 03:00 UTC on August 10, it attained its peak intensity with maximum sustained winds of 70 mph (110 km/h), just short of hurricane status. [94] However, as Kristy moved over progressively cooler waters, it gradually weakened. By 15:00 UTC August 11, Kristy degenerated into a remnant low as cooler waters and wind shear had taken its toll on Kristy's cloud structure which consisted of a swirl of low clouds with some mid and high-level clouds. [95] Despite degenerating into a remnant low, showers and thunderstorms redeveloped in association with Post-Tropical Cyclone Kristy by 00:00 UTC August 12 and the disturbance was monitored, however cold waters prevented the system from regenerating back into a tropical cyclone. [96]

Hurricane Lane

Category 5 hurricane (SSHWS)
Lane 2018-08-21 2350Z.jpg   Lane 2018 track.png
DurationAugust 15 – August 29
Peak intensity160 mph (260 km/h) (1-min)  922  mbar  (hPa)

A tropical depression formed well southwest of Baja California around 03:00 UTC on August 15, from an area of disturbed weather the NHC had been monitoring for days. [97] Steered due west amid favorable environmental conditions, the system intensified into Tropical Storm Lane by 15:00 UTC on the next day, [98] and further strengthened to a hurricane around 03:00 UTC on August 17 as an eye became apparent. [99] Following the formation of an inner core, Lane began a period of rapid intensification that brought the system to its initial peak intensity as a Category 4 hurricane with winds of 140 mph and a pressure of 950 mb early on August 18. [100] It crossed into the Central Pacific thereafter, where strong westerly wind shear caused a substantial degradation in satellite presentation. [101] Upper-level winds gradually slackened, allowing Lane to regain Category 4 intensity late on August 20. [102] Despite forecasts calling for the storm to weaken, Lane continued to strengthen. By 04:30 UTC on August 22, data from a reconnaissance aircraft measured maximum 1-minute sustained winds near 160 mph (260 km/h), and Lane was upgraded to a Category 5 hurricane as it maintained a distinct eye surrounded by deep convection. [103] [104] [105] However, shear increased, weakening Lane to a Category 4 as it was guided towards Hawaii by a strengthening ridge. [106] Rapid weakening ensued thereafter, weakening Lane from a Category 2 to a tropical storm in 6 hours due to 35 to 40 knots of wind shear impacting Lane's core convection. [107] Early on August 26, Lane made the turn west that it had been predicted to make as it was embedded in the trade winds. [108] At 15:00 UTC August 26, Lane weakened into a tropical depression as its low level center was nearly entirely exposed. [109] However, at 15:00 UTC on August 27, Lane re-intensified into a tropical storm as a convective bursts partially covered the low level center. [110] However, this re-intensification would be short lived, as 18 hours later, Lane weakened back into a tropical depression, as its low-level circulation center was once again exposed, due to constant wind shear. [111] Finally, at 3:00 UTC on August 29, Lane degenerated into a remnant low, as its circulation became elongated and cloud tops near the center warmed and were displaced from the center. [112]

Hurricane Miriam

Category 2 hurricane (SSHWS)
Miriam 2018-08-31 2110Z.jpg   Miriam 2018 track.png
DurationAugust 26 – September 2
Peak intensity100 mph (155 km/h) (1-min)  974  mbar  (hPa)

At 21:00 UTC on August 22, forecasters at the NHC forecasted that an area of low pressure could form several hundred miles southwest of the Baja California Sur. [113] Shortly afterward, on August 24, a trough of low pressure formed where the NHC predicted where it would be, predictions said that gradual development would be possible of the system. [114] Gradual development ensued and a tropical depression formed at 9:00 UTC on August 26. [115] At 15:00 UTC on the same day, the depression intensified into a tropical storm, where it was given the name Miriam. [116] The system gradually intensified and at 21:00 UTC on August 29, Miriam intensified into a hurricane. [117] At 0:00 UTC on August 30, Miriam entered the Central Pacific where responsibility was handed over to the CPHC. At 12:00 UTC on August 31, Miriam intensified to attain its peak intensity as a Category 2 hurricane. [118] Soon thereafter, Miriam began to be affected by wind shear, weakening into a Category 1 hurricane on August 31. [119] [120] Late on September 2, Miriam degenerated into a remnant low, due to strong wind shear.

Hurricane Norman

Category 4 hurricane (SSHWS)
Norman 2018-08-30 2130Z.jpg   Norman 2018 track.png
DurationAugust 28 – September 10
Peak intensity150 mph (240 km/h) (1-min)  937  mbar  (hPa)

Hurricane Norman originated from a broad area of low pressure that formed several hundred miles south-southwest of Acapulco, Mexico on August 25. [121] Traveling west-northwest, [122] the system coalesced into a tropical depression by at 15:00 UTC on August 28 while situated approximately 420 miles (675 km) south-southwest of the southern tip of Baja California. [123] A subtropical ridge steered the system west for several days. [124] Early on August 29, the depression intensified into a tropical storm and received the name Norman. [125] Favorable environmental conditions enabled quick intensification, and the system achieved hurricane strength early on August 30. [126] Rapid intensification ensued throughout the day, culminating with Norman attaining its peak intensity at 15:00 UTC, with sustained winds of 150 mph (240 km/h) and a central pressure of 937 mbar (27.67 inHg). [127] [128] [129] During a 24-hour period, the hurricane's winds increased by 80 mph (130 km/h), the largest such increase since Hurricane Patricia in 2015. [130]

The combination of an eyewall replacement cycle and increasing wind shear induced weakening beginning on August 31. At 03:00 UTC on August 31, Norman turned to the west-southwest due to a deep-layer ridge to the north. [131] [132] [133] Norman fell to Category 2 status for a period, [134] before unexpectedly rapidly intensifying back to a Category 4 hurricane on September 2. The storm attained a secondary peak with winds of 140 mph (235 km/h) and a pressure of 947 mbar (28.00 inHg). [135] Initially proving resilient to adverse conditions, Norman succumbed to increasing wind shear and lower sea surface temperatures on September 3. Its central dense overcast warmed and its eye filled. [136] At the same time, Norman took a turn to a more westerly direction. [137] On September 4, the hurricane crossed west of 140°W, and warning responsibility shifted to the Central Pacific Hurricane Center (CPHC). [138] On the next day, another bout of unexpected intensification ensued and Norman regained major hurricane status. [139] However, wind shear increased once again thereafter, and Norman weakened into a Category 1 hurricane on September 6. On September 7, Norman weakened further to a tropical storm as it began to lose its tropical characteristics. The CPHC issued its final advisory on Norman at 21:00 UTC on September 8, as it was rapidly becoming extratropical; Norman subsequently completed its extratropical transition on the next day. [140]

Hurricane Olivia

Category 4 hurricane (SSHWS)
Olivia 2018-09-06 2210Z.jpg   Olivia 2018 track.png
DurationSeptember 1 – September 13
Peak intensity130 mph (215 km/h) (1-min)  951  mbar  (hPa)

Hurricane Olivia originated from a broad area of low pressure that formed several hundred miles southwest of Mexico on August 30. [141] The National Hurricane Center (NHC) continued to monitor the disturbance as it moved west-northwest for the next couple of days. [142] At 03:00 UTC on September 1, the NHC declared that a tropical depression had formed about 400 miles (645 km) southwest of Mexico. [143] Due to unfavorable conditions, the depression slowly became more organized over the next day and half before strengthening into Tropical Storm Olivia at 09:00 UTC on September 2. [144] At that time, wind shear from the north-northeast was continuing to prevent significant development of the system. [145] Over the next day and a half, Olivia changed little in strength before beginning a period of rapid intensification on September 3. [146] [147] At 03:00 UTC on September 4, Olivia became a Category 1 hurricane. [148] Olivia continued to rapidly intensify, becoming a Category 2 hurricane twelve hours later. [149] At 21:00 UTC on September 4, Olivia became the sixth major hurricane of the season. [150] Six hours later, Olivia reached its initial peak intensity, with maximum sustained winds of 125 mph (205 km/h) and a minimum central pressure of 955 mbar (28.20 inHg). [151] Olivia then started weakening due to increasing wind shear and lower sea surface temperatures at 09:00 UTC on September 5. Olivia then weakened more and fell below major hurricane strength at 15:00 UTC on the same day. [152] Unexpectedly, Olivia intensified into a Category 4 hurricane with a new peak intensity of 130 mph (215 km/h) and a minimum central pressure of 948 mbar (28.00 inHg). [153] Olivia then headed into the Central Pacific Basin with maximum sustained winds of 85 mph (140 km/h). [154] As Olivia got closer to the Hawaiian Islands, tropical storm watches were issued for Oahu, Maui, Molokai, Lanai, Kahoolawe, and The Big Island. [155] At 21:00 UTC on September 12, Olivia made landfall in Northwest Maui and Lanai as a tropical storm. [156] Olivia weakened into a tropical depression as wind shear affected the storm on September 13. [157] Olivia then degenerated into a remnant low at 00:00 UTC on September 14 and dissipated on September 19, after crossing the International Date Line. [158]

Tropical Storm Paul

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Paul 2018-09-09 2105Z.jpg   Paul 2018 track.png
DurationSeptember 8 – September 11
Peak intensity45 mph (75 km/h) (1-min)  1002  mbar  (hPa)

A large area of disorganized thunderstorms and cloudiness formed several hundred miles off the southwest coast of Mexico on September 4. [159] The disturbance gradually organized as it moved slowly west-northwestward, and by 15:00 UTC on September 8, it had acquired sufficient organized convection to be classified as a tropical depression. [160] Although initial forecasts called for the depression to eventually strengthen into a hurricane, it remained a sheared tropical cyclone with its center of circulation exposed on the eastern side. At 09:00 UTC on September 9, the depression strengthened into Tropical Storm Paul. [161] Despite a moderately favorable environment, Paul failed to strengthen significantly and remained a poorly organized system, eventually weakening to a tropical depression early on September 11. [162] After lacking deep convection for over 12 hours, Paul degenerated into a remnant low at 00:00 UTC on September 12, [163] marking the first time since August 14 that no tropical cyclones were active in the northeastern Pacific. [164]

Tropical Depression Nineteen-E

Tropical depression (SSHWS)
19E 2018-09-19 1830Z.jpg   Nineteen-E 2018 track.png
DurationSeptember 19 – September 20
Peak intensity35 mph (55 km/h) (1-min)  1002  mbar  (hPa)

At 0:00 UTC on September 11, forecasters at the NHC predicted that an area of low pressure would develop within a few days. [165] At 12:00 UTC on September 14, a broad area of disturbed weather had developed, as expected. [166] Some development followed, but the system began to approach the Baja California Peninsula, which was initially expected to cause the system to fail to develop due to land interaction. [167] Despite land interaction, the system continued to organize, and at 15:00 UTC on September 19, Tropical Depression Nineteen-E formed within an inverted trough in the Gulf of California, with the NHC initiating advisories on the system. [168] The storm dumped large amounts of rain on Baja California Sur and northwestern Mexico while it was still offshore. [169] The depression turned out to be short-lived, as the storm dissipated after making landfall in northwestern Mexico, early on September 20. [170]

Severe flooding affected much of Sinaloa and Sonora. Damage in the former state reached an estimated 800 million pesos (US$42.5 million). [171]

Hurricane Rosa

Category 4 hurricane (SSHWS)
Rosa 2018-09-28 0945Z.jpg   Rosa 2018 track.png
DurationSeptember 25 – October 2
Peak intensity150 mph (240 km/h) (1-min)  936  mbar  (hPa)

At 18:00 UTC on September 19, the NHC forecasted an area of low pressure that would develop in a few days. [172] At 00:00 UTC on September 23, a broad area of disturbed weather formed where the NHC predicted. [173] Gradual development occurred and the system organized into a tropical depression at 09:00 UTC on September 25. [174] The depression then developed into a tropical storm and was given the name, Rosa, at 15:00 UTC on the same day. [175] Rosa gradually strengthened and at 03:00 UTC on September 26, Rosa intensified into a hurricane. [176] At 21:00 UTC on September 27, Rosa then rapidly intensified and became the seventh Category 4 hurricane of the season. [177] Late on September 28, Rosa started weakening due to an eyewall replacement cycle and rapidly lost structure, falling to Category 3 status. [178] Early on September 29, Rosa weakened below major hurricane status. [179] By the afternoon, Rosa started re-intensifying, with the eyewall replacement having been completed. [180] Late on September 29, Rosa started to weaken yet again, as it was impacted by high amounts of wind shear and low sea surface temperatures. [181] By September 30, Rosa had weakened to a tropical storm while approaching Baja California. [182] The storm quickly weakened into a remnant low on October 2, as it passed over the peninsula, before dissipating on the next day. [183]

Hurricane Sergio

Category 4 hurricane (SSHWS)
Sergio 2018-10-04 2040Z.jpg   Sergio 2018 track.png
DurationSeptember 29 – October 13
Peak intensity140 mph (220 km/h) (1-min)  942  mbar  (hPa)

Late on September 25, the NHC forecasted an area of low pressure to develop within the Gulf of Tehuantepec, south of Mexico within a couple of days. [184] Early on September 26, an area of low pressure developed as expected, with the NHC initially giving the system a low chance of tropical development. [185] Over the next few days, the disturbance gradually organized while slowly moving westward, and on September 29, the disturbance organized into Tropical Storm Sergio, while situated south-southwest of Acapulco, Mexico. [186] As the system moved roughly to the west, Sergio quickly intensified, reaching Category 1 hurricane status early on October 1. [187] On October 2, Sergio intensified to a Category 2 hurricane, [188] before strengthening into a Category 3 major hurricane later that day. [189] Late on October 3, Sergio intensified into a Category 4 hurricane, becoming the record-breaking eighth hurricane in the East Pacific basin of Category 4 or 5 intensity. [190] Early on October 4, Sergio reached its peak intensity, with maximum sustained winds of 140 mph (220 km/h) and a minimum central pressure of 943 millibars (27.8 inHg). [191] Afterward, Sergio began to weaken, dropping to Category 3 intensity by 03:00 UTC on the next day. [192] Early on October 6, Sergio had restrengthened into a strong Category 3 hurricane, while continuing westward, [193] and the storm held that intensity for another day before a weakening trend resumed, weakening Sergio into a Category 2 hurricane early on October 7. [194] Sergio continued to weaken over cooler waters, and after stalling five days as a Category 1, it finally dropped to tropical storm strength late on October 9, [195] before making landfall on Baja California early on October 12. [196] Later on the same day, Sergio weakened into a tropical depression, after making a second landfall on the Mexican mainland. [197] Soon afterward, Sergio degenerated into a remnant low. [198]

Hurricane Walaka

Category 5 hurricane (SSHWS)
Walaka 2018-10-02 0054Z.jpg   Walaka 2018 track.png
DurationSeptember 29 – October 6
Peak intensity160 mph (260 km/h) (1-min)  920  mbar  (hPa)

On September 29, a tropical disturbance to the southwest of Hawaii organized into Tropical Storm Walaka, becoming the first named storm in the Central Pacific basin since Hurricane Ulika in 2016. [199] Walaka organized into a hurricane on September 30 and began rapidly intensifying. [200] Within 24 hours, Walaka had intensified into a major hurricane. [201] Walaka continued to intensify, reaching Category 4 status at 8:00 HST (18:00 UTC) on October 1. Early on the next day, at 00:00 UTC, Walaka became the second Category 5 hurricane of the year east of the International Date Line. [202] Later on October 2, however, the hurricane underwent an eyewall replacement cycle that caused it to weaken while passing close to Johnston Atoll. [203] At 12:00 UTC on October 3, Walaka started to reintensify while moving away from Johnston Atoll and toward Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument. However, northwesterly wind shear began to adversely affect Walaka, causing it to weaken before crossing the archipelago. [204] Walaka continued to weaken over cooler waters further north. [205] At 15:00 UTC on October 6, Walaka transitioned into an extratropical cyclone 1,085 miles (1,740 km) north-northwest of Honolulu, Hawaii. [206] Unrelated to Walaka, Typhoon Kong-rey developed and intensified into a Category 5-equivalent super typhoon around the same time Walaka reached its peak intensity, marking the first time since 2005 when two tropical cyclones of Category 5 strength existed simultaneously in the Northern Hemisphere. [207]

Tropical Storm Tara

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Tara 2018-10-15 1730Z.jpg   Tara 2018 track.png
DurationOctober 14 – October 17
Peak intensity65 mph (100 km/h) (1-min)  995  mbar  (hPa)

Early on October 11, the NHC began monitoring a large area of disturbed weather that had developed near the Gulf of Tehuantepec for possible tropical cyclone development. [208] The disturbance gradually contracted and became better-defined as it moved west-northwestward paralleling the coast of Mexico. By 15:00 UTC on October 14, the low had finally acquired sufficiently organized convection to be classified as a tropical depression. [209] The depression then strengthened into Tropical Storm Tara at 09:00 UTC on October 15. [210] Amid favorable conditions, the tiny cyclone strengthened, reaching its peak intensity with maximum sustained winds of 65 mph (100 km/h). [211] However, a burst of moderate to strong southeasterly shear caused the low-level and upper-level circulations of the cyclone to decouple as it crawled slowly northwestward, and rapid weakening ensued as Tara neared the Mexican coast. [212] At 21:00 UTC on October 16, Tara weakened to a tropical depression while just south of Manzanillo, Mexico, [213] before degenerating into an elongated trough with no discernible circulation six hours later. [214]

Tropical Storm Vicente

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Vicente 2018-10-19 1915Z.jpg   Vicente 2018 track.png
DurationOctober 19 – October 23
Peak intensity50 mph (85 km/h) (1-min)  1002  mbar  (hPa)

On October 17, an elongated low-pressure system developed to the south of Guatemala. Although the system was given a high chance of tropical development, it remained disorganized while moving westward. [215] Early on October 19, a new trough of low pressure developed to the south of Guatemala, within the broad area of disturbed weather, east of the original low of the larger disturbance. [216] The new system quickly organized; consequently, and was designated as Tropical Depression Twenty-Three-E roughly 12 hours later on October 19. [217] Just six hours later, Twenty-Three-E strengthened into a tropical storm, receiving the name Vicente, and also it soon developed an eye, which did not last long whatsoever. [218] Thereafter, moderate northeasterly wind shear began to weaken the relatively small system. [219] A burst of mild restrengthening followed on the next day; [220] however, it was short-lived, and the storm resumed weakening six hours later. [221] At 15:00 UTC on October 23, Vicente degenerated into a remnant low shortly after making landfall in Michoacán, before dissipating shortly afterward. [222]

In Mexico, 16 people were killed, due to heavy rains and mudslides triggered by Vicente. [223] [224] [225]

Hurricane Willa

Category 5 hurricane (SSHWS)
Willa 2018-10-22 0525Z.jpg   Willa 2018 track.png
DurationOctober 20 – October 24
Peak intensity160 mph (260 km/h) (1-min)  925  mbar  (hPa)

On October 14, the NHC began monitoring an Atlantic tropical wave that had developed an area of low pressure in the southwestern Caribbean Sea. [226] On the next day, the system became better organized southeast of the Yucatán Peninsula, and the storm encountered more favorable conditions as it neared land; a Hurricane Hunter aircraft was scheduled to survey the system for further development. [227] However, organization was hindered as the system quickly made landfall in Belize on the next day. [228] Early on October 17, the tropical wave moved into the East Pacific and quickly organized; [229] however, the system failed to coalesce into a tropical cyclone and became increasingly disorganized on the next day. [230] Early on October 19, a new low-pressure trough developed to the east of the original low, [216] which organized into Tropical Storm Vicente later that day. [218] The original low to the west gradually organized while moving westward, and early on October 20, the system developed into Tropical Depression Twenty-Four-E while situated off the coast of southwestern Mexico. [231] Several hours later, the system strengthened into a tropical storm and was given the name Willa. [232] Early on October 21, Willa underwent rapid intensification and became a Category 1 hurricane. [233] Further rapid intensification ensued and Willa became a Category 3 hurricane at 21:00 UTC, just twelve hours after reaching hurricane status, becoming the tenth major hurricane of the season. [234] Soon afterward, at 22:30 UTC, Willa intensified further into a Category 4 hurricane, becoming the ninth of the year in the East Pacific. [15] At 6:00 UTC on October 22, Willa reached its peak intensity as the third Category 5 hurricane of the year, though operationally, Willa was assessed as reaching its peak at 15:00 UTC. [16] Soon after reaching peak intensity, Willa began to weaken, due to the commencement of an eyewall replacement cycle, weakening to a high-end Category 4 hurricane six hours later. [235] Willa encountered wind shear and weakened further into a Category 3 hurricane by the next day, [236] before making landfall at Category 3 intensity at 1:00 UTC on October 24 (7:00 pm on October 23, local time), in Sinaloa, southwestern Mexico. [237] Following landfall, Willa rapidly weakened, dissipating on October 24 over northeastern Mexico. [238]

In Nayarit state, Willa killed four people three drowned along the San Pedro River, and the other was discovered by fishermen. [239] Heavy rainfall killed two people in Nogales, Sonora. There, floods swept away cars and entered homes and businesses. [240]

Tropical Storm Xavier

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Xavier 2018-11-04 2050Z.jpg   Xavier 2018 track.png
DurationNovember 2 – November 5
Peak intensity65 mph (100 km/h) (1-min)  995  mbar  (hPa)

Xavier originated from a trough of low pressure that the NHC began tracking on October 25. [241] The NHC tracked the disturbance for the next several days as it slowly organized and turned from a more westerly direction to the northwest. [242] However, the disturbance became less organized on October 30. [243] Over the next several days, the NHC continued to track the disturbance as it re-organized and turned towards the northeast. [244] At 21:00 UTC on November 2, the system organized into a tropical depression a few hundred miles southwest of Manzanillo, Mexico, [245] which subsequently strengthened into Tropical Storm Xavier at 03:00 UTC on November 3. [246] This made Xavier the first storm to reach the "X" name on the Eastern Pacific naming list since 1992. [247] Throughout its lifespan, Xavier was buffeted by high wind shear, which prevented the system from strengthening. [248] [249] The system became sheared of all convection late on November 5, [250] and degenerated into a post-tropical cyclone early on November 6. [251]

Xavier brought tropical-storm-force winds and heavy rains to the coast of western Mexico. [252]

Other systems

Invest 96C at peak intensity, as a subtropical storm, on September 2. 96C 2018-09-02 0115Z.jpg
Invest 96C at peak intensity, as a subtropical storm, on September 2.

On August 29, an upper-level low absorbed the remnants of Hurricane Lane to the west-northwest of Hawaii. [253] The storm was assigned the designation 96C by the United States Naval Research Laboratory (NRL). [254] Traversing an area with sea surface temperatures 2 °C (3.6 °F) above-normal, [255] the system coalesced into a subtropical storm by August 31. [253] On September 2, the system reached its peak intensity and began to display an eye. [254] Afterward, the system gradually began to weaken, while accelerating northward into colder waters. On September 3, the system weakened below tropical depression intensity, back into an extratropical low. On September 4, the system was absorbed by a larger extratropical storm in the Bering Sea. [254]

Storm names

The following list of names was used for named storms that form in the northeastern Pacific Ocean during 2018. No names were retired, so this list will be used again in the 2024 season. [256] This is the same list used in the 2012 season. The name Vicente was used for the first time this year, while the names Willa and Xavier were both used once in 1962 and 1992, respectively.

For storms that form in the Central Pacific Hurricane Center's area of responsibility, encompassing the area between 140 degrees west and the International Date Line, all names are used in a series of four rotating lists. [257] The next four names that were slated for use in 2018 are shown below; however, only the name Walaka was used.

  • Akoni (unused)
  • Ema (unused)
  • Hone (unused)

Season effects

This is a table of all the storms that have formed in the 2018 Pacific hurricane season. It includes their duration, names, landfall(s), denoted in parentheses, damages, and death totals. Deaths in parentheses are additional and indirect (an example of an indirect death would be a traffic accident), but were still related to that storm. Damage and deaths include totals while the storm was extratropical, a tropical wave, or a low, and all the damage figures are in 2018 USD.

Saffir–Simpson scale
TDTSC1C2C3C4C5
2018 Pacific hurricane season statistics
Storm
name
Dates activeStorm category

at peak intensity

Max 1-min
wind
mph (km/h)
Min.
press.
(mbar)
Areas affectedDamage
(USD)
DeathsRefs
One-EMay 10 – 11Tropical depression35 (55)1007NoneNoneNone
AlettaJune 6 – 11Category 4 hurricane140 (220)943NoneNoneNone
Bud June 9 – 16Category 4 hurricane140 (220)943Western Mexico, Baja California Sur, Southwestern United States Minimal1
Carlotta June 14 – 18Tropical storm65 (100)997Southwestern MexicoUnknown(2)
DanielJune 24 – 26Tropical storm45 (75)1004NoneNoneNone
EmiliaJune 27 – July 1Tropical storm60 (95)997NoneNoneNone
FabioJune 30 – July 6Category 2 hurricane110 (175)964NoneNoneNone
GilmaJuly 26 – 29Tropical storm45 (75)1005NoneNoneNone
Nine-EJuly 26 – 27Tropical depression35 (55)1007NoneNoneNone
Hector July 31 – August 13 [nb 2] Category 4 hurricane155 (250)936 Hawaii, Johnston Atoll MinimalNone
Ileana August 4 – 7Tropical storm65 (100)998Western Mexico, Baja California Sur$737,0008
JohnAugust 5 – 10Category 2 hurricane110 (175)964Western Mexico, Baja California Sur, Southern California NoneNone
KristyAugust 7 – 12Tropical storm70 (110)991NoneNoneNone
Lane August 15 – 29Category 5 hurricane160 (260)922Hawaii$250 million1
MiriamAugust 26 – September 2Category 2 hurricane100 (155)974NoneNoneNone
NormanAugust 28 – September 10Category 4 hurricane150 (240)937HawaiiNoneNone
Olivia September 1 – 13Category 4 hurricane130 (215)951Hawaii$25 millionNone
PaulSeptember 8 – 11Tropical storm45 (75)1002NoneNoneNone
Nineteen-E September 19 – 20Tropical depression35 (55)1002Baja California Sur, Northwestern Mexico>$296 million12 (2)
Rosa September 25 – October 2Category 4 hurricane150 (240)936 Baja California Peninsula, Northwestern Mexico, Southwestern United States$50.5 million3
Sergio September 29 – October 13Category 4 hurricane140 (220)943Baja California Peninsula, Northwestern Mexico, Southwestern United States, Texas $402 million1
Walaka September 29 – October 6Category 5 hurricane160 (260)920 Johnston Atoll, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, Alaska, British Columbia MinimalNone
TaraOctober 14 – 17Tropical storm65 (100)995Southwestern MexicoMinimalNone
Vicente October 19 – 23Tropical storm50 (85)1002 Honduras, El Salvador, Guatemala, Southwestern Mexico$7.05 million16
Willa October 20 – 24Category 5 hurricane160 (260)925 Central America, Mexico, Texas$537 million6
XavierNovember 2 – 5Tropical storm65 (100)995Southwestern MexicoNoneNone
Season Aggregates
26 systemsMay 10 – November 5 160 (260)920>$1.57 billion47 (2) 

See also

Notes

  1. The totals represent the sum of the squares for every (sub)tropical storm's intensity of over 33 knots (38 mph, 61 km/h), divided by 10,000. Calculations are provided at Talk:2018 Pacific hurricane season/ACE calcs.
  2. Hector did not dissipate on August 13. It crossed the International Date Line, beyond which point it was then referred to as Tropical Storm Hector. It dissipated on August 16.

Related Research Articles

2008 Pacific hurricane season hurricane season in the Pacific Ocean

The 2008 Pacific hurricane season was a near average hurricane season. It officially started May 15, 2008 in the eastern Pacific, started on June 1, 2008 in the central Pacific, and lasted until November 30, 2008. This season is the first since 1996 to have no cyclones cross into the central Pacific. Activity this year was near average, with 16 storms forming in the Eastern Pacific proper and an additional 1 in the Central Pacific. There were 7 hurricanes, a low number compared to the typical 9, and only 2 major hurricanes, unlike the typical 5. There were only a few notable storms this year. Tropical Storm Alma made landfall along the Pacific coast of Nicaragua, becoming the first known storm to do so. It killed 9 and did US$35 million in damage. It also became the first tropical storm to be retired in the Eastern Pacific basin. Hurricane Norbert became the strongest hurricane to hit the western side of the Baja Peninsula on record, killing 25.

2011 Pacific hurricane season hurricane season in the Pacific Ocean

The 2011 Pacific hurricane season was a below-average Pacific hurricane season and was the first season since 2009 that featured no depressions or named storms in the month of May. It had six major hurricanes which was above average for a Pacific hurricane season. The season officially started on May 15, 2011, for the eastern Pacific, and started on June 1, 2011, for the central Pacific, both of which ended on November 30, 2011. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the Pacific basin. A total of 11 named storms were observed, which is below average.

2012 Pacific hurricane season hurricane season in the Pacific Ocean

The 2012 Pacific hurricane season was a moderately active Pacific hurricane season that saw an unusually high number of tropical cyclones pass west of the Baja California Peninsula. The season officially started on May 15 in the eastern Pacific, and on June 1 in the central Pacific, and ended on November 30; these dates conventionally delimit the period during which most tropical cyclones form in the northeastern Pacific Ocean. However, with the formation of Tropical Storm Aletta on May 14 the season slightly exceeded these bounds.

2016 Pacific hurricane season hurricane season in the Pacific Ocean

The 2016 Pacific hurricane season was tied as the fifth-most active season on record, alongside the 2014 season. Throughout the course of the year, a total of 22 named storms, 13 hurricanes and six major hurricanes were observed within the basin. Although the season was very active, it was considerably less active than the previous season, with large gaps of inactivity at the beginning and towards the end of the season. It officially started on May 15 in the eastern Pacific, and on June 1 in the central Pacific; they both ended on November 30. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the Pacific basin. However, as illustrated by Hurricane Pali, which became the earliest Central Pacific tropical cyclone on record, the formation of tropical cyclones is possible at any time of the year. After Pali, however, the active season had a slow start, becoming the first season since 2011 in which no tropical cyclones occurred in May, and also the first since 2007 in which no named storms formed in the month of June.

2017 Pacific hurricane season event in the annual cycle of tropical cyclone formation

The 2017 Pacific hurricane season was a moderately active Pacific hurricane season, featuring eighteen named storms, nine hurricanes, and four major hurricanes, though the season was significantly less active than the previous three seasons. Despite the considerable amount of activity, most of the storms were weak and short-lived. The season officially started on May 15 in the eastern Pacific, and on June 1 in the central Pacific; they both ended on November 30. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the basin. However, the formation of tropical cyclones is possible at any time of the year. This was demonstrated when the first storm, Tropical Storm Adrian, was named on May 10, and became the earliest-known tropical storm in the East Pacific since the advent of satellite imagery. The season saw near-average activity in terms of Accumulated Cyclone Energy (ACE), in stark contrast to the extremely active seasons in 2014, 2015, and 2016; and for the first time since 2012, no tropical cyclones formed in the Central Pacific basin. However, for the third year in a row, the season featured above-average activity in July, with the ACE value being the fifth highest for the month.

Hurricane Dora (2011) Category 4 Pacific hurricane in 2011

Hurricane Dora was the strongest tropical cyclone in the northeastern Pacific in 2011. Dora developed from a tropical wave south of Honduras on July 18. Moving northwestward in favorable conditions, the system quickly intensified to tropical storm status and attained hurricane intensity the next day. Rapid intensification ensued shortly thereafter, bringing the storm to its peak intensity on July 21 as a Category 4 hurricane, with a minimum barometric pressure of 929 mbar and maximum sustained winds of 155 mph (250 km/h). However, the storm's path into an area with cool sea surface temperatures and wind shear caused Dora to quickly deteriorate and weaken. By July 24, Dora had degenerated into a remnant low-pressure area west of the Baja California Peninsula. Dora brought stormy conditions to the southwestern Mexico coast and the Baja California Peninsula throughout its existence. Remaining off the coast from its formation to dissipation, Dora's effects on land were slight. However, the outer rainbands of the hurricane caused flooding and mudslides in southern Mexico and Guatemala, while rough surf toppled a lighthouse and damaged 60 restaurants along the coast. The hurricane's remnants contributed to heightened shower and thunderstorm activity across New Mexico and Arizona in late July.

2017 Atlantic hurricane season hurricane season in the Atlantic Ocean

The 2017 Atlantic hurricane season was a hyperactive and catastrophic hurricane season that, with a damage total of at least $294.67 billion (USD), was the costliest tropical cyclone season on record. With over 3,350 deaths, 2017 was the deadliest season since 2005 and also featured the highest total accumulated cyclone energy (ACE) since the same year. Most of the season's damage was due to three major hurricanes – Harvey, Irma, and Maria. Another notable hurricane, Nate, was the worst natural disaster in Costa Rican history; Harvey, Irma, Maria, and Nate had their names retired due to their high damage costs and loss of life. Featuring 17 named storms, 10 hurricanes, and 6 major hurricanes, the 2017 season ranks alongside 1936 as the fifth-most active season since reliable records began in 1851. The 2017 season had the most major hurricanes since 2005. This season is also one of only six years on record to feature multiple Category 5 hurricanes and the only season other than 2007 with two hurricanes making landfall at that intensity. All ten of the season's hurricanes occurred in a row, the greatest number of consecutive hurricanes in the satellite era, and tied for the highest number of consecutive hurricanes ever observed in the Atlantic basin. Additionally, this season is the only season on record in which three hurricanes each had an ACE of over 40: Irma, Jose, and Maria.

2018 Atlantic hurricane season Hurricane season in the Atlantic ocean

The 2018 Atlantic hurricane season was the third in a consecutive series of above-average and damaging Atlantic hurricane seasons, featuring 15 named storms, 8 hurricanes, and 2 major hurricanes, which caused a total of over $50.205 billion in damages. The season officially began on June 1, 2018, and ended on November 30, 2018. These dates historically describe the period each year when most tropical cyclones form in the Atlantic basin and are adopted by convention. The formation of Tropical Storm Alberto on May 25, marked the fourth consecutive year in which a storm developed before the official start of the season. The next storm, Beryl, became the first hurricane to form in the eastern Atlantic during the month of July since Bertha in 2008. Chris, upgraded to a hurricane on July 10, became the earliest second hurricane in a season since 2005. No hurricanes formed in the North Atlantic during the month of August, marking the first season since 2013, and the eighth season on record, to do so. On September 5, Florence became the first major hurricane of the season. On September 12, Joyce formed, making 2018 the first season since 2008 to feature four named storms active simultaneously. On October 9, Michael became the second major hurricane of the season, and a day later, it became the first Category 5 hurricane to make landfall in the continental United States since Hurricane Andrew in 1992. With Michael, 2018 became the third consecutive season to feature at least one Category 5 Hurricane. With the formation of Oscar on October 26, the season is the first on record to see seven storms that were subtropical at some point in their lifetimes.

Hurricane Raymond (2013)

Hurricane Raymond was the only major hurricane in the eastern Pacific in 2013 and briefly threatened the southwestern coast of Mexico before recurving back out to sea. The seventeenth named storm and eighth hurricane of the annual cyclone season, Raymond developed from a tropical wave on October 20 south of Acapulco, Mexico. Within favorable conditions for tropical cyclone development, Raymond quickly intensified, attaining tropical storm intensity and later hurricane intensity within a day of cyclogenesis. On October 21, the hurricane reached its peak intensity with winds of 125 mph (205 km/h). A blocking ridge forced the hurricane to the southwest, while at the same time Raymond began to quickly weaken due to wind shear. The following day, the tropical cyclone weakened to tropical storm status. After tracking westward, Raymond reentered more favorable conditions, allowing it to intensify back to hurricane strength on October 27 while curving northward. The hurricane reached a secondary peak intensity with winds of 105 mph (165 km/h) several hours later. Deteriorating atmospheric conditions resulted in Raymond weakening for a final time, and on October 30, the National Hurricane Center (NHC) declared the tropical cyclone to have dissipated.

Tropical Storm Bonnie (2016)

Tropical Storm Bonnie was a weak but persistent tropical cyclone that brought heavy rains to the Southeastern United States in May 2016. The second storm of the season, Bonnie formed from an area of low pressure northeast of the Bahamas on May 27, a few days before the official hurricane season began on June 1. Moving steadily west-northwestwards, Bonnie intensified into a tropical storm on May 28 and attained peak winds six hours later. However, due to hostile environmental conditions, Bonnie weakened to a depression hours before making landfall just east of Charleston, South Carolina, on May 29. Steering currents collapsed afterwards, causing the storm to meander over South Carolina for two days. The storm weakened further into a post-tropical cyclone on May 31, before emerging off the coast while moving generally east-northeastwards. On June 2, Bonnie regenerated into a tropical depression just offshore North Carolina as conditions became slightly more favorable. The next day, despite increasing wind shear and cooling sea surface temperatures, Bonnie reintensified into a tropical storm and reached its peak intensity. The storm hung on to tropical storm strength for another day, before weakening into a depression late on June 4 and became post-tropical early the next day.

Tropical Storm Emily (2017)

Tropical Storm Emily was a rapidly-forming tropical cyclone that made landfall on the west coast of Florida. The fifth named storm of the 2017 Atlantic hurricane season, Emily formed from a small area of low pressure that developed along a cold front in late July 2017. Unexpectedly, the low rapidly organized and strengthened into a tropical depression on July 30, and then into a tropical storm early the next day. Emily continued to intensify as it moved eastward, peaking with maximum sustained winds of 60 mph (95 km/h) as it made landfall near Longboat Key on the western Florida coast. The cyclone weakened quickly into a tropical depression shortly after landfall as its circulation became increasingly disrupted. Emerging into the Atlantic Ocean on August 1, Emily continued to weaken as it accelerated northeastward, becoming post-tropical early on August 2.

Meteorological history of Hurricane Harvey

Hurricane Harvey was the costliest tropical cyclone on record, inflicting roughly $125 billion in damages in the affected areas. It lasted from mid-August until early September 2017, with many records for rainfall and landfall intensity set during that time. The eighth named storm, third hurricane, and first major hurricane of the 2017 Atlantic hurricane season, Harvey originated from a broad area of low pressure southwest of Cape Verde that was first detected on August 13. Tracking steadily westward, the disturbance developed strong convection, a well-defined circulation, and sustained tropical storm-force winds, leading to the classification of Tropical Storm Harvey late on August 17. Moderate, easterly vertical wind shear kept Harvey weak, as it continued westwards into the Caribbean Sea; despite repeated predictions for gradual intensification by the National Hurricane Center, Harvey eventually opened up into a tropical wave on August 19. The remnants of Harvey continued to move westwards and reached the Yucatán Peninsula on August 22, and was forecast to regenerate into a tropical cyclone after exiting land.

Meteorological history of Hurricane Irma

Hurricane Irma was an extremely powerful Cape Verde hurricane that caused extensive damage in the Caribbean and Florida. Lasting from late August to mid-September 2017, the storm was the strongest open-Atlantic tropical cyclone on record and the first Category 5 hurricane to strike the Leeward Islands. Classified as the ninth named storm, fourth hurricane, and second major hurricane of the hyperactive 2017 Atlantic hurricane season, Irma developed from a tropical wave near the Cape Verde Islands on August 30. Favorable conditions allowed the cyclone to become a hurricane on the following day and then rapidly intensify into a major hurricane by September 1 as it moved generally westward across the Atlantic. However, dry air and eyewall replacement cycles disrupted further strengthening, with fluctuations in intensity during the next few days. Irma resumed deepening upon encountering warmer sea surface temperatures, while approaching the Lesser Antilles on September 4. The system reached Category 5 intensity on the following day and peaked with winds of 180 mph (285 km/h) shortly thereafter.

Hurricane Olivia (2018)

Hurricane Olivia was the first tropical cyclone to make landfall on Maui and Lanai in recorded history. The fifteenth named storm, ninth hurricane, and sixth major hurricane of the 2018 Pacific hurricane season, Olivia formed southwest of Mexico on September 1. The depression slowly organized and strengthened into Tropical Storm Olivia on the next day. Olivia then began a period of rapid intensification on September 3, reaching its initial peak on September 5. Soon after, Olivia began a weakening trend, before re-intensifying on September 6. On the next day, Olivia peaked as a Category 4 hurricane, with winds of 130 mph and a minimum central pressure of 951 mbar. Six hours later, Olivia began another weakening trend that resulted in the hurricane being downgraded to Category 1 status on September 8, east of the 140th meridian west. On September 9, Olivia entered the Central Pacific Basin. Over the next couple of days, Olivia prompted the issuance of Tropical Storm Watches and Warnings for Hawaii County, Oahu, Maui County, and Kauai County. Olivia weakened into a tropical storm on September 11, before making brief landfalls in northwest Maui and Lanai on the next day, becoming the first tropical cyclone to impact the islands in recorded history. Tropical storm-force winds mainly affected Maui County and Oahu. Torrential rains affected the same area from September 11 to 13, causing flash flooding. Olivia caused a total of US$25 million in damages. Olivia was downgraded to a tropical depression on September 13 while continuing to head west. Due to wind shear disrupting Olivia's convection, the system weakened into a remnant low on September 14. Olivia crossed into the West Pacific Basin on September 19 as a remnant low, before dissipating later that day.

Hurricane Rosa (2018)

Hurricane Rosa was the first tropical cyclone to make landfall in the Mexican state of Baja California since Nora in 1997. The seventeenth named storm, tenth hurricane, and seventh major hurricane of the 2018 Pacific hurricane season, Rosa originated from a broad area of low pressure that the National Hurricane Center began monitoring on September 22. The disturbance moved westward and then west-northwestward for a few days, before developing into a tropical depression on September 25. Later that day, the depression strengthened into Tropical Storm Rosa. One day later, Rosa became a hurricane. On September 27, Rosa began a period of rapid intensification, ultimately peaking as a Category 4 hurricane with maximum sustained winds of 150 mph and a minimum central pressure of 936 mbar on the next day. Over the next couple of days, Rosa turned towards the northeast. By September 29, Rosa had weakened into a Category 2 hurricane due to ongoing structural changes and less favorable conditions. Later on the same day, Rosa re-intensified slightly. On September 30, Rosa resumed weakening as its core structure eroded. Early on October 1, Rosa weakened into a tropical storm. On October 2, Rosa weakened to a tropical depression and made landfall in Baja California. Later in the day, Rosa's remnants crossed into the Gulf of California, with its surface and mid-level remnants later separating entirely. The mid-level remnants of Rosa continued to travel north, reaching northeast Arizona late in the day. On October 3, Rosa's remnants were absorbed into an upper-level low situated off the coast of California.

Hurricane Leslie (2018) Category 1 Atlantic hurricane in 2018

Hurricane Leslie was the strongest cyclone of tropical origin to strike the Iberian Peninsula since 1842. A large, long-lived, and very erratic tropical cyclone, Leslie was the twelfth named storm and sixth hurricane of the 2018 Atlantic hurricane season. The storm had a non-tropical origin, developing from an extratropical cyclone that situated over the northern Atlantic on 22 September. The low quickly acquired subtropical characteristics and was classified as Subtropical Storm Leslie on the following day. The cyclone meandered over the northern Atlantic and gradually weakened, before merging with a frontal system on 25 September, which later intensified into a powerful hurricane-force extratropical low over the northern Atlantic.

Tropical Storm Vicente (2018)

Tropical Storm Vicente was a weak and small tropical cyclone affected the southwestern Mexico in late October 2018, causing deadly flooding and mudslides. The twenty-first named storm of the 2018 Pacific hurricane season, Vicente originated from a trough of low pressure that formed within a large area of disturbed weather near Central America early on October 19. Around midday, the disturbance organized into a tropical depression, which prompted the National Hurricane Center to begin issuing advisories. Later in day, the depression strengthened into a tropical storm and was assigned the name Vicente. Despite having only been a weak tropical storm, Vicente developed an intermittent eye-like feature. Unfavorable conditions prevented strengthening until late on October 20. At that time, Vicente peaked with maximum sustained winds of 50 mph and a minimum central pressure of 1002 mbar. A day later, Vicente began to weaken due increasing wind shear before slightly restrengthening early on October 22. On October 23, Vicente weakened into a tropical depression. Later in the day, Vicente degenerated into a remnant low after making landfall in southwestern Mexico, before dissipating soon afterward.

Hurricane Willa Category 5 Pacific hurricane in 2018

Hurricane Willa was the strongest tropical cyclone to make landfall in the Mexican state of Sinaloa since Lane in 2006. The twenty-second named storm, thirteenth hurricane, tenth major hurricane, and record-tying third Category 5 hurricane of the 2018 Pacific hurricane season, Willa originated from a tropical wave that the National Hurricane Center (NHC) first began monitoring for tropical cyclogenesis in the southwestern Caribbean Sea, on October 14. The system subsequently crossed over Central America into the East Pacific, without significant organization. The NHC continued to track the disturbance until it developed into a tropical depression on October 20, off the coast of southwestern Mexico. Later in the day, the system became a tropical storm as it began to rapidly intensify. On October 21, Willa became a Category 4 major hurricane, before strengthening further to Category 5 intensity on the next day. Afterward, a combination of an eyewall replacement cycle and increasing wind shear weakened the hurricane, and early on October 24, Willa made landfall as a marginal Category 3 hurricane, in Sinaloa of the northwestern Mexico. Following landfall, Willa rapidly weakened, dissipating later on the same day over northeastern Mexico.

References

  1. Dorst Neal. When is hurricane season? (Report). Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory. Archived from the original on 6 December 2010. Retrieved November 25, 2010.
  2. "Background Information: East Pacific Hurricane Season". Climate Prediction Center. College Park, Maryland: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. May 22, 2014. Retrieved May 29, 2014.
  3. 1 2 National Hurricane Center; Hurricane Research Division; Central Pacific Hurricane Center. "The Northeast and North Central Pacific hurricane database 1949–2017". United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service. A guide on how to read the database is available here.
  4. 1 2 "Forecasters predict a near- or above-normal 2018 hurricane season". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration . May 24, 2018.
  5. 1 2 Barrios, Verónica Millán. "Temporada de Ciclones 2018". smn.cna.gob.mx.
  6. "NOAA: 2018 Eastern Pacific Hurricane Season Outlook". Climate Prediction Center. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. May 24, 2018.
  7. Hurricane Specialist Unit (July 1, 2018). East Pacific Monthly Tropical Weather Summary: June (Report). Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved August 1, 2018.
  8. "Philip Klotzbach on Twitter". Twitter. Retrieved 2018-07-01.
  9. Hurricane Specialist Unit (August 1, 2018). Monthly Tropical Weather Summary: July (Report). Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved August 1, 2018.
  10. Lane Possibly Breaks Hawaii Tropical Cyclone Rainfall Record (Public Information Statement). National Weather Service Office in Honolulu, Hawaii. August 27, 2018. Archived from the original on August 28, 2018. Retrieved August 27, 2018.
  11. Hurricane Specialist Unit (September 1, 2018). East Pacific Monthly Tropical Weather Summary: August (Report). Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved December 9, 2018.
  12. Hurricane Specialist Unit (October 1, 2018). East Pacific Monthly Tropical Weather Summary: September (Report). Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved December 9, 2018.
  13. Blake, Eric. Hurricane Sergio Discussion Number 19. National Hurricane Center (Report). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 4 October 2018.
  14. Stacy R. Stewart (October 20, 2018). "Hurricane Willa Advisory Number 5". Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved October 21, 2018.
  15. 1 2 John Cangialosi (October 21, 2018). "Hurricane Willa Tropical Cyclone Update". Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved October 21, 2018.
  16. 1 2 Daniel Brown (October 22, 2018). "Hurricane Willa Discussion Number 10". Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved October 22, 2018.
  17. Hurricane Specialist Unit (December 1, 2018). East Pacific Monthly Tropical Weather Summary: November (Report). Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved December 9, 2018.
  18. Andrew Latto (May 6, 2018). Tropical Weather Discussion (Report). Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved May 10, 2018.
  19. Lixion A. Avila (May 7, 2018). Special Graphical Tropical Weather Outlook (Report). Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved May 10, 2018.
  20. Stacy R. Stewart (May 9, 2018). Special Graphical Tropical Weather Outlook (Report). Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved May 10, 2018.
  21. John L. Beven II (May 9, 2018). Special Graphical Tropical Weather Outlook (Report). Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved May 10, 2018.
  22. Lixion A. Avila (May 10, 2018). Tropical Depression One-E Discussion Number 1 (Report). Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved May 10, 2018.
  23. Robbie Berg (July 12, 2018). Tropical Cyclone Report: Tropical Depression One-E (PDF) (Report). Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved July 17, 2018.
  24. Richard J. Pasch (June 7, 2018). Hurricane Aletta Discussion Number 8 (Report). Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved October 29, 2018.
  25. 1 2 Lixion A. Avila (July 31, 2018). Tropical Cyclone Report: Hurricane Aletta (PDF) (Report). Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved July 31, 2018.
  26. David P. Zelinsky (June 8, 2018). Hurricane Aletta Discussion Number 12 (Report). Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved June 8, 2018.
  27. Robbie Berg (June 5, 2018). "Graphical Tropical Weather Outlook". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved June 9, 2018.
  28. David Zelinsky (June 9, 2018). "Tropical Depression Three-E Advisory Number 1". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved June 9, 2018.
  29. Lixion Avila (June 10, 2018). "Tropical Storm Bud Advisory Number 2". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved June 10, 2018.
  30. Richard J. Pasch (June 10, 2018). Tropical Storm Bud Discussion Number 3 (Report). Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved June 13, 2018.
  31. Lixion A. Avila (June 10, 2018). Hurricane Bud Discussion Number 5 (Report). Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved June 13, 2018.
  32. Richard J. Pasch (June 12, 2018). Hurricane Bud Discussion Number 11 (Report). Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved June 13, 2018.
  33. Stacy R. Stewart (June 13, 2018). Tropical Storm Bud Intermediate Advisory Number 15A (Report). Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved June 18, 2018.
  34. John P. Cangialosi (June 14, 2018). Tropical Storm Bud Intermediate Advisory Number 21A (Report). Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved June 13, 2018.
  35. Michael J. Brennan (June 13, 2018). Post-Tropical Cyclone Bud Discussion Number 25 (Report). Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved June 15, 2018.
  36. Eric S. Blake (June 12, 2018). "Graphical Tropical Weather Outlook". Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved June 17, 2018.
  37. Eric S. Blake (June 14, 2018). Tropical Depression Four-E Discussion Number 1 (Report). Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved June 17, 2018.
  38. Eric S. Blake (June 15, 2018). Tropical Storm Carlotta Intermediate Advisory Number 4A (Report). Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved June 17, 2018.
  39. Eric S. Blake (June 15, 2018). Tropical Storm Carlotta Discussion Number 5 (Report). Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved June 17, 2018.
  40. John P. Cangialosi (June 16, 2018). Tropical Storm Carlotta Discussion Number 10 (Report). Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved June 18, 2018.
  41. Richard J. Pasch (June 17, 2018). Tropical Depression Carlotta Intermediate Advisory Number 12A (Report). Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved June 18, 2018.
  42. Stacy R. Stewart (June 18, 2018). Post-Tropical Cyclone Carlotta Discussion Number 18 (Report). Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved June 18, 2018.
  43. David A. Zelinsky (June 21, 2018). "Graphical Tropical Weather Outlook". Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved June 23, 2018.
  44. Robbie J. Berg (June 21, 2018). "Graphical Tropical Weather Outlook". Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved June 23, 2018.
  45. David A. Zelinsky (June 23, 2018). Tropical Depression Five-E Discussion Number 1 (Report). Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved June 23, 2018.
  46. John L. Beven (June 24, 2018). "Tropical Storm Daniel Discussion Number 3". Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved June 24, 2018.
  47. John L. Beven (June 24, 2018). "Tropical Storm Daniel Discussion Number 4". Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved June 25, 2018.
  48. John L. Beven (June 25, 2018). Tropical Storm Daniel Discussion Number 7 (Report). Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved June 26, 2018.
  49. John L. Beven (June 25, 2018). "Tropical Depression Daniel Discussion Number 8". Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved June 25, 2018.
  50. John L. Beven (June 26, 2018). Tropical Storm Daniel Discussion Number 11 (Report). Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved June 26, 2018.
  51. John L. Beven II (February 11, 2019). Tropical Cyclone Report: Tropical Storm Daniel (PDF) (Report). Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved February 28, 2019.
  52. Robbie J. Berg (June 27, 2018). "NHC Graphical Tropical Outlook". Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved June 27, 2018.
  53. 1 2 3 4 5 Stacy R. Stewart (August 21, 2018). Tropical Cyclone Report: Tropical Storm Emilia (PDF) (Report). Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved August 27, 2018.
  54. John L. Beven (June 24, 2018). "NHC Graphical Outlook Archive". Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved June 29, 2018.
  55. David P. Zelinsky (June 24, 2018). "Tropical Depression Seven-E Discussion Number 1". Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved June 24, 2018.
  56. John L. Beven (July 1, 2018). "Tropical Storm Fabio Discussion Number 3". Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved July 2, 2018.
  57. Daniel Brown (July 2, 2018). "Hurricane Fabio Discussion Number 8". Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved July 2, 2018.[ permanent dead link ]
  58. John P. Cangialosi (July 4, 2018). "Hurricane Fabio Discussion Number 14". Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved July 4, 2018.
  59. Lixion Avila (July 6, 2018). "Post-Tropical Cyclone Fabio Discussion Number 24". Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved July 6, 2018.
  60. Eric Blake (July 18, 2018). "NHC Graphical Outlook Archive". Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved July 27, 2018.
  61. 1 2 3 4 John P. Cangialosi (November 6, 2018). Tropical Cyclone Report: Tropical Storm Gilma (PDF) (Report). Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved November 14, 2018.
  62. David P. Zelinsky (July 24, 2018). "NHC Graphical Outlook Archive". Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved July 27, 2018.
  63. John P. Cangialosi (July 26, 2018). "Tropical Depression Nine-E Advisory Number 1". Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved July 27, 2018.
  64. David P. Zelinsky (July 27, 2018). "Tropical Depression Nine-E Discussion Number 2". Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved July 27, 2018.
  65. John P. Cangialosi (July 27, 2018). "Remnants Of Nine-E Discussion Number 4". Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved July 27, 2018.
  66. Zelinsky, David (August 24, 2018). "Tropical Depression Nine-E" (PDF). nhc.noaa.gov. Retrieved October 6, 2018.
  67. Lixion A. Avila (July 26, 2018). "NHC Graphical Outlook Archive". Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved July 31, 2018.
  68. John P. Cangialosi (July 26, 2018). "NHC Graphical Outlook Archive". Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved July 31, 2018.
  69. Stacy R. Stewart (July 31, 2018). "Tropical Depression Ten-E Advisory Number 1". Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved July 31, 2018.
  70. Daniel P. Brown (July 31, 2018). "Tropical Storm Hector Advisory Number 2". Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved July 31, 2018.
  71. Robbie Berg; Michael J. Brennan (August 2, 2018). "Hurricane Hector Tropical Cyclone Update". Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved August 2, 2018.
  72. Eric S. Blake (August 3, 2018). "Hurricane Hector Advisory Number 9". Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved August 3, 2018.
  73. Jack Beven (August 3, 2018). "Hurricane Hector Discussion Number 10". Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved August 3, 2018.
  74. John L. Beven (August 4, 2018). Hurricane Hector Discussion Number 18 (Report). Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved August 5, 2018.
  75. Stacy R. Stewart (August 5, 2018). Hurricane Hector Discussion Number 19 (Report). Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved August 5, 2018.
  76. Houston, Sam (August 9, 2018). Hurricane Hector Discussion Number 36. Central Pacific Hurricane Center (Report). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved August 9, 2018.
  77. Houston, Sam (August 13, 2018). Tropical Storm Hector Advisory Number 53. Central Pacific Hurricane Center (Report). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved August 17, 2018.
  78. Daniel P. Brown (July 18, 2018). "NHC Graphical Outlook Archive". Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved July 27, 2018.
  79. Robbie Berg (August 4, 2018). "Tropical Depression Eleven-E Advisory Number 1". Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved August 4, 2018.
  80. Richard Pasch (August 5, 2018). "Tropical Storm Ileana Advisory Number 1". Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved August 5, 2018.
  81. 1 2 Daniel P. Brown (August 7, 2018). "Remnants of Ileana Discussion Number 12". Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved August 7, 2018.
  82. Juan Cervantes (August 6, 2018). "Arrecian efectos de la tormenta "Ileana" en Guerrero". El Universal (in Spanish). Chilpancingo, Guerrero. Retrieved August 7, 2018.
  83. John P. Cangialosi (July 29, 2018). "NHC Graphical Outlook Archive". Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved August 6, 2018.
  84. Eric S. Blake (August 2, 2018). "NHC Graphical Outlook Archive". Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved August 6, 2018.
  85. Daniel P. Brown (August 5, 2018). "Tropical Depression Twelve-E Advisory Number 1". Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved August 6, 2018.
  86. Jack Beven (August 6, 2018). "Tropical Storm John Advisory Number 2". Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved August 6, 2018.
  87. Daniel P. Brown (August 6, 2018). "Hurricane John Advisory Number 5". Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved August 6, 2018.
  88. Daniel Brown (August 7, 2018). "Hurricane John Discussion Number 9". Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved August 14, 2018.
  89. Lixion Avila (August 10, 2018). "Post-Tropical Cyclone John Discussion Number 20". Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved August 14, 2018.
  90. Alex Sosnowski (August 10, 2018). "Dangerous surf from John to affect Southern California beaches into this weekend". State College, Pennsylvania: AccuWeather. Retrieved August 14, 2018.
  91. "NHC Graphical Outlook Archive". www.nhc.noaa.gov. Retrieved 2018-10-06.
  92. "Tropical Depression THIRTEEN-E". www.nhc.noaa.gov. Retrieved 2018-10-06.
  93. Eric Blake (August 7, 2018). "Tropical Storm Kristy Forecast/Advisory Number 2". Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved August 14, 2018.
  94. Robbie J. Berg (August 10, 2018). "Tropical Storm Kristy Forecast/Advisory Number 13". Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved August 14, 2018.
  95. "Post-Tropical Cyclone KRISTY". www.nhc.noaa.gov. Retrieved 2018-10-06.
  96. "NHC Graphical Outlook Archive". www.nhc.noaa.gov. Retrieved 2018-10-07.
  97. Stacy R. Stewart (August 14, 2018). Tropical Depression Fourteen-E Discussion Number 1 (Report). Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved August 22, 2018.
  98. Eric S. Blake (August 15, 2018). Tropical Storm Lane Discussion Number 3 (Report). Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved August 22, 2018.
  99. Stacy R. Stewart (August 16, 2018). Hurricane Lane Discussion Number 9 (Report). Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved August 22, 2018.
  100. Stacy R. Stewart (August 18, 2018). Hurricane Lane Discussion Number 15 (Report). Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved August 22, 2018.
  101. Sam Houston (August 19, 2018). Hurricane Lane Discussion Number 19 (Report). Honolulu, Hawaii: Central Pacific Hurricane Center. Retrieved August 22, 2018.
  102. Richard Ballard (August 20, 2018). Hurricane Lane Discussion Number 24 (Report). Honolulu, Hawaii: Central Pacific Hurricane Center. Retrieved August 22, 2018.
  103. Richard Ballard (August 22, 2018). Hurricane Lane Special Advisory Number 30 (Report). Honolulu, Hawaii: Central Pacific Hurricane Center. Retrieved August 22, 2018.
  104. Wendy Osher (22 August 2018). "Lane Intensifies to Dangerous Category 5 Hurricane, 160 mph Winds". Maui Now. Retrieved 22 August 2018.
  105. "Lane strengthens to Category 5 hurricane, Big Island under hurricane warning". Hawaii News Now. 22 August 2018. Archived from the original on 2018-08-22. Retrieved 22 August 2018.
  106. Powell (August 22, 2018). "Hurricane Lane Discussion 32". prh.noaa.gov.
  107. Ballard (August 24, 2018). "Tropical Storm Discussion Number 43". prh.noaa.gov. Retrieved September 1, 2018.
  108. Burke (August 26, 2018). "Tropical Storm Lane Discussion Number 47". prh.noaa.gov. Retrieved September 1, 2018.
  109. Birchard (August 26, 2018). "Tropical Depression Lane Discussion Number 49". prh.noaa.gov. Retrieved September 1, 2018.
  110. Birchard (August 27, 2018). "Tropical Storm Lane Discussion Number 53". prh.noaa.gov. Retrieved September 1, 2018.
  111. Donaldson (August 28, 2018). "Tropical Depression Lane Discussion Number 55". prh.noaa.gov. Retrieved September 1, 2018.
  112. Donaldson (August 29, 2018). "Post-Tropical Cyclone Lane Discussion Number 59". prh.noaa.gov. Retrieved September 1, 2018.
  113. "NHC Graphical Outlook Archive". www.nhc.noaa.gov. Retrieved 2018-09-01.
  114. "NHC Graphical Outlook Archive". www.nhc.noaa.gov. Retrieved 2018-09-01.
  115. "NHC Graphical Outlook Archive". www.nhc.noaa.gov. Retrieved 2018-09-01.
  116. "NHC Graphical Outlook Archive". www.nhc.noaa.gov. Retrieved 2018-09-01.
  117. "NHC Graphical Outlook Archive". www.nhc.noaa.gov. Retrieved 2018-09-01.
  118. Service, US Department of Commerce, NOAA, National Weather. "Central Pacific Hurricane Center - Honolulu, Hawai`i". www.prh.noaa.gov. Retrieved 2018-09-01.
  119. Wroe (August 31, 2018). "Hurricane Miriam Discussion Number 24". prh.noaa.gov. Retrieved September 1, 2018.
  120. Service, US Department of Commerce, NOAA, National Weather. "Central Pacific Hurricane Center - Honolulu, Hawai`i". www.prh.noaa.gov. Retrieved 2018-09-01.
  121. Stewart, Stacy. NHC Graphical Outlook Archive. National Hurricane Center (Report). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 3 September 2018.
  122. Stewart, Stacy. NHC Graphical Outlook Archive. National Hurricane Center (Report). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 3 September 2018.
  123. Avila, Lixion. Tropical Depression Sixteen-E Advisory Number 1. National Hurricane Center (Report). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 3 September 2018.
  124. Berg, Robbie. Hurricane Norman Discussion Number 8. National Hurricane Center (Report). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 3 September 2018.
  125. Pasch, Richard. Tropical Storm Norman Advisory Number 3. National Hurricane Center (Report). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 3 September 2018.
  126. Avila, Lixion. Hurricane Norman Advisory Number 6. National Hurricane Center (Report). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 3 September 2018.
  127. Berg, Robbie. Hurricane Norman Advisory Number 8. National Hurricane Center (Report). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 3 September 2018.
  128. Brown, Daniel. Hurricane Norman Special Advisory Number 9. National Hurricane Center (Report). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 3 September 2018.
  129. Brown, Daniel. Hurricane Norman Advisory Number 10. National Hurricane Center (Report). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 4 September 2018.
  130. Brown, Daniel. Hurricane Norman Discussion Number 10. National Hurricane Center (Report). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 4 September 2018.
  131. Cangialosi, John. Hurricane Norman Discussion Number 12. National Hurricane Center (Report). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 4 September 2018.
  132. Roberts, Dave. Hurricane Norman Discussion Number 14. National Hurricane Center (Report). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 4 September 2018.
  133. Roberts, Dave. Hurricane Norman Discussion Number 15. National Hurricane Center (Report). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 4 September 2018.
  134. Stewart, Stacy. Hurricane Norman Advisory Number 18. National Hurricane Center (Report). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 4 September 2018.
  135. Avila, Lixion. Hurricane Norman Advisory Number 22. National Hurricane Center (Report). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 4 September 2018.
  136. Blake, Eric. Hurricane Norman Discussion Number 26. National Hurricane Center (Report). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 4 September 2018.
  137. Blake, Eric. Hurricane Norman Advisory Number 26. National Hurricane Center (Report). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 4 September 2018.
  138. Cangialosi, John. Hurricane Norman Advisory Number 28. National Hurricane Center (Report). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 4 September 2018.
  139. Houston, Sam. Hurricane Norman Advisory Number 34. Central Pacific Hurricane Center (Report). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 5 September 2018.
  140. Birchard, Tom. Tropical Storm Norman Advisory Number 47. National Hurricane Center (Report). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 8 September 2018.
  141. Brown, Daniel. NHC Graphical Outlook Archive. National Hurricane Center (Report). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 7 September 2018.
  142. Roberts, Dave. NHC Graphical Outlook Archive. National Hurricane Center (Report). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 7 September 2018.
  143. Cangialosi, John. Tropical Depression Seventeen-E Advisory Number 1. National Hurricane Center (Report). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 7 September 2018.
  144. Pasch, Richard. Tropical Storm Olivia Advisory Number 6. National Hurricane Center (Report). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 7 September 2018.
  145. Pasch, Richard. Tropical Storm Olivia Discussion Number 6. National Hurricane Center (Report). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 7 September 2018.
  146. Roberts, Dave. Tropical Storm Olivia Advisory Number 10. National Hurricane Center (Report). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 7 September 2018.
  147. Blake, Eric. Tropical Storm Olivia Advisory Number 11. National Hurricane Center (Report). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 7 September 2018.
  148. Blake, Eric. Hurricane Olivia Advisory Number 13. National Hurricane Center (Report). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 7 September 2018.
  149. Beven, Jack. Hurricane Olivia Advisory Number 15. National Hurricane Center (Report). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 7 September 2018.
  150. Beven, Jack. Hurricane Olivia Advisory Number 16. National Hurricane Center (Report). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 7 September 2018.
  151. Blake, Eric. Hurricane Olivia Advisory Number 17. National Hurricane Center (Report). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 7 September 2018.
  152. Jack Beven (September 5, 2018). "Hurricane Olivia Advisory Number 19". Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved September 5, 2018.
  153. Lixion A. Avila (September 6, 2018). "Hurricane Olivia Advisory Number 26". Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved September 6, 2018.
  154. Eric S. Blake (September 8, 2018). "Hurricane Olivia Advisory Number 33". Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved September 8, 2018.
  155. Ballard R. (September 9, 2018). Hurricane Olivia Advisory Number 38 (Report). Honolulu, Hawaii: Central Pacific Hurricane Center. Retrieved September 9, 2018.
  156. Forecaster Wroe (September 12, 2018). Hurricane Olivia Advisory Number 49 (Report). Honolulu, Hawaii: Central Pacific Hurricane Center. Retrieved September 12, 2018.
  157. Sam Houston (September 12, 2018). Hurricane Olivia Advisory Number 51 (Report). Honolulu, Hawaii: Central Pacific Hurricane Center. Retrieved September 13, 2018.
  158. John P. Cangialosi (December 3, 2018). Tropical Cyclone Report: Hurricane Olivia (PDF) (Report). Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. p. 6. Retrieved February 14, 2019.
  159. Eric S. Blake (September 4, 2018). "NHC Graphical Tropical Weather Outlook Archive". Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved September 12, 2018.
  160. Eric S. Blake (September 8, 2018). "Tropical Depression Eighteen-E Discussion Number 1". Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved September 12, 2018.
  161. John P. Cangialosi (September 9, 2018). "Tropical Storm Paul Advisory Number 4". Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved September 12, 2018.
  162. John P. Cangialosi (September 11, 2018). "Tropical Storm Paul Advisory Number 11". Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved September 12, 2018.
  163. David A. Zelinsky (October 4, 2018). Tropical Cyclone Report: Tropical Storm Paul (PDF) (Report). Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. pp. 2, 5. Retrieved November 15, 2018.
  164. David Zelinsky (September 12, 2018). "Post-Tropical Cyclone Paul Advisory Number 16". Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center.
  165. "NHC Graphical Outlook Archive". www.nhc.noaa.gov. Retrieved 2018-09-19.
  166. "NHC Graphical Outlook Archive". www.nhc.noaa.gov. Retrieved 2018-09-19.
  167. "NHC Graphical Outlook Archive". www.nhc.noaa.gov. Retrieved 2018-09-19.
  168. "Tropical Depression NINETEEN-E". www.nhc.noaa.gov. Retrieved 2018-09-19.
  169. "earth :: a global map of wind, weather, and ocean conditions". earth.nullschool.net. Retrieved 2018-09-20.
  170. "Remnants of NINETEEN-E". www.nhc.noaa.gov. Retrieved 2018-09-20.
  171. Javier Cabrera Martínez (September 26, 2018). "Suman 800 mdp en daños a cultivos por lluvias en Sinaloa". El Universal (in Spanish). Culiacán. Retrieved October 20, 2018.
  172. "NHC Graphical Outlook Archive". www.nhc.noaa.gov. Retrieved 2018-09-19.
  173. "NHC Graphical Outlook Archive". www.nhc.noaa.gov. Retrieved 2018-09-22.
  174. "NHC Graphical Outlook Archive". www.nhc.noaa.gov. Retrieved 2018-09-24.
  175. "NHC Graphical Outlook Archive". www.nhc.noaa.gov. Retrieved 2018-09-25.
  176. Dave Roberts (September 26, 2018). "Hurricane Rosa Advisory Number 6". Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved September 26, 2018.
  177. Eric Blake (September 27, 2018). "Hurricane Rosa Advisory Number 12". Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved September 27, 2018.
  178. "Hurricane ROSA". www.nhc.noaa.gov. Retrieved 2018-10-01.
  179. "Hurricane ROSA". www.nhc.noaa.gov. Retrieved 2018-10-01.
  180. "Hurricane ROSA". www.nhc.noaa.gov. Retrieved 2018-10-01.
  181. "Hurricane ROSA". www.nhc.noaa.gov. Retrieved 2018-10-01.
  182. "Tropical Storm ROSA". www.nhc.noaa.gov. Retrieved 2018-10-01.
  183. "Remnants of ROSA". www.nhc.noaa.gov. Retrieved 2018-10-02.
  184. David Zelinsky (September 25, 2018). "Five-Day Graphical Tropical Weather Outlook - 5:00 PM PDT, Tue Sept 25 2018". Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved October 7, 2018.
  185. Dave Roberts (September 26, 2018). "Two-Day Graphical Tropical Weather Outlook - 5:00 AM PDT, Wed Sept 26 2018". Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved October 7, 2018.
  186. "Tropical Storm SERGIO". www.nhc.noaa.gov. Retrieved 2018-10-01.
  187. "Tropical Storm SERGIO". www.nhc.noaa.gov. Retrieved 2018-10-01.
  188. "Hurricane SERGIO". www.nhc.noaa.gov. Retrieved 2018-10-02.
  189. "Hurricane SERGIO". www.nhc.noaa.gov. 2018-10-02. Retrieved 2018-10-02.
  190. "Hurricane SERGIO". www.nhc.noaa.gov. Retrieved 2018-10-04.
  191. Robbie Berg (October 4, 2018). "Hurricane Sergio Public Advisory Number 20". Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved October 7, 2018.
  192. Michael Brennan (October 5, 2018). "Hurricane Sergio Public Advisory Number 23". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved October 7, 2018.
  193. Stacy R. Stewart (October 6, 2018). "Hurricane Sergio Discussion Number 27". Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved October 7, 2018.
  194. David Zelinsky (October 7, 2018). "Hurricane Sergio Discussion Number 33". Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved October 7, 2018.
  195. Zelinsky, David (October 9, 2018). "Tropical Storm Sergio Forecast Discussion Number 42". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved 2018-10-09.
  196. Avila, Lixion (October 12, 2018). "Tropical Storm Sergio Advisory Number 52A". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved October 14, 2018.
  197. Lixion Avila (October 12, 2018). "Tropical Depression Sergio Intermediate Advisory Number 53A". Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved October 14, 2018.
  198. Lixion Avila (October 12, 2018). "Remnants Of Sergio Advisory Number 54". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved October 14, 2018.
  199. "Tropical Storm Walaka Advisory #1". NHC. 2018-09-29. Retrieved 2018-09-30.
  200. "Hurricane Walaka Advisory #6". NHC. 2018-09-30. Retrieved 2018-09-30.
  201. "Hurricane Walaka Advisory #7". NHC. 2018-10-01. Retrieved 2018-10-01.
  202. Kevin Kodama (October 1, 2018). "Hurricane Walaka Intermediate Advisory 9A". Honolulu, Hawaii: Central Pacific Hurricane Center. Retrieved October 1, 2018.
  203. "Hurricane Walaka Advisory #12". CPHC. 2018-10-02. Retrieved 2018-10-02.
  204. "Hurricane Walaka Advisory #18". CPHC. 2018-10-03. Retrieved 2018-10-03.
  205. "Hurricane Walaka Advisory #19". CPHC. 2018-10-04. Retrieved 2018-10-04.
  206. Sam Houston (October 6, 2018). "Post-Tropical Cyclone Walaka Discussion Number 28". Honolulu, Hawaii: Central Pacific Hurricane Center. Retrieved October 7, 2018.
  207. Matthew Cappucci (October 2, 2018). "Two monster tropical cyclones are raging in the Pacific Ocean". The Washington Post. Retrieved October 14, 2018.
  208. Eric S. Blake (October 11, 2018). "Five-Day Graphical Tropical Weather Outlook Archive". Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved October 14, 2018.
  209. Stacy R. Stewart (October 14, 2018). "Tropical Depression Twenty-Two-E Discussion Number 1". Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved October 14, 2018.
  210. Daniel P. Brown (October 15, 2018). "Tropical Storm Tara Discussion Number 4". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved October 15, 2018.
  211. Robbie J. Berg (October 15, 2018). "Tropical Storm Tara Advisory Number 7". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved October 15, 2018.
  212. Stacy R. Stewart (October 16, 2018). "Tropical Storm Tara Discussion Number 10". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved October 16, 2018.
  213. Stacy R. Stewart (October 16, 2018). "Tropical Depression Tara Advisory Number 10". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved October 16, 2018.
  214. David Zelinsky (October 17, 2018). "Remnants of Tara Advisory Number 11". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved October 17, 2018.
  215. Stacy R. Stewart (October 17, 2018). "Two-Day Graphical Tropical Weather Outlook: 5:00 am PDT, Wed Oct 17 2018". Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved October 19, 2018.
  216. 1 2 David Zelinsky (October 28, 2018). "Two-Day Graphical Tropical Weather Outlook: 5:00 pm PDT, Thu Oct 18 2018". Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved October 19, 2018.
  217. Robbie Berg (October 19, 2018). "Tropical Depression Twenty-Three-E Discussion Number 1". Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved October 19, 2018.
  218. 1 2 Robbie Berg (October 19, 2018). "Tropical Storm Vicente Discussion Number 2". Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved October 19, 2018.
  219. Michael Brennan (October 21, 2018). "Tropical Storm Vicente Discussion Number 11". Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved October 22, 2018.
  220. "Tropical Storm Vicente Discussion Number 12". Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. October 22, 2018. Retrieved October 22, 2018.
  221. Richard J. Pasch; Andrew Latto (October 22, 2018). "Tropical Storm Vicente Discussion Number 13". Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved October 22, 2018.
  222. Richard J. Pasch (October 23, 2018). "Post-Tropical Cyclone Vicente Discussion Number 17". Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved October 24, 2018.
  223. "Storm Vincente Kills 14 in Mexico". Prensa Latina. October 23, 2018. Retrieved October 23, 2018.
  224. "Por "Vicente" fallecen 13 personas en Oaxaca". El Universal (in Spanish). October 26, 2018. Retrieved October 26, 2018.
  225. Isabel Zamudio (October 22, 2018). "Tormenta tropical 'Vicente' deja tres muertos en Veracruz" (in Spanish). Milenio. Retrieved October 23, 2018.
  226. Stacy R. Stewart (October 14, 2018). "Two-Day Graphical Tropical Weather Outlook: 2:00 pm EDT, Sun Oct 14 2018". Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved October 19, 2018.
  227. Eric Blake (October 15, 2018). "Two-Day Graphical Tropical Weather Outlook: 2:00 pm EDT, Mon Oct 15 2018". Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved October 19, 2018.
  228. Stacy R. Stewart (October 16, 2018). "Two-Day Graphical Tropical Weather Outlook: 8:00 am EDT, Tue Oct 16 2018". Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved October 19, 2018.
  229. David Zelinsky (October 17, 2018). "Two-Day Graphical Tropical Weather Outlook: 11:00 pm PDT, Tue Oct 16 2018". Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved October 19, 2018.
  230. Robbie Berg (October 18, 2018). "Two-Day Graphical Tropical Weather Outlook: 11:00 am PDT, Thur Oct 18 2018". Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved October 19, 2018.
  231. Stacy R. Stewart (October 20, 2018). "Tropical Depression Twenty-Four-E Discussion Number 2". Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved October 20, 2018.
  232. Robbie Berg (October 20, 2018). "Tropical Storm Willa Discussion Number 3". Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved October 20, 2018.
  233. Stacy R. Stewart (October 21, 2018). "Hurricane Willa Discussion Number 5". Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved October 21, 2018.
  234. Daniel Brown (October 21, 2018). "Hurricane Willa Public Advisory Number 7". Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved October 21, 2018.
  235. Daniel Brown (October 22, 2018). "Hurricane Willa Discussion Number 11". Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved October 23, 2018.
  236. Stacy R. Stewart (October 23, 2018). "Hurricane Willa Discussion Number 14". Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved October 24, 2018.
  237. Blake, Eric (October 24, 2018). "Hurricane Willa Tropical Cyclone Update". Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved October 24, 2018.
  238. Richard J. Pasch (October 24, 2018). "Remnants of Willa Discussion Number 18". Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved October 25, 2018.
  239. Karina Cancino (October 25, 2018). "Cuatro muertos y 150 mil damnificados por paso de 'Willa' en Nayarit" (in Spanish). El Financiero. Retrieved October 26, 2018.
  240. "'Willa' pega en Sinaloa y deja 2 muertos en Sonora" (in Spanish). Milenio. October 25, 2018. Retrieved October 26, 2018.
  241. Zelinsky, David. NHC Graphical Outlook Archive. National Hurricane Center (Report). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 2 November 2018.
  242. Zelinsky, David. NHC Graphical Outlook Archive. National Hurricane Center (Report). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 2 November 2018.
  243. Brown, Daniel. NHC Graphical Outlook Archive. National Hurricane Center (Report). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 2 November 2018.
  244. Beven, Jack. NHC Graphical Outlook Archive. National Hurricane Center (Report). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 2 November 2018.
  245. Berg, Robbie. Tropical Depression Twenty-Five-E Advisory Number 1. National Hurricane Center (Report). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 2 November 2018.
  246. Zelinsky, David. Tropical Storm Xavier Advisory Number 2. National Hurricane Center (Report). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 2 November 2018.
  247. Zelinsky, David. Tropical Storm Xavier Discussion Number 2. National Hurricane Center (Report). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 3 November 2018.
  248. Beven, Jack. "Tropical Storm XAVIER Discussion Number 4". www.nhc.noaa.gov. Retrieved 2018-11-05.
  249. Berg, Robbie. "Tropical Storm XAVIER Discussion Number 8". www.nhc.noaa.gov. Retrieved 2018-11-05.
  250. "Tropical Storm XAVIER Discussion Number 13". www.nhc.noaa.gov. Retrieved 2018-11-06.
  251. "Post-Tropical Cyclone XAVIER". www.nhc.noaa.gov. Retrieved 2018-11-06.
  252. "Tropical Storm XAVIER". www.nhc.noaa.gov. Retrieved 2018-11-05.
  253. 1 2 National Weather Service Office in Honolulu, Hawaii [@NWSHonolulu] (August 31, 2018). "Thanks for pointing this out. The circulation that was associated with Lane dissipated several days ago and was absorbed by the same upper level low responsible for this feature. This feature is now a sub-tropical gale low, but we will continue to keep an eye on it!" (Tweet). Retrieved September 2, 2018 via Twitter.
  254. 1 2 3 "2018 Tropical Bulletin Archive". NOAA . Retrieved 3 September 2018.
  255. Bob Henson [@bhensonweather] (September 2, 2018). ""Son of Lane" (if you will) is sitting over a distinct SST anomaly of around 2°C" (Tweet). Retrieved September 2, 2018 via Twitter.
  256. "Tropical Cyclone Names". National Hurricane Center. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. 2018. Archived from the original on November 27, 2018. Retrieved November 27, 2018.
  257. "Pacific Tropical Cyclone Names 2016-2021". Central Pacific Hurricane Center. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. May 12, 2016. Archived from the original (PHP) on December 30, 2016.