2019 Indian general election

Last updated

2019 Indian general election
Flag of India.svg
  2014 11 April – 19 May 2019 Next  

542 of the 545 seats in the Lok Sabha [lower-alpha 1]
272 seats needed for a majority
Opinion polls
Registered911,950,734
Turnout67.40% (Increase2.svg0.96pp)
 First partySecond party
  Prime Minister of India Narendra Modi.jpg Rahul Gandhi in Shillong (cropped).jpg
Leader Narendra Modi Rahul Gandhi
Party BJP INC
Leader since13 September 201316 December 2017
Leader's seat Varanasi (won) Wayanad (won) and
Amethi  (lost)
Last election282 seats44 seats
Seats won30352
Seat changeIncrease2.svg21Increase2.svg8
Popular vote229,076,879119,495,214
Percentage37.36%19.49%
SwingIncrease2.svg6.36ppIncrease2.svg0.18pp
Alliance NDA UPA
Alliance seats35391

Indian General Election 2019.svg
Seat results by constituency. As this is a FPTP election, seat totals are not determined proportional to each party's total vote share, but instead by the pulrality in each constituency.

Prime Minister before election

Narendra Modi
BJP

Elected Prime Minister

Narendra Modi
BJP

General elections were held in India in seven phases from 11 April to 19 May 2019 to elect the members of the 17th Lok Sabha. Votes were counted and the result declared on 23 May. [1] [2] [3] [4] Around 912 million people were eligible to vote, and voter turnout was over 67 percent – the highest ever, as well as the highest ever participation by women voters. [5] [6] [lower-alpha 2]

Contents

The Bharatiya Janata Party won 303 seats, further increasing its substantial majority [8] and the BJP-led National Democratic Alliance (NDA) won 353 seats. [9] The BJP won 37.46% of votes, while the NDA's combined vote was 45% of the 603.7 million votes that were polled. [10] [11] The Indian National Congress won 52 seats, failing to get 10% of the seats needed to claim the post of Leader of Opposition, and the Congress-led United Progressive Alliance won 91. Other parties and their alliances won 98 seats. [12]

Legislative assembly elections in the states of Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Odisha and Sikkim were held simultaneously with the general election, [13] [14] as well as by-elections to twenty-two seats of the Tamil Nadu Legislative Assembly. [15]

Electoral system

All 543 elected MPs are elected from single-member constituencies using first-past-the-post voting. The President of India appoints an additional two members from the Anglo-Indian community if he believes that community is under-represented. [16]

Eligible voters must be Indian citizens, 18 or older than 18, an ordinary resident of the polling area of the constituency and registered to vote (name included in the electoral rolls), possess a valid voter identification card issued by the Election Commission of India or an equivalent. [17] Some people convicted of electoral or other offences are barred from voting. [18]

The elections are held on schedule and as per the Constitution of India that mandates parliamentary elections once every five years. [19]

Election schedule

Official logo,
"Desh ka Maha tyauhaar" Loksabha Election 2019 ECI official logo Desh Ka Mahatyauhar.jpg
Official logo,
"Desh ka Maha त्यौहार"
Election schedule 2019 Lok Sabha Election Schedule.svg
Election schedule

The election schedule was announced by Election Commission of India (ECI) on 10 March 2019, and with it the Model Code of Conduct came into effect. [20] [21]

The election was scheduled to be held in seven phases. In Bihar, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal, the election was held in all seven phases. The polling for the Anantnag constituency in the state of Jammu and Kashmir was held in three phases, due to violence in the region. [22]

Phase-wise polling constituencies in each state
State/Union territoryTotal

constituencies

Election dates and number of constituencies
Phase 1Phase 2Phase 3Phase 4Phase 5Phase 6Phase 7
11 April18 April23 April29 April6 May12 May19 May
Andhra Pradesh 2525
Arunachal Pradesh 22
Assam 14554
Bihar 404555588
Chhattisgarh 11137
Goa 22
Gujarat 2626
Haryana 1010
Himachal Pradesh 44
Jammu and Kashmir 62213 [n 1] 13 [n 1] 113 [n 1]
Jharkhand 143443
Karnataka 281414
Kerala 2020
Madhya Pradesh 296788
Maharashtra 487101417
Manipur 211
Meghalaya 22
Mizoram 11
Nagaland 11
Odisha 214566
Punjab 1313
Rajasthan 251312
Sikkim 11
Tamil Nadu 3938 [n 2]
Telangana 1717
Tripura 211 [n 3]
Uttar Pradesh 80881013141413
Uttarakhand 55
West Bengal 422358789
Andaman and Nicobar Islands 11
Chandigarh 11
Dadra and Nagar Haveli 11
Daman and Diu 11
Delhi 77
Lakshadweep 11
Puducherry 11
Constituencies543919511613711350135959
Total constituencies by end of phase542911863021337323424483542 [n 2]
% complete by end of phase17%34%56%69%78%89%100%
  1. 1 2 3 Polling in Anantnag was scheduled over three days.
  2. 1 2 Polling in Vellore was cancelled. (see below)
  3. Polling in Tripura East was rescheduled from 18 to 23 April.

Rescheduled voting, cancellations

Campaigning

Issues

Allegations of undermining institutions

The opposition parties accused the NDA government of destroying democratic institutions and processes. [27] Modi denied these allegations, and blamed Congress and the communists for undermining institutions including the police, the CBI, and the CAG, and cited the murder of BJP activists in Kerala and Madhya Pradesh. [28] The Congress party, along with other opposition parties and a group of retired civil servants, accused the ECI of being compromised, and implied that they endorsed the model code of conduct violations by Narendra Modi and other BJP political leaders during their campaigns. [29] [30] Another group of 81 retired civil servants, judges and academics disputed these allegations, made counter-allegations, and stated that the ECI acted fairly and similarly in alleged violations by either side. The group stated that such political attacks on the ECI were a "deliberate attempt to denigrate and delegitimise the democratic institutions". [30] [31]

Economic performance

According to The Times of India , the major economic achievements of the incumbent NDA government included an inflation rate less than 4 per cent, the GST reform, and the Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code. Its programs, in recent years, that have positively touched many among the Indian masses, include the Jan Dhan Yojana, rural cooking gas and electricity for homes. [32] According to the IMF, the Indian economy has been growing in recent years, its GDP growth rate is among the highest in the world for major economies, and India is expected to be the fastest growing major economy in 2019–2020 and 2020–2021, with real GDP projected to grow at 7.3 per cent. [33] [34] [35] The GDP growth data has been disputed [32] by a group of Indian social scientists, economists and the political opposition's election campaign, while a group of Indian chartered accountants has defended the data, the GDP calculation methodology, and questioned the motivations of those disputing the recent Indian GDP statistics. [36]

The opposition's election campaign has claimed that both the demonetisation and GST law have "seriously hit small business, farmers and casual labour", states The Times of India. [32] [37] The incumbent has claimed that they inherited a country from the previous Congress-led government that was "a legacy of policy paralysis, corruption and economic fragility", and that the BJP-led government policies have placed India on better economic fundamentals and a fast gear. [38] Modi claims that his government pursued demonetisation in the national interest, his government has identified and de-registered 338,000 shell companies, identified and recovered 130,000 crore (US$18 billion) in black money since 2014, and almost doubled India's tax base. [39] [40] The Congress party disputes the incumbents' claims, and has alleged that BJP offices have "become hubs of creating black money", and seeks a judicial inquiry into the Rafale deal with France and BJP's role in corruption. [41]

National security and terrorism

In response to the 2019 Pulwama attack, the Indian Air Force conducted airstrikes inside Pakistan — for the first time since the 1971 Indo-Pak war. The ongoing conflict with Pakistan became a significant factor in the election. The opposition parties accused of politicising the army, whilst the BJP countered their accusations by stating that such allegations raised by them were adversely affecting the morale of armed forces. [42]

According to the Pew Research Center, both before and after the outbreak of recent India-Pakistan tensions, their 2018 and 2019 surveys suggest that the significant majority of the voters consider Pakistan as a "very serious threat" to their country, and terrorism to be a "very big problem". [43] [44]

Unemployment

According to the Pew Research Center, a majority of Indian voters consider the lack of employment opportunities as a "very big problem" in their country. "About 18.6 million Indians were jobless and another 393.7 million work in poor-quality jobs vulnerable to displacement", stated the Pew report. [44]

A report on unemployment prepared by the National Sample Survey Office's (NSSO's) periodic labour force survey, has not been officially released by the government. According to Business Today , this report is the "first comprehensive survey on employment conducted by a government agency after Prime Minister Narendra Modi announced demonetisation move in November 2016". According to this report, the 2017–2018 "usual status" [lower-alpha 3] unemployment rate in India is 6.1 per cent, which is a four-decade high. [45] [lower-alpha 3] The government has claimed that the report was not final. [50] According to the International Labour Organization (ILO) – a United Nations agency, unemployment is rising in India and the "unemployment rate in the country [India] will stand at 3.5 percent in 2018 and 2019 – the same level of unemployment seen in 2017 and 2016", instead of dropping to 3.4 percent as it had previously projected. [51] According to the ILO's World Employment Social Outlook Report, the unemployment rate in India has been in the 3.4 to 3.6 percent range over the UPA-government led 2009–2014 and the NDA-government led 2014–2019 periods. [51]

Opposition parties claimed in their election campaign that the unemployment in India had reached crisis levels. The NDA government has denied the existence of any job crisis. [52] Prime minister Narendra Modi claimed that jobs are not lacking but the accurate data on jobs has been lacking. [53] [54]

The opposition has attacked the NDA government's performance with the NSSO reported 6.1 percent unemployment data. Modi and his government have questioned this job statistics report, stating that "most surveys that try to capture unemployment rate are skewed since these did not cover the unorganised sector, which accounts for 85–90 per cent of jobs [in India]". [55]

Agrarian and rural distress

The Congress party campaign highlighted "agrarian distress" as an election issue. [56] The BJP campaign highlighted that the Congress party had been in power for five generations of the Nehru dynasty and its past promises and campaign issues have been empty. It claimed that the recent farmer loan waivers by Congress have not reached "even 10% of the farmers" nor has it helped the financial situation of the farmers. BJP highlights that its "Kisan Samman Nidhi" helps the small farmers at the time of seed planting through a direct deposit of ₹6000 to their accounts. [57] The opposition accused this as being an attempt to lure voters. [58]

According to The Times of India, a group of farmer associations demanded that the 2019 election manifesto of competing political parties should promise to "keep agriculture out of the World Trade Organization (WTO)" and that the interests of Indian farmers must not be compromised in global trade treaties. [59] They also demanded loan waivers and income support for the agriculture sector. [59] According to the Business Standard and the United Nation's Food and Agriculture Organization, India has witnessed record crop harvests in recent years including 2017 when its farmers grew more foodgrains than ever before. [60] [61] However, the farmers consider the "low remunerative prices" they receive in the free market to be too low and a need for the Indian government to establish higher minimum support prices for agricultural products. These farmers consider this an issue for the 2019 general elections. [60]

Dynasty politics

The BJP highlighted that the Congress party has relied on Rahul Gandhi for leadership since 2013, its lack of internal party institutions and claimed that whenever Congress has been in power, the freedom of press and Indian government institutions have "taken a severe beating". [62] [63] During the election campaign, its leaders mentioned the Emergency of 1975, the nepotism, corruption and widespread abuses of human rights under the Congress rule in the past. [62] [64] [65] Congress-led alliance leader H. D. Kumaraswamy – the son of a former prime minister of India and the former chief minister of Karnataka, countered that "India developed because of dynasty politics", stating that "dynasty politics are not the main issue, rather country's problems are". [66] The Congress alleged hypocrisy by the BJP, claiming that the BJP itself forms alliances with dynasty-based parties such as the Akali Dal in Punjab, and that family relatives of senior BJP leaders such as Rajnath Singh and Arun Jaitley have been in politics too. [67]

According to an IndiaSpend report published by the BloombergQuint, the smaller and regional parties such as the Jammu and Kashmir National Conference, Lok Jan Sakti Party, Shiromani Akali Dal, Biju Janata Dal and Samajwadi Party have higher densities of dynasty-derived candidates and elected representatives in recent years. [68] [69] While both the Congress and the BJP have also nominated candidates from political dynasties, states the report, the difference between them is that in Congress "top party leadership has been handed down from generation to generation within the same [Nehru Gandhi dynasty] family", while there has been a historic non-dynastic diversity in the top leadership within the BJP. According to the report, while BJP has also nominated candidates from political dynasties, its better public relations operation "can leap to its defence when attacked on the same grounds". [68] In contrast to the IndiaSpend report, analysis of Kanchan Chandra, a prominent professor of Politics, of the 2004, 2009 and 2014 general elections included a finding that the Congress party has had about twice or more dynastic parliamentarians than the BJP at those elections, and higher than all major political parties in India except the Samajwadi Party. [70] [lower-alpha 4] Many of these dynastic politicians in India who inherit the leadership positions have never held any jobs and lack state or local experience, states Anjali Bohlken – a professor and political science scholar, and this raises concerns of rampant nepotism and appointments of their own friends, relatives and cronies if elected. [71] The BJP has targeted the Congress party in the 2019 elections for alleged nepotism and a family dynasty for leadership. [62] [68]

Campaign controversies

Income tax raids

In April 2019, raids conducted by the Income Tax Department found bundles of unaccounted for cash amounting to 281 crore (US$39 million), along with liquor and documentary evidence in premises of people with close connections to Madhya Pradesh chief minister Kamal Nath of the Congress. Modi has highlighted this evidence to attack the Congress in its election campaign, alleging corruption is part of Congress party's culture. [72] [73]

Social media abuses and fake news

According to The New York Times and The Wall Street Journal , the election attracted a systematic attempt to spread misinformation through social media. [74] [75] Facebook said that over a hundred of these advocacy accounts spreading disinformation were traced to "employees of the Pakistani military public relations wing". [74] [75] Some others have been linked to the INC and BJP. [74] [75]

Political parties spent over 53 crore (US$7.4 million) with the largest spending by BJP on digital platforms for online ads. The BJP placed 2,500 ads on Facebook while the Congress placed 3,686 ads. [76] According to a study by Vidya Narayanan and colleagues at the Oxford Internet Institute, social media was used by all the major parties and alliances, and all of them linked or posted divisive and conspiratorial content and images. According to Narayanan, "a third of the BJP's images, a quarter of the INC's images, and a tenth the SP-BSP's images were catalogued as divisive and conspiratorial". [77] [78] The Narayanan et al. study added that "we observed very limited amounts of hate speech, gore or pornography in either platform samples" by BJP, Congress or SP-BSP, but the election did include proportionally more polarising information on social media than other countries except for the US presidential election in 2016. [78]

About 50,000 fake news stories were published during the recent Lok Sabha elections and shared 2 million times, according to a study conducted by fact-checking startup Logically. [79]

EC actions under Article 324

Election Commission curtailed West Bengal campaigning by one day, after a bust of 19th century Bengali icon Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar was vandalised during 7th phase poll violence. [80]

Party campaigns

Party manifestos

Highlights of the Congress manifesto

The Congress released its manifesto, titled Congress Will Deliver on 3 April. [89] [90] Some of its highlights: [89] [91] [92]

  • Introduce a Nyuntam Aay Yojana welfare program wherein 72,000 (US$1,000) per year will be transferred directly to the bank account of a woman-member in each family in the poorest 20 percent households.
  • Create 1 million "Seva Mitra" jobs in rural and urban local government bodies. Fill all 400,000 central government vacancies before March 2020, and encourage state governments to fill their 2,000,000 vacancies. Enact a law that requires all non-government controlled employers with over 100 employees to implement an apprentice program.
  • Enact a permanent National Commission on Agricultural Development and Planning and introduce a "Kisan Budget" (Farmer Budget) in the parliament every year. Waive all farmer loans in all states with any amounts outstanding.
  • Enact a Right to Homestead Act that will provide free land to every household that does not own a home.
  • Enact a Right to Healthcare Act and guarantee every citizen free diagnostics, free medicines, free hospitalisation, and free out-patient care. Double spending on healthcare to 3 percent of its GDP by 2024.
  • Double spending on education to 6 percent of its GDP by 2024.
  • Revise the national GST law from three tax tiers to a single moderate rate of tax. Reduce taxes on exported products to zero. Exempt from the GST essential goods and services that are currently not exempt. Enact a new Direct Taxes Code.
  • Augment and rapid construction of national highways. Modernise Indian railway infrastructure. Promote green energy. Manufacturing promotion.
  • Increase defence spending.
  • Enact a National Election Fund, wherein public funds will be distributed to recognised political parties to run their campaign
  • Preserve special status and special rights to natives of Jammu and Kashmir under Article 370 and 35A. [92]
  • Amend the Armed Forces (Special Powers) Act, 1958. End the Sedition law (Section 124A of the Indian Penal Code).

Highlights of the BJP manifesto

The BJP released its manifesto sub-titled Sankalpit Bharat, Sashakt Bharat (lit. "Resolute India, Empowered India") on 8 April. [93] [94] Some of its highlights: [92] [94] [95]

  • Double farmer incomes by 2022 by completing all major and micro-irrigation infrastructure projects, opening adequate markets and modern farm produce storage centres, implement minimum price supports for farmer produce, farmer loans and all-weather rural roads. Introduce a pension bill for small and marginal farmers to provide social security after 60 years of age.
  • Bring all secondary schools under the national board quality purview. Invest 100,000 crore (US$14 billion) in higher education, open new and increase seats at existing engineering, management and law schools. Establish skills and innovations centre at block-level in every town. Enhance higher education opportunities for women by introducing financial support and subsidies programs. Source 10 percent of government procurement from companies with more than 50 percent female employees.
  • Ensure a pucca (lit. brick-solid, modern) house, safe potable water, toilet, LPG gas cylinder, electricity, and banking account for every family. Reduce the percentage of families living under the poverty line to a single digit by 2024.
  • Double the length of national highways. Improve fuel quality by mandating 10 percent ethanol in petrol. Scale renewable energy capacity to 175 GW.
  • Electrify and convert to broad gauge all railway tracks.
  • Establish 150,000 health and wellness centres. Start 75 new medical colleges. Raise doctor-to-population ratio to 1:1400. Triple childcare facilities. Achieve 100 percent immunisation of all babies.
  • Raise India's ranking further in "ease of doing business". Double exports, introduce single-window compliance procedures for all businesses.
  • Reduce air pollution by eliminating all crop residue burning.
  • Digitise paperwork and proceedings, modernise the courts.
  • Launch and promote a National Digital Library with e-books and leading journals to provide free knowledge accessible to all students. Launch a "Study in India" program to bring foreign students to institutes of higher education.
  • Privatisation of defence, space and agriculture sector for development of India.
  • Zero tolerance for terrorism, fund resources to strengthen national security, guarantee veterans, and soldier welfare, modernise police forces.
  • End special status and special rights to natives of Jammu and Kashmir under Article 370 and 35A. [92]

Other parties

Other national and regional parties released their manifestos too:

  • The Tamil Nadu-based regional parties AIADMK and DMK released their manifesto on 18 March 2019, with each promising to release the seven Tamils jailed after being found guilty for their role in the assassination of Rajiv Gandhi, a former Congress party leader and prime minister of India. The AIADMK promised to press for the political rights of the Tamil people in the Eelam region of Sri Lanka, while the DMK has promised Indian citizenship to all Sri Lankan expats. According to the Deccan Herald, the AIADMK has promised a cash transfer of 18,000 (US$250) per year to "all families below the poverty level, destitute women, widows without income, differently-abled, landless agricultural labourers, rural and urban manual labourers and destitute senior citizens". The AIADMK also promised to raise the tax exemption limit and revisions to the GST law. The DMK promised a probe into Rafale fighter jet deal, and a plan to distribute free sanitary napkins to working women along with starting martial arts schools for girls. [96]
  • Biju Janata Dal (BJD) released its manifesto on 9 April 2019. It promised a 100,000 (US$1,400) zero-interest crop loan to farmers every year, a 500,000 (US$7,000) zero-interest loan to women-run self-help groups, 75 percent jobs reservation in Odisha-based companies to Odisha youth, free education to all girls and a marriage assistance grant of 25,000 (US$350) to daughters of poor families. It also promised to complete two expressways. [97]
  • Communist Party of India (Marxist) (CPIM) manifesto promised to raise the minimum wage to 216,000 (US$3,000) per year, an old age pension of 72,000 (US$1,000) per year and universal public distribution of 35 kilograms of foodgrains per family. It also stated the restoration of inheritance tax and an increase in the taxes on individuals and corporations. [98] It also promised spending 6 per cent of GDP on education, enacting a Right to Free Health Care with 3.5 per cent of GDP on health in the short term and 5 per cent in the long term, introduction of price controls on essential drugs, breaking monopoly of drug multinationals, as well as enact a Right to Guaranteed Employment in urban areas. [99]
  • Nationalist Congress Party (NCP) promised to open talks with Pakistan on terrorism. It also promised to expand trade and political relationship with Russia, and seek to weaken Russia's ties with China and Pakistan. [100]
  • Samajwadi Party promised an annual pension of 36,000 (US$500) to poor families in a form of a cash transfer to women. It has also proposed a new property tax of 2 percent on homes valued above 25,000,000 (US$350,000) as well as raising income taxes on the affluent. It also promised to create 100,000 new jobs every year. [101]
  • Telugu Desam Party released its manifesto on 5 April 2019. It promised zero-interest loans to farmer without any caps, a grant of 15,000 (US$210) per year to each farmer as investment support, a grant of 100,000 (US$1,400) to each family with a daughter in the year of her marriage, an unemployment allowance of 3,000 (US$42) for any youth who has completed intermediate education, and free laptops to all students at the intermediate level. [102]
  • AITMC's manifesto was released on 27 March 2019. It promised a judicial probe into demonetisation, a review of GST law, and sought to bring back the Planning Commission. It also promised free medical care, expanding the "100-day work scheme" currently operating in India to "200-day work scheme" along with a pay increase. [103]
  • Aam Aadmi Party released its manifesto on 25 April 2019 promising full statehood for Delhi to give the Delhi government control over police and other institutions. [104] The manifesto promised 85 per cent reservations in the Delhi-based colleges and jobs for the voters of Delhi and their families. [105] [106]

Campaign finance

Several organisations offered varying estimates for the cost of the election campaign. The Centre for Media Studies in New Delhi estimated that the election campaign could exceed $7 billion. [107] According to the Association for Democratic Reforms (ADR), an election watchdog, in the financial year 2017–18 BJP received 4,370,000,000 (US$61 million), about 12 times more donations than Congress and five other national parties combined. [107]

The electoral bonds in denominations ranging from 1,000 rupees to 10 million rupees ($14 to $140,000) can be purchased and donated to a political party. The bonds don't carry the name of the donor and are exempt from tax. [108] [lower-alpha 5] Factly – an India data journalism portal, traced the electoral bond donations for 2018 under India's Right to Information Act. According to Factly, electoral bonds worth about 10,600,000,000 (US$150 million) were purchased and donated in 2018. According to Bloomberg, this accounted for 31.2 percent of political donations in 2018, while 51.4 percent of the total donated amount were each below 20,000 (US$280) and these too were from unknown donors. About 47 percent of the donations to political parties were from known sources. [108] Between 1 January and 31 March 2019, donors bought 17,100,000,000 (US$240 million) worth of electoral bonds and donated. [112] The spending in elections boosts national GDP, and the 2009 election spending contributed about 0.5 percent to GDP. [113]

According to Centre for Media Studies, the BJP spent over Rs 280 billion (or 45%) of the Rs 600 billion spent by all political parties during the polls. [114] Congress questions BJP over its poll expenditure [115]

Parties and alliances

Political alliances

With the exception of 2014, no single party has won the majority of seats in the Lok Sabha since 1984, and therefore, forming alliances is the norm in Indian elections.

There were five main national pre-poll alliances. They are the National Democratic Alliance (NDA) headed by the BJP, the United Progressive Alliance (UPA) headed by the INC, Mahagathbandhan (or Grand Alliance), or MGB, Federal Front headed by All India Trinamool Congress, and the left front of Communist-leaning parties. Given the volatile nature of coalition politics in India, alliances may change during and after the election.

The INC did not form alliances in states where it is in direct contest with the BJP. These states include Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Rajasthan, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, and Chhattisgarh. It formed alliances with regional parties in Jammu and Kashmir, Bihar, Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Jharkhand, and Kerala. [116]

In January 2019, Bahujan Samaj Party and Samajwadi Party announced a grand alliance ( Mahagathbandhan ) to contest 76 out of the 80 seats in Uttar Pradesh leaving two seats, namely Amethi and Rae Bareli, for INC and another two for other political parties. [117]

Political parties

More than 650 parties contested in these elections. Most of them were small with regional appeal. The main parties are the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) and the Indian National Congress (INC). This was the first time that BJP (437) contested more seats than Congress (421) in the Lok Sabha elections. [118] [119]

Candidates

Altogether 8,039 candidates were in the fray for 542 parliamentary constituencies, i.e., 14.8 candidates per constituency on an average, according to PRS India, an NGO. [120]

About 40% of the candidates fielded by Prime Minister Narendra Modi's Bharatiya Janata Party had a criminal case against them. Key opposition party Congress was not far behind with 39% of the candidates with criminal charges, according to Association of Democratic Reforms analysis. [121]

Parties and alliances contesting for the 2019 elections
PartiesStates/UTsSeats contestedSeats won
20192014Swing20192014Swing
Aam Aadmi Party Andaman & Nicobar Islands135014-3
Bihar30
Chandigarh10
Goa20
Haryana30
NCT OF Delhi70
Odisha10
Punjab131
Uttar Pradesh40
All Jharkhand Students Union (AJSU)Jharkhand110+1
All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam Tamil Nadu22137-36
All India Majlis-E-Ittehadul Muslimeen Bihar13021+1
Maharashtra11
Telangana11
All India Trinamool Congress Andaman & Nicobar Islands16202234-12
Assam80
Bihar10
Jharkhand60
Odisha30
Tripura10
West Bengal4222
All India United Democratic Front Assam313-2
Apna Dal (Soneylal) Uttar Pradesh220+2
Bahujan Samaj Party Andaman & Nicobar Islands10100+10
Andhra Pradesh30
Arunachal Pradesh00
Assam
Bihar350
Chandigarh10
Chhattisgarh110
Dadra & Nagar Haveli10
Daman & Diu10
Goa
Gujarat250
Haryana80
Himachal Pradesh40
Jammu & Kashmir20
Jharkhand140
Karnataka280
Kerala160
Lakshadweep
Madhya Pradesh250
Maharashtra440
Manipur
Meghalaya
Mizoram
Nagaland-
NCT OF Delhi50
Odisha170
Puducherry10
Punjab10
Rajasthan220
Sikkim
Tamil Nadu350
Telangana50
Tripura
Uttar Pradesh3810
Uttarakhand40
West Bengal360
Bharatiya Janata Party Andaman & Nicobar Islands14360303282+21
Andhra Pradesh250
Arunachal Pradesh22
Assam109
Bihar1717
Chandigarh11
Chhattisgarh119
Dadra & Nagar Haveli10
Daman & Diu11
Goa21
Gujarat2626
Haryana1010
Himachal Pradesh44
Jammu & Kashmir63
Jharkhand1311
Karnataka2725
Kerala150
Lakshadweep10
Madhya Pradesh2928
Maharashtra2523
Manipur21
Meghalaya20
Mizoram10
Nagaland-
NCT OF Delhi710
Odisha218
Puducherry
Punjab32
Rajasthan2424
Sikkim10
Tamil Nadu50
Telangana174
Tripura22
Uttar Pradesh7662
Uttarakhand55
West Bengal4218
Biju Janata Dal Odisha211220-8
Communist Party Of India Andhra Pradesh249021+1
Assam20
Bihar20
Chhattisgarh10
Gujarat10
Haryana10
Jharkhand30
Karnataka10
Kerala40
Lakshadweep10
Madhya Pradesh40
Maharashtra20
Manipur10
Odisha10
Punjab20
Rajasthan30
Tamil Nadu22
Telangana20
Uttar Pradesh110
West Bengal3
Communist Party Of India (MARXIST) Andhra Pradesh269039-6
Assam20
Bihar10
Himachal Pradesh10
Jharkhand20
Karnataka10
Kerala141
Lakshadweep10
Madhya Pradesh10
Maharashtra10
Odisha10
Punjab10
Rajasthan30
Tamil Nadu22
Telangana20
Tripura20
Uttarakhand1
West Bengal31
Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam Tamil Nadu24240+24
Independent Andaman & Nicobar Islands93443043+1
Andhra Pradesh990
Arunachal Pradesh20
Assam441
Bihar2300
Chandigarh130
Chhattisgarh540
Dadra & Nagar Haveli41
Daman & Diu10
Goa40
Gujarat1970
Haryana850
Himachal Pradesh180
Jammu & Kashmir360
Jharkhand1010
Karnataka2641
Kerala1150
Lakshadweep00
Madhya Pradesh1750
Maharashtra4181
Manipur50
Meghalaya30
Mizoram30
Nagaland-10
NCT OF Delhi430
Odisha310
Puducherry80
Punjab450
Rajasthan1110
Sikkim20
Tamil Nadu5420
Telangana2990
Tripura90
Uttar Pradesh2840
Uttarakhand170
West Bengal1000
Indian National Congress Andaman & Nicobar Islands142115244+8
Andhra Pradesh250
Arunachal Pradesh20
Assam143
Bihar91
Chandigarh10
Chhattisgarh112
Dadra & Nagar Haveli10
Daman & Diu10
Goa21
Gujarat260
Haryana100
Himachal Pradesh40
Jammu & Kashmir50
Jharkhand71
Karnataka211
Kerala1615
Lakshadweep10
Madhya Pradesh291
Maharashtra251
Manipur20
Meghalaya21
Mizoram
Nagaland-10
NCT OF Delhi70
Odisha181
Puducherry11
Punjab131
Rajasthan250
Sikkim10
Tamil Nadu98
Telangana173
Tripura20
Uttar Pradesh671
Uttarakhand50
West Bengal402
Indian Union Muslim League Andhra Pradesh39032+1
Kerala22
Maharashtra30
Tamil Nadu11
Jammu & Kashmir National Conference (NC)Jammu & Kashmir330+3
Janata Dal (Secular) Arunachal Pradesh29012-1
Karnataka71
Janata Dal (United) Bihar17250162+14
Jammu & Kashmir10
Lakshadweep10
Madhya Pradesh10
Manipur10
Punjab1
Uttar Pradesh30
Jharkhand Mukti Morcha Bihar413012-1
Jharkhand41
Odisha10
West Bengal40
Kerala Congress(M) Kerala1110
Lok Janshakti Party Bihar6660
Mizo National Front (MNF)Meghalaya110+1
Naga People's Front Manipur110+1
National People's Party Arunachal Pradesh1190110
Assam70
Manipur10
Meghalaya21
Nagaland10
Nationalist Congress Party Assam234056-1
Bihar50
Gujarat30
Lakshadweep11
Maharashtra194
Manipur10
Punjab20
Uttar Pradesh10
Nationalist Democratic Progressive Party (NDPP)Nagaland110+1
Rashtriya Loktantrik Party Rajasthan110+1
Revolutionary Socialist Party Kerala161110
West Bengal40
Samajwadi Party Andhra Pradesh2490550
Assam10
Bihar10
Jharkhand10
Madhya Pradesh20
Maharashtra40
Odisha10
Uttar Pradesh375
Shiromani Akali Dal Punjab1024-2
Shivsena Bihar1498018180
Chhattisgarh90
Dadra & Nagar Haveli20
Haryana30
Jammu & Kashmir30
Karnataka20
Madhya Pradesh50
Maharashtra2218
Punjab60
Rajasthan40
Telangana10
Uttar Pradesh110
West Bengal160
Sikkim Krantikari Morcha Sikkim110+1
Telangana Rashtra Samithi Telangana16911-2
Telugu Desam Party Andhra Pradesh25315-12
Viduthalai Chiruthaigal Katchi Andhra Pradesh37010+1
Karnataka20
Kerala10
Tamil Nadu11
Yuvajana Sramika Rythu Congress Party Andhra Pradesh25228+14
All India N.R. Congress Puducherry101-1
Pattali Makkal Katchi Tamil Nadu71-1
Rashtriya Janata Dal Bihar19214-4
Jharkhand2
Rashtriya Lok Samta Party Bihar53-3
Sikkim Democratic Front Sikkim11-1
Swabhimani Paksha Maharashtra21-1
Indian National Lok Dal Haryana102-2
Aap Aur Hum PartyBihar100
Aam Adhikar MorchaBihar45
Jharkhand1
Akhil Bhartiya Apna DalBihar15
Chandigarh1
Madhya Pradesh2
Punjab1
Adim Bhartiya DalHaryana1
Akhil Bhartiya Gondwana PartyMadhya Pradesh45
Uttar Pradesh1
Akhil Bharat Hindu Mahasabha Jharkhand15
Madhya Pradesh1
Odisha3
Akhil Bhartiya Mithila PartyBihar1
Akhil Bhartiya Jharkhand PartyJharkhand
West Bengal1
Jharkhand PartyJharkhand4
Akhil Bharatiya Jan Sangh Bihar16
Gujarat1
Haryana1
Maharashtra1
NCT OF Delhi1
Uttar Pradesh1
Akhil Bharatiya Muslim League (Secular)Karnataka12
Telangana1
Akhil Bharatiya Manavata PakshaMaharashtra12
NCT OF Delhi1
Akhil Bhartiya Navnirman PartyUttar Pradesh1
Atulya Bharat PartyNCT OF Delhi12
Uttar Pradesh1
Aajad Bharat Party (Democratic)Madhya Pradesh26
Uttar Pradesh4
Akhil Bharatiya Sena Maharashtra1
Akhil Bhartiya Sarvadharma Samaj PartyMaharashtra1
Andhra Chaitanya PartyAndhra Pradesh1
Adarshwaadi Congress PartyUttar Pradesh1
Adhunik Bharat PartyUttar Pradesh2
Aadarsh Janata Sewa PartyHaryana1
Ahila India Dhayaga Makkal Munnetra KatchiTamil Nadu1
Asli Deshi PartyBihar4
Aadarsh Sangram PartyUttar Pradesh1
Apna Dal United PartyUttar Pradesh1
Adhikar Vikas PartyChhattisgarh12
Madhya Pradesh1
Asom Gana Parishad Assam34
Telangana1
Akhil Hind Forward Bloc (Krantikari)Bihar2
Akhand Hind PartyMaharashtra1
Ahimsa Socialist PartyTamil Nadu1
All India Forward Bloc Andhra Pradesh234
Arunachal Pradesh1
Assam3
Bihar4
Chandigarh1
Haryana2
Himachal Pradesh3
Jammu & Kashmir1
Jharkhand4
Madhya Pradesh2
NCT OF Delhi1
Odisha2
Telangana1
Uttar Pradesh5
West Bengal3
All India Hindustan Congress Party Andaman & Nicobar Islands14
Gujarat1
Karnataka1
Madhya Pradesh1
All India Jana Andolan PartyWest Bengal1
All India Labour PartyWest Bengal1
All India Minorities Front Maharashtra12
Uttar Pradesh2
Agila India Makkal KazhagamKerala14
Puducherry1
Tamil Nadu2
All Indians PartySikkim1
All India Praja PartyAndhra Pradesh3
All Indian Rajiv Congress PartyUttar Pradesh1
All India Ulama CongressMadhya Pradesh1
All India Uzhavargal Uzhaippalargal KatchiTamil Nadu1
Akila India Vallalar PeravaiTamil Nadu1
Asom Jana MorchaAssam4
Aam Janta Party (India)Uttar Pradesh7
Aam Janta Party RashtriyaBihar3
Aapki Apni Party (Peoples)Haryana721
Maharashtra3
NCT OF Delhi6
Uttar Pradesh5
Akhil Bhartiya Ekata PartyMaharashtra1
Akhil Bhartiya Lok DalUttar Pradesh1
Apna Kisan PartyBihar1
Akhand Samaj PartyUttar Pradesh2
Al-Hind PartyUttar Pradesh2
All India Peoples' Front (Radical)Uttar Pradesh1
All Pensioner’S PartyTamil Nadu1
Aasra Lokmanch PartyMaharashtra2
Amra BangaleeJharkhand210
Tripura2
West Bengal6
Anaithu Makkal KatchiTamil Nadu1
Azad Mazdoor Kissan PartyKarnataka1
Aadarsh Mithila PartyBihar2
Anaithu Makkal Puratchi KatchiTamil Nadu2
Ambedkar Yug PartyUttar Pradesh1
Anaithu India Makkal Katchi1
Anjaan Aadmi PartyNCT OF Delhi1
Ambedkar National Congress Andhra Pradesh221
Bihar1
Chandigarh1
Gujarat2
Jharkhand1
Maharashtra4
NCT OF Delhi1
Odisha2
Punjab2
Telangana5
Annadata PartyUttar Pradesh1
Andaman & Nicobar Janta PartyUttar Pradesh1
Aihra National PartyJharkhand38
Karnataka1
Telangana1
West Bengal3
Adarsh Nyay Rakshak PartyMadhya Pradesh1
Ahinsa Samaj PartyMadhya Pradesh1
Anti Corruption Dynamic PartyMaharashtra111
Puducherry1
Tamil Nadu7
Telangana2
Apna Desh PartyGujarat2
Ambedkarite Party Of India Andhra Pradesh177
Bihar2
Chhattisgarh11
Gujarat1
Himachal Pradesh1
Jharkhand4
Karnataka1
Kerala3
Madhya Pradesh8
Maharashtra16
Odisha6
Punjab4
Rajasthan15
Tamil Nadu1
Telangana1
Tripura1
West Bengal1
Apna Samaj Party1
All Peoples PartyAndhra Pradesh1
Ambedkarist Republican PartyMaharashtra2
Andhra Rastra Praja SamithiAndhra Pradesh1
Akhand Rashtrawadi PartyMadhya Pradesh14
NCT OF Delhi2
Uttar Pradesh1
Autonomous State Demand Committee Assam1
Assam Dristi PartyAssam1
Akhil Bharat Samagra Kranti PartyChhattisgarh1
Adarsh Samaj PartyUttar Pradesh2
Ambedkar Samaj Party Karnataka48
Uttar Pradesh4
All India Puratchi Thalaivar Makkal Munnettra KazhagamTamil Nadu1
Aarakshan Virodhi Party Madhya Pradesh24
Rajasthan2
Awami Samta PartyUttar Pradesh3
Anna Ysr Congress PartyAndhra Pradesh2
B. C. United FrontAndhra Pradesh1
Bharatiya Aavaam Ekta PartyUttar Pradesh1
Bahujan Azad PartyBihar12
Maharashtra1
Bahujan Samyak Party (Mission)Uttar Pradesh1
Bahujan Awam PartyUttar Pradesh4
Bharatiya Aam Awam PartyBihar1
Bhartiya Anarakshit PartyTelangana34
Uttar Pradesh1
Bhartiya Azad SenaJharkhand1
Bharatiya Bahujan CongressBihar56
Gujarat1
Bharipa Bahujan Mahasangh Karnataka2
Bharat Bhrashtachar Mitao PartyBihar1
Bhartiya Bhaichara PartyUttar Pradesh2
Bharatiya Bahujan Samta PartyUttar Pradesh2
Bharath Dharma Jana Sena Kerala4
Bharatrashtra Democratic PartyUttar Pradesh1
Bharatiya Gana ParishadAssam4
Bhartiya Amrit PartyMadhya Pradesh2
Bharatiya Bahujan Parivartan PartyUttar Pradesh1
Bharatiya Jan Morcha PartyMadhya Pradesh1
Bharatiya Praja Surajya PakshaMaharashtra8
Bharatiya Rashtravadi Samanta PartyUttar Pradesh1
Bharatiya Samta Samaj PartyBihar13
Uttar Pradesh2
Bharatiya Sarvodaya Kranti PartyUttar Pradesh1
Bhartiya Janta Dal (Integrated)NCT OF Delhi1
Bharatiya National Janta DalWest Bengal1
Bhartiya Lokmat Rashtrwadi PartyBihar27
Chhattisgarh1
Jharkhand1
Madhya Pradesh1
Maharashtra1
Uttar Pradesh1
Bhartiya Manvadhikaar Federal Party1
Bhartiya Naujawan Inklav PartyUttar Pradesh1
Bhartiyabahujankranti DalKarnataka25
Maharashtra3
Bharatiya Bahujan PartyChhattisgarh1
Bharat Bhoomi PartyChhattisgarh23
Karnataka1
Bhartiya Dalit PartyBihar3
Bhartiya Hind FaujUttar Pradesh2
Bhartiya Janta DalUttar Pradesh1
Bhartiya Janraj PartyHaryana24
Punjab2
Bahujan Maha PartyAndhra Pradesh120
Gujarat1
Haryana1
Karnataka2
Madhya Pradesh1
Maharashtra13
Uttar Pradesh1
Bharat Nirman PartyBihar1
Bhartiya Harit PartyUttar Pradesh1
Bharatiya Peoples PartyKarnataka1
Bharatiya Rashtravadi Paksha Gujarat1
Bharatiya Sampuran Krantikari PartyUttar Pradesh1
Bhartiya Sarvodaya PartyJharkhand12
Uttarakhand1
Bhartiya Insan PartyBihar13
NCT OF Delhi2
Bharat Jan Aadhar PartyMaharashtra4
Bharatiya Jan Kranti Dal (Democratic)Bihar47
Jharkhand1
Karnataka1
Uttar Pradesh1
Bhartiya Jan Nayak PartyUttar Pradesh4
Bhartiya Jan Samman PartyChandigarh12
Haryana1
Bhartiya Jan Sampark PartyMadhya Pradesh1
Bhartiya Jan Satta PartyRajasthan1
Bundelkhand Kranti DalUttar Pradesh1
Bhartiya Kisan PartyChandigarh415
Haryana1
Maharashtra5
NCT OF Delhi1
Rajasthan1
Uttar Pradesh3
Bharatiya Kisan Parivartan PartyUttar Pradesh1
Bhartiya Krishak DalUttar Pradesh4
Bhartiya Kisan Union Samaj PartyUttar Pradesh1
Bhartiya Kranti Vir PartyBihar1
Bihar Lok Nirman DalBihar8
Baliraja PartyBihar27
Maharashtra4
Uttar Pradesh1
Bhartiya Lok Seva DalJharkhand110
Punjab7
Uttar Pradesh2
Bharat Lok Sewak PartyNCT OF Delhi34
Uttar Pradesh1
Bhartiya Manavadhikaar Federal PartyChandigarh19
Gujarat1
Jharkhand1
Maharashtra5
Odisha1
Bharateeya Manavadhikar partyWest Bengal2
Bharatiya Momin FrontBihar78
Jharkhand1
Bharatiya Majdoor Janta PartyUttar Pradesh1
Bahujan Mukti Party Assam1120
Bihar12
Chandigarh1
Dadra & Nagar Haveli1
Gujarat6
Haryana5
Himachal Pradesh1
Jharkhand5
Karnataka1
Madhya Pradesh9
Maharashtra35
Odisha5
Punjab6
Rajasthan2
Telangana7
Uttar Pradesh10
Uttarakhand2
West Bengal6
Bharatiya Minorities Suraksha Mahasangh Jharkhand12
Maharashtra1
Bhartiya Manav Samaj PartyMadhya Pradesh13
Uttar Pradesh2
Bhartiya Mitra PartyBihar3
Bahujan Nyay DalBihar34
Uttar Pradesh1
Bhartiya Nojawan DalUttar Pradesh1
Bhartiya Navodaya PartyUttar Pradesh1
Bharatiya Nyay-Adhikar Raksha PartyWest Bengal7
Bhartiya Navjawan Sena (Paksha)Maharashtra3
Bhartiya New Sanskar Krantikari PartyBihar1
Bhartiya Pragatisheel CongressNCT OF Delhi1
Bhartiya Panchyat PartyJharkhand2
Bodoland Peoples Front Assam1
Bharat Prabhat PartyBihar253
Chandigarh1
Chhattisgarh1
Haryana5
Jharkhand2
Karnataka2
Madhya Pradesh8
Maharashtra5
NCT OF Delhi2
Odisha2
Punjab5
Uttar Pradesh16
West Bengal2
Bharatiya Prajagala Kalyana PakshaKarnataka2
Bhapase PartyMaharashtra1
Bharatiya Rashtriya MorchaBihar12
Uttar Pradesh1
Bahujana Raajyam Party (Phule Ambedkar)Telangana1
Bharat Rakshak Party (Democratic)Rajasthan2
Bhartiya Republican Party (Insan)Uttar Pradesh1
Bahujan Republican Socialist PartyGujarat127
Maharashtra26
Bhartiya Rashtrawadi PartyChandigarh1
Bhartiya Shakti Chetna PartyChhattisgarh535
Gujarat1
Haryana5
Himachal Pradesh1
Madhya Pradesh11
Maharashtra1
Punjab1
Uttar Pradesh10
Bahujan Suraksha DalGujarat1
Bhartiya Sarvjan Hitey Samaj PartyChhattisgarh1
Bhartiya Tribal Party Chhattisgarh219
Dadra & Nagar Haveli1
Gujarat6
Madhya Pradesh1
Maharashtra5
Rajasthan4
Bahujan Samaj Party (AMBEDKAR) Chandigarh15
Punjab4
Bahujan Vikas Aaghadi Maharashtra1
Bajjikanchal Vikas PartyBihar7
Bhartiya Vanchitsamaj PartyUttar Pradesh1
Corruption Abolition PartyNCT OF Delhi1
Christian Democratic Front Tamil Nadu1
Challengers PartyNCT OF Delhi2
Chandigarh Ki Aawaz PartyChandigarh1
Communist Party Of India (MARXIST-LENINIST) (LIBERATION) Andhra Pradesh218
Bihar4
Jharkhand2
Odisha2
Puducherry1
Punjab3
Tamil Nadu2
Uttar Pradesh3
Uttarakhand1
West Bengal2
Communist Party of India (Marxist–Leninist) CPI(M)(L)4
Communist Party of India (Marxist–Leninist) Red Star 4
Communist Party Of India (Marxist–Leninist) Red Star Andhra Pradesh125
Chandigarh2
Jharkhand3
Karnataka2
Kerala4
Madhya Pradesh1
Maharashtra2
Odisha5
Rajasthan1
Tamil Nadu1
Uttar Pradesh2
West Bengal5
Chhattisgarh Swabhiman ManchChhattisgarh12
Maharashtra1
Chhattisgarh Vikas Ganga Rashtriya PartyChhattisgarh12
Madhya Pradesh1
Dr. Bhimrao Ambedkar DalUttar Pradesh1
Dalita Bahujana PartyTelangana3
Democratic Corruption Liberation Front1
Democratic Party of India (Ambedkar)Punjab13
Desh Janhit PartyMaharashtra1
Daksha PartyHaryana1
Desiya Murpokku Dravida Kazhagam Tamil Nadu4
Desiya Makkal Sakthi KatchiMaharashtra19
Tamil Nadu8
Dogra Swabhiman Sangathan Party,Jammu & Kashmir2
Democratic Party Of India 1
Democratic Prajakranthi Party SecularistKarnataka1
Dalit Soshit Pichhara Varg Adhikar DalHaryana13
Maharashtra1
Rajasthan1
Desiya Uzhavar Uzhaipalar KazhagamTamil Nadu3
Engineers PartyKarnataka1
Ekta Samaj PartyNCT OF Delhi1
Ezhuchi Tamilargal Munnetra KazhagamTamil Nadu3
Forward Democratic Labour PartyChhattisgarh1
Fauji Janta PartyUttar Pradesh1
Freethought Party Of IndiaOdisha3
Gareeb Aadmi PartyKarnataka1
Gondvana Gantantra Party Chhattisgarh923
Madhya Pradesh9
Maharashtra2
Odisha1
Uttar Pradesh2
Garvi Gujarat PartyGujarat3
Garib Janshakti PartyBihar2
Gujarat Janta Panchayat PartyGujarat1
Ganasangam Party Of IndiaTamil Nadu3
Gorkha Rashtriya Congress West Bengal1
Hindustani Awam Morcha (Secular) Bihar3
Hamari Apni PartyMaharashtra1
Hardam Manavtawadi Rashtriya DalAndhra Pradesh1
Hind Congress PartyHaryana12
Punjab1
Hindu Samaj Party1
Hindustan Janta Party Karnataka37
Maharashtra4
Hindusthan Praja PakshaMaharashtra1
Himachal Jan Kranti PartyHimachal Pradesh1
Hindusthan Nirman DalAssam547
Bihar2
Gujarat9
Jammu & Kashmir1
Jharkhand2
Madhya Pradesh8
Maharashtra2
Odisha2
Rajasthan1
Uttar Pradesh14
Uttarakhand1
Hamro Sikkim Party Sikkim1
Hind Samrajya PartyBihar1
Hindustan Shakti SenaChandigarh19
Punjab8
Hum Bhartiya PartyJharkhand19
Maharashtra5
NCT OF Delhi1
Punjab1
Telangana1
Hum Sabki PartyUttar Pradesh1
Indian Christian Front Karnataka24
Tamil Nadu2
Indian Democratic Republican FrontPunjab12
West Bengal1
Indian Gandhiyan Party Kerala12
Uttar Pradesh
Indian Indira Congress (R) Rajasthan1
Indian Labour Party (Ambedkar Phule)Andhra Pradesh14
Karnataka3
Ilantamilar Munnani KazhagamTamil Nadu1
Indian New Congress PartyKarnataka4
Independent People’S PartyJammu & Kashmir1
Indian National League Uttar Pradesh2
India Praja Bandhu PartyAndhra Pradesh411
Chhattisgarh1
Telangana6
Indigenousn People'S Front Of Tripura Tripura2
Indian Peoples Green PartyRajasthan2
Indian Rakshaka Nayakudu PartyTelangana1
Indian Unity CentreWest Bengal2
Inqalab Vikas DalUttar Pradesh1
Jan Adesh Akshuni SenaUttar Pradesh1
Jan Adhikar Party Bihar619
Madhya Pradesh3
Maharashtra7
Uttar Pradesh3
Jan Adhikar Party (Loktantrik) Bihar1
Jharkhand Anushilan Party West Bengal1
Janta Dal RashtravadiBihar3
Jamat-E-Seratul MustakimWest Bengal2
Jago Hindustan PartyBihar3
Jharkhand Party (Secular)Jharkhand1
Janhit Bharat PartyUttar Pradesh2
Jharkhand Party Jharkhand4
Jai Hind PartyBihar1
Jai Hind Samaj PartyUttar Pradesh1
Jai Jawan Jai Kisan PartyHaryana14
Punjab3
Jannayak Janta Party Haryana7
Janhit Kisan PartyBihar28
Uttar Pradesh6
Jammu & Kashmir Pir Panjal Awami PartyJammu & Kashmir1
Jai Lok PartyMadhya Pradesh1
Jai Maha Bharath PartyMaharashtra13
NCT OF Delhi1
Sikkim1
Jharkhand Mukti Morcha (Ulgulan)1
Janata Congress Jharkhand27
Madhya Pradesh3
Maharashtra1
Uttar Pradesh1
Jana Jagruti PartyAndhra Pradesh7
Janata Party Bihar4
Jharkhand Party (Naren)Jharkhand12
West Bengal1
Janvadi Party(Socialist)Bihar12
Uttar Pradesh1
Janapaalana Party (Democratic)Andhra Pradesh1
Jai Prakash Janata Dal Bihar511
Jharkhand2
NCT OF Delhi2
Odisha2
Jharkhand People's Party Jharkhand4
Jharkhand People's Party1
Janta Raj PartyUttar Pradesh2
Janral Samaj PartyChandigarh15
Punjab4
Janta Raj Vikas PartyBihar1
Jan Shakti DalUttar Pradesh2
Jansatta Dal Loktantrik Uttar Pradesh2
Jan Shakti Ekta PartyUttar Pradesh1
Jan Samman PartyMadhya Pradesh13
NCT OF Delhi1
Uttar Pradesh1
Jan Sangh PartyWest Bengal1
Janasena Party Andhra Pradesh1724
Telangana7
Jan Satya Path PartyGujarat4
Jai Swaraj PartyTelangana1
Jan Seva Sahayak PartyUttar Pradesh2
Jansatta PartyUttar Pradesh2
Jan Sangharsh Virat PartyGujarat25
Jharkhand1
Rajasthan1
West Bengal1
Janta Kranti Party (Rashtravadi)Uttar Pradesh2
Justice Party 1
Jai Vijaya Bharathi PartyKarnataka1
Jantantrik Vikas PartyBihar3
Jharkhand Vikas Morcha (Prajatantrik) Jharkhand2
Jwala DalUttar Pradesh1
Jammu & Kashmir National Panthers Party Bihar1
Jammu & Kashmir5
NCT OF Delhi1
Tamil Nadu1
Jammu & Kashmir Peoples Democratic Party +Jammu & Kashmir2
Jammu & Kashmir People ConferenceJammu & Kashmir3
Kamatapur People’S Party (United)West Bengal6
Kerala Congress Kerala1
Kannada Chalavali Vatal Paksha Karnataka1
Kisan Raj PartyMadhya Pradesh1
Kisan Raksha PartyUttar Pradesh1
Karnataka Jantha Paksha Karnataka2
Karnataka Karmikara PakshaKarnataka4
Kalinga SenaJharkhand15
Odisha4
Kisan Majdoor Berojgar SanghUttar Pradesh1
Kisan Mazdoor Sangharsh PartyUttar Pradesh4
Karnataka Pragnyavantha Janatha Party Karnataka1
Kisan Party Of IndiaMadhya Pradesh2
Karnataka Praja Party (Raithaparva)Karnataka2
Kranti Kari Jai Hind SenaKarnataka15
Maharashtra4
Kartavya Rashtriya PartyUttar Pradesh1
Krupaa PartyOdisha3
Kanshiram Bahujan DalNCT OF Delhi15
Uttar Pradesh4
Khusro Sena PartyUttar Pradesh1
Kalyankari Jantantrik PartyUttar Pradesh1
Lok Chetna DalBihar1
Lok Gathbandhan PartyGujarat17
Uttar Pradesh6
Lok Insaaf Party Punjab3
Lok Jan Sangharsh PartyUttar Pradesh1
Loktantrik Jan Swaraj PartyBihar1
Lok Jan Vikas MorchaBihar2
Lok Dal Uttar Pradesh5
Lokjagar PartyMaharashtra1
Loktantrik Janshakti PartyUttar Pradesh1
Lokpriya Samaj PartyHaryana1
Loktanter Suraksha Party Haryana2
Loktantrik Rashrtavadi PartyGujarat1
Lok Sewa DalBihar1
LoksangramMaharashtra1
Maharashtra Swabhimaan Paksh Maharashtra2
Makkal Sananayaga Kudiyarasu KatchiTamil Nadu1
Manipur People’S Party Manipur1
Moulik Adhikar PartyBihar113
Uttar Pradesh12
Mera Adhikaar Rashtriya DalUttar Pradesh2
Marxist Communist Party Of India (United) Andhra Pradesh16
Kerala1
Rajasthan1
Telangana3
Mazdoor Dalit Kisaan Mahila Gareeb Party (Hindustani)Uttar Pradesh1
Minorities Democratic PartyMadhya Pradesh23
Uttar Pradesh1
Manipur Democratic Peoples's FrontManipur1
Mundadugu Praja PartyAndhra Pradesh4
Mahamukti DalUttar Pradesh1
Mahasankalp Janta PartyUttar Pradesh2
Makkalatchi KatchiTamil Nadu2
Manav Kranti PartyUttar Pradesh1
Maharashtra Kranti SenaMaharashtra2
Majdoor Kisan Union PartyUttar Pradesh1
Mazdoor Kirayedar Vikas PartyNCT OF Delhi5
Marxist Leninist Party Of India (Red Flag) Karnataka13
Maharashtra2
Mithilanchal Mukti MorchaBihar1
Makkal Needhi Maiam Puducherry138
Tamil Nadu37
Manvadhikar National PartyGujarat24
Jammu & Kashmir2
Manavtawadi Samaj PartyUttar Pradesh2
Madhya Pradesh Jan Vikas PartyMadhya Pradesh3
Mulnibasi Party of IndiaWest Bengal2
Moolniwasi Samaj PartyBihar23
Jharkhand1
Maanavvaadi Janta PartyBihar2
Manuvadi PartyUttar Pradesh1
Mahila & Yuva Shakti PartyHaryana1
New All India Congress PartyGujarat2
National Apni PartyNCT OF Delhi1
Nationalist People'S FrontRajasthan1
Nirbhay Bharteey PartyGujarat1
National Bhrashtachar Mukt PartyUttar Pradesh1
Navsarjan Bharat PartyDadra & Nagar Haveli1
National Dalitha Dhal PartyAndhra Pradesh1
National Development Party Karnataka1
New Democratic Party of IndiaWest Bengal3
Navbharat Ekta DalHimachal Pradesh1
North East India Development Party Manipur2
Nagrik Ekta PartyUttar Pradesh4
National Fifty Fifty FrontUttar Pradesh1
Naam Indiar PartyTamil Nadu2
Nationalist Janshakti PartyUttar Pradesh2
National Jagaran PartyBihar1
National Labour PartyKerala1
National Lokmat PartyUttar Pradesh1
Nationalist Justice PartyPunjab4
National Nava Kranthi PartyAndhra Pradesh1
Navbharat Nirman PartyMaharashtra1
Nava Praja Rajyam PartyTelangana1
National Republican CongressAssam2
The National Road Map Party Of IndiaAssam12
NCT OF Delhi1
Nava Samaj PartyAndhra Pradesh1
Netaji Subhash Chander Bose Rashtriya Azad PartyUttar Pradesh1
Naam Tamilar Katchi Puducherry138
Tamil Nadu37
Naitik PartyMaharashtra26
Uttar Pradesh4
Navarang Congress PartyAndhra Pradesh35
Jammu & Kashmir2
Navodayam PartyAndhra Pradesh2
Navnirman PartyHaryana1
Navataram PartyAndhra Pradesh1
New India PartyTelangana2
National Women'S PartyMadhya Pradesh13
Telangana1
Nawan Punjab PartyPunjab1
National Youth PartyNCT OF Delhi2
Odisha Pragati DalOdisha1
Proutist Bloc, IndiaBihar19
Karnataka2
Madhya Pradesh1
Maharashtra1
NCT OF Delhi3
Odisha1
PC3
Peace Party Maharashtra314
Uttar Pradesh11
Puducherry Development PartyPuducherry1
Peoples Democratic Party Jammu & Kashmir15
Kerala2
Party For Democratic Socialism West Bengal5
People's Party Of India(secular)Tamil Nadu23
People’S Union PartyMaharashtra1
Punjab Ekta Party Punjab33
Pichhra Samaj PartyUttar Pradesh1
Prajatantra Aadhar PartyGujarat1
Prem Janata DalTelangana1
Prahar Janshakti PartyMaharashtra1
Purvanchal Janta Party (Secular)Assam614
Jharkhand1
Karnataka1
Odisha1
Tamil Nadu2
West Bengal3
Pragatisheel Lok ManchUttarakhand1
Punjab Labour PartyPunjab1
Public Mission PartyBihar2
Pragatisheel Manav Samaj Party Uttar Pradesh3
Pravasi Nivasi Party Kerala1
Peoples Party Of India (Democratic)Bihar956
Chhattisgarh1
Gujarat2
Haryana6
Himachal Pradesh1
Jharkhand4
Madhya Pradesh7
Maharashtra6
NCT OF Delhi5
Punjab2
Rajasthan2
Uttar Pradesh8
Uttarakhand1
People'S Party Of Arunachal Arunachal Pradesh2
Pyramid Party Of India Andhra Pradesh2048
Gujarat2
Karnataka6
NCT OF Delhi5
Punjab1
Tamil Nadu2
Telangana11
West Bengal1
Prajatantrik Samadhan PartyMadhya Pradesh1
Poorvanchal Rashtriya CongressMadhya Pradesh12
Rajasthan1
Peoples Representation For Identity And Status Of Mizoram (Prism) PartyMizoram16
NCT OF Delhi5
Prithviraj Janshakti PartyUttar Pradesh3
Prabuddha Republican PartyMaharashtra45
Rajasthan1
Praja Shanthi Party Andhra Pradesh4
Praja Satta PartyKarnataka12
Telangana1
Pragatishil Samajwadi Party (Lohia)Bihar882
Haryana8
Jammu & Kashmir1
Karnataka2
Madhya Pradesh9
Maharashtra1
Odisha2
Rajasthan1
Tamil Nadu2
Uttar Pradesh47
Uttarakhand1
Pichhara Samaj Party UnitedJharkhand12
Madhya Pradesh1
Proutist Sarva SamajBihar17
Jharkhand2
Karnataka1
Rajasthan2
Uttar Pradesh
Pragatisheel Samaj PartyUttar Pradesh3
Prajaa Swaraaj PartyTelangana1
Purvanchal MahapanchayatBihar23
Uttar Pradesh1
Parivartan Samaj PartyMadhya Pradesh13
NCT OF Delhi1
Uttar Pradesh1
Rashtriya Ambedkar DalUttar Pradesh1
Radical Democrats Andhra Pradesh1
Rashtriya Aadarsh Member PartyMadhya Pradesh1
Raita Bharat PartyKarnataka1
Rajnaitik Vikalp PartyBihar1
Rashtriya Ahinsa ManchWest Bengal1
Rashtriya Aamjan PartyMadhya Pradesh1
Rajyadhikara Party Andhra Pradesh1
Rashtrawadi Party of India,Uttar Pradesh2
Rashtriya Indepndent MorchaOdisha1
Rashtriya Janasachetan Party (R.J.P.)West Bengal5
Rashtriya Jansanchar Dal1
Rashtriya Janta Party Uttar Pradesh1
Rashtriya Janwadi Party (Socialist)Uttar Pradesh1
Rashtriya Mahan Gantantra PartyBihar3
Rashtriya Mahila Party1
Rashtriya Matadata PartyUttar Pradesh1
Rashtriya Naujawan DalUttar Pradesh1
Rashtriya Sahara PartyHaryana13
Punjab2
Rastriya Aam Jan Seva PartyMaharashtra1
Rastriya Insaaf PartyUttar Pradesh1
Rashtriya Vikas PartyHaryana1
Rayalaseema Rashtra SamithiAndhra Pradesh1
Rashtriya Bahujan Congress PartyMaharashtra1
Rashtriya Bhagidari Samaj PartyHaryana1
Rashtriya Bharatiya Jan Jan PartyUttar Pradesh2
Rashtriya Backward PartyUttar Pradesh1
Republican Bahujan SenaMaharashtra1
Rashtriya Dal UnitedBihar1
Real Democracy PartyGujarat1
Rashtriya Garib DalHaryana12
Uttar Pradesh1
Rashtriya Gondvana PartyChhattisgarh1
Rashtriya Jansena PartyMaharashtra1
Rashtriya Hind Sena Bihar6
Rashtriya Jansabha PartyChhattisgarh7
Rashtriya Jan Adhikar PartyNCT OF Delhi12
West Bengal1
Rashtriya Jan Adhikar Party (United)Uttar Pradesh2
Rashtriya Janadhikar Suraksha PartyWest Bengal6
Rashtriya Jatigat Aarakshan Virodhi PartyHaryana1
Rashtriya Jantantrik Bharat Vikas PartyUttar Pradesh1
Rashtriya Jan Gaurav PartyUttar Pradesh1
Rashtriya Janhit Sangharsh PartyManipur1
Rashtriya Jankranti PartyChandigarh13
Jammu & Kashmir1
Telangana1
Rashtriya Janmat PartyUttar Pradesh12
Rashtriya Jansurajya PartyMaharashtra2
Rashtriya Janshakti Party (Secular) Maharashtra27
Punjab1
Rashtriya Jansambhavna PartyBihar713
Karnataka1
Maharashtra2
NCT OF Delhi1
Rajasthan1
Uttar Pradesh1
Rashtriya Jansangharsh Swaraj PartyJharkhand2
Rashtriya Janutthan PartyUttar Pradesh1
Rashtravadi Kranti DalMaharashtra1
Rashtriya Kranti PartyRajasthan15
Uttar Pradesh4
Rashtriya Krantikari Samajwadi PartyAndhra Pradesh14
Madhya Pradesh1
Rajasthan1
Uttar Pradesh1
Rashtriya Lok Sarvadhikar PartyUttar Pradesh1
Rashtriya Lok Dal Uttar Pradesh3
Rashtriya Lokswaraj PartyChandigarh18
Haryana6
Rashtriya Mazdoor Ekta PartyHaryana13
Uttar Pradesh2
Rashtriya Mangalam PartyRajasthan1
Rashtriya Maratha PartyMaharashtra5
Revolutionary Marxist Party of India Haryana12
Rashtra Nirman PartyHaryana15
Madhya Pradesh1
NCT OF Delhi3
Rashtriya Nav Nirman Bharat PartyGujarat1
Republican Paksha (Khoripa)Chhattisgarh1
Rashtriya Praja Congress (Secular)Andhra Pradesh1
Rashtriya Pragati PartyBihar1
Republican Party Of India Bihar18
Haryana1
Karnataka1
Tamil Nadu1
Telangana1
Uttar Pradesh1
Republican Party Of India (Kamble) Goa1
Republican Party Of India (A) Andhra Pradesh533
Assam3
Bihar2
Chandigarh3
Haryana1
Jharkhand2
Karnataka3
Madhya Pradesh4
NCT OF Delhi5
Punjab1
Tamil Nadu2
Uttar Pradesh1
West Bengal1
Republican Party Of India (KHOBRAGADE) Andhra Pradesh12
Telangana1
Republican Party of India (Reformist)Madhya Pradesh12
Republican Party Of India (Karnataka)Karnataka4
Republican Party of India EktavadiHaryana1
Rashtriya Power PartyGujarat23
Rajasthan1
Republican SenaKarnataka4
Rashtriya Rashtrawadi PartyBihar17
Haryana1
Madhya Pradesh1
NCT OF Delhi3
Rajasthan1
Rashtriya Apna DalMadhya Pradesh12
Uttar Pradesh1
Rashtrawadi Shramjeevi DalUttar Pradesh1
Rashtriya Sangail PartyJharkhand1
Rashtriya Sahyog PartyBihar1
Rashtriya Samaj Paksha Gujarat112
Karnataka2
Kerala1
Madhya Pradesh1
Punjab1
Uttar Pradesh6
Rashtriya Samanta Dal Uttar Pradesh2
Rashtriya Samrasta PartyNCT OF Delhi3
Rashtriya Samta Party (Secular)Bihar45
Jharkhand1
Rashtravadi Party (Bharat)Uttar Pradesh1
Revolutionary Socialist Party Of India(Marxist) 1
Rashtriya Samajwadi Party (Secular) Gujarat12
Maharashtra1
Rashtra Sewa DalBihar1
Rashtriya Shoshit Samaj PartyMadhya Pradesh27
Uttar Pradesh5
Rashtriya Samta Vikas PartyRajasthan1
Rashtriya Sarvjan Vikas PartyBihar2
Rashtriya Azad ManchHimachal Pradesh2
Rashtriya Janvikas Party (Democratic)Bihar1
Right To Recall PartyGujarat414
Jharkhand1
Karnataka1
Madhya Pradesh1
Maharashtra1
NCT OF Delhi2
Rajasthan3
Uttar Pradesh1
Rashtriya Ulama Council Bihar110
Maharashtra4
Uttar Pradesh5
Rashtravadi Janata Party Bihar24
West Bengal2
Rashtriya Viklang PartyUttar Pradesh1
Rashtriya Vyapari PartyUttar Pradesh1
Rashtra Vikas Zumbes PartyGujarat1
Rashtrawadi Chetna Party1
Sathi Aur Aapka Faisala PartyBihar2
Shiromani Akali Dal (Amritsar)(Simranjit Singh Mann)Punjab2
Samaj Adhikar Kalyan PartyChandigarh16
Punjab5
Samajwadi Samaj PartyUttar Pradesh1
Sabse Achchhi PartyUttar Pradesh2
Sarvshreshth DalUttar Pradesh1
Saman Aadmi Saman PartyMadhya Pradesh1
Sabka Dal UnitedUttar Pradesh3
Swatantra Bharat Paksha Maharashtra3
Sabhi Jan PartyUttar Pradesh2
Samaj Bhalai Morcha1
Swarna Bharat PartyAssam13
Maharashtra1
Rajasthan1
Suheldev Bharatiya Samaj Party Bihar524
Uttar Pradesh19
Socialist Party (India) Madhya Pradesh13
Punjab1
Uttar Pradesh1
Shiromani Akali Dal (Taksali) Punjab1
Secular Democratic CongressKarnataka14
Kerala2
Telangana1
Social Democratic Party Of India Andhra Pradesh114
Karnataka1
Kerala10
Tamil Nadu1
West Bengal1
Samajwadi Forward BlocAndhra Pradesh111
Karnataka1
Kerala1
Maharashtra1
Tamil Nadu1
Telangana6
Saaf PartyUttar Pradesh2
Sangharsh SenaMaharashtra1
Shane Hind FourmUttar Pradesh1
Shiromani Akali Dal(Taksali) 1
Shri Janta PartyMadhya Pradesh1
Smart Indians PartyMadhya Pradesh4
Samajwadi Janata Dal Democratic Bihar1
Samajwadi Jan Parishad West Bengal1
Swatantra Jantaraj PartyMadhya Pradesh19
Uttar Pradesh8
Samajwadi Janata Party(Karnataka)Karnataka1
Social Justice Party Of IndiaTelangana3
Sajag Samaj PartyUttar Pradesh1
Sanjhi Virasat PartyNCT OF Delhi1
Sankhyanupati Bhagidari PartyBihar2
Samata Kranti Dal Odisha1
Satya Kranti PartyUttar Pradesh1
Shiromani Lok Dal Party1
Sarvjan Lok Shakti PartyUttar Pradesh2
Samrat Ashok Sena PartyUttar Pradesh1
Samajik Nyaya PartyHaryana2
Samta Vikas PartyMadhya Pradesh1
Socialist Janata PartyNCT OF Delhi1
Swaraj Party (Loktantrik)Bihar2
Sapaks PartyBihar112
Haryana1
Madhya Pradesh10
Samajtantric Party Of IndiaWest Bengal1
Samaanya Praja PartyAndhra Pradesh1
Sarvadharam Party (MADHYA PRADESH)Chhattisgarh12
Madhya Pradesh1
Sanman Rajkiya PakshaMaharashtra1
Sikkim Republican PartySikkim1
Sarvodaya Prabhat PartyNCT OF Delhi1
Shakti Sena (Bharat Desh)Chhattisgarh1
Shoshit Samaj DalBihar7
Samata Samadhan PartyMadhya Pradesh1
Samdarshi Samaj PartyUttar Pradesh2
Sanatan Sanskriti Raksha DalMadhya Pradesh17
Maharashtra2
NCT OF Delhi3
Uttar Pradesh1
Satya Bahumat PartyHimachal Pradesh17
NCT OF Delhi3
Rajasthan2
Uttar Pradesh1
Subhashwadi Bhartiya Samajwadi Party (Subhas Party)Uttar Pradesh3
Socialist Unity Centre Of India (COMMUNIST) Andhra Pradesh2114
Assam6
Bihar8
Chhattisgarh2
Gujarat2
Haryana4
Jharkhand5
Karnataka7
Kerala9
Madhya Pradesh3
Maharashtra1
NCT OF Delhi1
Odisha8
Puducherry1
Punjab1
Rajasthan1
Tamil Nadu4
Telangana2
Tripura1
Uttar Pradesh3
Uttarakhand1
West Bengal42
Sikkim United Front (SUF)Sikkim1
Sunder Samaj PartyChhattisgarh1
Samagra Utthan PartyBihar17
Madhya Pradesh5
Uttar Pradesh1
Svatantra Bharat Satyagrah PartyGujarat2
Sarvodaya Bharat PartyChhattisgarh18
Gujarat1
Madhya Pradesh1
Maharashtra2
Uttar Pradesh3
Sarva Janata PartyKarnataka3
Sarv Vikas PartyUttarakhand1
Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel PartyGujarat4
Sarvjan Sewa PartyChandigarh12
Punjab1
Swarnim Bharat InquilabMadhya Pradesh1
Swabhiman PartyChhattisgarh13
Himachal Pradesh2
Swatantra Samaj PartyBihar1
Sanyukt Vikas PartyBihar16
Gujarat3
NCT OF Delhi1
Uttar Pradesh1
Tamil Nadu Ilangyar KatchiTamil Nadu16
Telangana Communist Party Of IndiaTelangana1
The Future India Party Tamil Nadu1
Telangana Jana Samithi Telangana2
Tamil Maanila Congress (MOOPANAR) Tamil Nadu1
Tamizhaga Murpokku Makkal Katchi Tamil Nadu1
Tola PartyHaryana1
Telangana Prajala PartyTelangana1
Telangana Sakalajanula PartyTelangana1
Tamil Telugu National PartyTamil Nadu1
Telangana Yuva ShaktiTelangana1
Tripura Peoples PartyTripura1
Universal Brotherhood MovementTamil Nadu1
United Democratic Front SecularUttar Pradesh1
United Democratic PartyMeghalaya1
Uttarakhand Kranti Dal Uttarakhand4
Uttarakhand Kranti Dal (Democratic)Uttarakhand4
Uttarakhand Parivartan PartyUttarakhand1
Ulzaipali Makkal KatchyTamil Nadu6
United People's Party, Liberia Assam2
Uttarakhand Pragatisheel PartyNCT OF Delhi12
Uttarakhand1
Uttar Pradesh Navnirman Sena Jharkhand1
Uttama Prajaakeeya Party Karnataka27
United States Of India PartyTamil Nadu1
Vanchit Bahujan Aaghadi Maharashtra46
Vikassheel Insaan PartyBihar4
Vishwa Jana PartyAndhra Pradesh2
Vishwa Manav Samaj Kalyan ParishadUttar Pradesh1
Vikas Insaf PartyUttar Pradesh2
Vivasayigal Makkal Munnetra KatchiTamil Nadu1
Voters Party InternationalAssam720
Bihar6
Jharkhand1
NCT OF Delhi1
Uttar Pradesh5
Vyavastha Parivartan PartyGujarat4
Vanchitsamaj Insaaf PartyUttar Pradesh3
Vishva Shakti PartyJharkhand23
Madhya Pradesh1
Vanchit Samaj PartyBihar4
Voters PartyHaryana2
Wazib Adhikar PartyBihar1
Welfare Party Of India West Bengal2
Yuva Jan Jagriti PartyGujarat6
Yuva Krantikari PartyBihar4
Yekikrutha Sankshema Rashtriya Praja PartyTelangana1
Yuva SarkarGujarat2
Yuva Vikas PartyUttar Pradesh1

Voter statistics

According to the ECI, 900 million people were eligible to vote, with an increase of 84.3 million voters since the last election in 2014, [122] [123] making it the largest-ever election in the world. [124] 15 million voters aged 18–19 years became eligible to vote for the first time. [125] [126] 468 million eligible voters were males, 432 million were females and 38,325 identified themselves belonging to third gender. Total 71,735 overseas voters also enrolled.[ citation needed ]

The residents of the former enclaves exchanged under the 2015 India-Bangladesh boundary agreement voted for the first time. [127]

Electronic voting machines and security

The ECI deployed a total of 1.74 million voter-verified paper audit trail (VVPAT) units and 3.96 million electronic voting machines (EVM) in 1,035,918 polling stations. [128] [129] [130] [131] Approximately 270,000 paramilitary and 2 million state police personnel provided organisational support and security at various polling booths. [132] On 9 April 2019, the Supreme Court ordered the ECI to increase VVPAT slips vote count to five randomly selected EVMs per assembly constituency, which meant that the ECI had to count VVPAT slips of 20,625 EVMs before it could certify the final election results. [133] [134] [135]

Voting

In the first phase, 69.58 per cent of the 142 million eligible voters cast their vote to elect their representatives for 91 Lok Sabha seats. [136] The voter turnout was 68.77 per cent in the same constituencies in the 2014 general elections. [136] In the second phase, 156 million voters were eligible to vote for 95 Lok Sabha seats and the turnout was 69.45 per cent, compared to 69.62 per cent in 2014. [136] For the third phase, 189 million voters were eligible to elect 116 Lok Sabha representatives. [136] According to ECI, the turnout for this phase was 68.40 per cent, compared to 67.15 per cent in 2014. [136] In the fourth of seven phases, 65.50 per cent of the 128 million eligible voters cast their vote to elect 72 representatives to the Indian parliament while the turnout for the same seats in the 2014 election was 63.05 per cent. [136] The fifth phase was open to 87.5 million eligible voters, who could cast their vote in over 96,000 polling booths. [137] In the sixth phase, 64.40 per cent of the 101 million eligible voters cast their vote in about 113,000 polling stations. [138]

The final turnout stood at 67.11 per cent, the highest ever turnout recorded in any of the general elections till date. The percentage is 1.16 per cent higher than the 2014 elections whose turnout stood at 65.95 per cent. [139] Over 600 million voters polled their votes in 2019 Indian General elections.

State/UTTotalVoter turnout by phase [136] [lower-alpha 6]
Phase 1

11 April

Phase 2

18 April

Phase 3

23 April

Phase 4

29 April

Phase 5

6 May

Phase 6

12 May

Phase 7

19 May

SeatsTurnout (%)SeatsTurnout (%)SeatsTurnout (%)SeatsTurnout (%)SeatsTurnout (%)SeatsTurnout (%)SeatsTurnout (%)SeatsTurnout (%)
Andhra Pradesh2579.70Increase2.svg2579.70 Increase2.svg            
Arunachal Pradesh278.47Increase2.svg278.47 Increase2.svg            
Assam1481.52 Increase2.svg578.27 Decrease2.svg581.19 Increase2.svg485.11 Increase2.svg        
Bihar4057.33Increase2.svg453.44 Increase2.svg562.92 Increase2.svg561.21 Increase2.svg559.18 Increase2.svg557.08 Increase2.svg858.48Increase2.svg851.38
Chhattisgarh1171.48 Increase2.svg166.04 Increase2.svg374.95 Increase2.svg770.73 Increase2.svg        
Goa274.94Decrease2.svg    274.94 Decrease2.svg        
Gujarat2664.11Increase2.svg    2664.11 Increase2.svg        
Haryana1070.34Decrease2.svg          1070.34Decrease2.svg  
Himachal Pradesh470.22            470.22Increase2.svg
Jammu and Kashmir [lower-alpha 7] 644.97Decrease2.svg257.38 Increase2.svg245.66 Decrease2.svg1313.68 Decrease2.svg1310.32 Decrease2.svg11319.92 Decrease2.svg    
Jharkhand1466.80Increase2.svg      364.97 Increase2.svg465.99 Increase2.svg465.42Increase2.svg355.59
Karnataka2868.63 Increase2.svg  1468.80 Increase2.svg1468.47 Increase2.svg        
Kerala2077.67Increase2.svg    2077.67 Increase2.svg        
Madhya Pradesh2971.10Increase2.svg      674.90 Increase2.svg769.14 Increase2.svg865.24 Increase2.svg875.64 Increase2.svg
Maharashtra4860.79 Increase2.svg763.04 Decrease2.svg1062.85 Increase2.svg1462.36 Decrease2.svg1757.33 Increase2.svg      
Manipur282.75 Increase2.svg184.20 Decrease2.svg181.24 Increase2.svg          
Meghalaya271.43Increase2.svg271.43 Increase2.svg            
Mizoram163.12Increase2.svg163.12 Increase2.svg            
Nagaland183.09Decrease2.svg183.09 Decrease2.svg            
Odisha2173.06 Decrease2.svg473.82 Decrease2.svg572.56 Increase2.svg671.62 Decrease2.svg674.38 Decrease2.svg      
Punjab1365.96            1365.96Decrease2.svg
Rajasthan2566.34Increase2.svg      1368.17 Increase2.svg1263.71 Increase2.svg    
Sikkim178.81Decrease2.svg178.81 Decrease2.svg            
Tamil Nadu [lower-alpha 8] 3872.02Decrease2.svg  3872.02 Decrease2.svg          
Telangana1762.711762.71            
Tripura283.20 Decrease2.svg183.21 Decrease2.svg  183.19 Increase2.svg        
Uttar Pradesh8059.21Increase2.svg863.92 Decrease2.svg862.46 Increase2.svg1061.42 Decrease2.svg1359.11 Increase2.svg1458.00 Increase2.svg1454.441347.82
Uttarakhand561.48Decrease2.svg561.48 Decrease2.svg            
West Bengal4281.76Decrease2.svg283.80 Increase2.svg381.72 Increase2.svg581.97 Decrease2.svg882.84 Decrease2.svg780.09 Decrease2.svg884.50978.73
Andaman and Nicobar Islands165.08Decrease2.svg165.08 Decrease2.svg            
Chandigarh170.62            170.62
Dadra and Nagar Haveli179.59Decrease2.svg    179.59 Decrease2.svg        
Daman and Diu171.83Decrease2.svg    171.83 Decrease2.svg        
Delhi760.51Decrease2.svg          760.51Decrease2.svg  
Lakshadweep184.96Decrease2.svg184.96 Decrease2.svg            
Puducherry181.21Decrease2.svg  181.21 Decrease2.svg          
Total54267.11 Increase2.svg9169.58 Increase2.svg9569.45 Decrease2.svg1161368.40Increase2.svg711365.50Increase2.svg501364.16 Increase2.svg5964.405961.71

Turnout

State/UT-wise voter turnout details

State/UTTotal electorsTotal votersTotal turnoutTotal seats
Andaman & Nicobar Islands (UT)318,471207,39865.12%1
Andhra Pradesh39,405,96731,674,52680.38%25
Arunachal Pradesh803,563659,76682.11%2
Assam22,050,05917,992,75381.60%14
Bihar71,216,29040,830,45357.33%40
Chandigarh (UT)646,729456,63770.61%1
Chhattisgarh19,016,46213,622,62571.64%11
Dadra & Nagar Haveli (UT)250,029198,98479.58%1
Daman & Diu (UT)121,74087,47371.85%1
Goa1,136,113853,72475.14%2
Gujarat45,152,37329,128,36464.51%26
Haryana18,057,01012,701,02970.34%10
Himachal Pradesh5,330,1543,859,94072.42%4
Jammu & Kashmir7,922,5383,562,74444.97%6
Jharkhand22,404,85614,966,78166.80%14
Karnataka51,094,53035,159,44868.81%28
Kerala26,204,83620,397,16877.84%20
Lakshadweep (UT)55,18947,02685.21%1
Madhya Pradesh51,867,47436,928,34271.20%29
Maharashtra88,676,94654,111,03861.02%48
Manipur1,959,5631,620,45182.69%2
Meghalaya1,914,7961,367,75971.43%2
Mizoram792,464500,34763.14%1
Nagaland1,213,7771,007,43783.00%1
NCT OF Delhi14,327,6498,682,36660.60%7
Odisha32,497,76223,817,16973.29%21
Puducherry (UT)973,410790,89581.25%1
Punjab20,892,67313,777,29565.94%13
Rajasthan48,95,581332,47,648166.34%25
Sikkim434,128353,41581.41%1
Tamil Nadu59,941,83243,419,75372.44%39
Telangana29,708,61518,646,85662.77%17
Tripura2,614,7182,154,55082.40%2
Uttar Pradesh146,134,60386,531,97259.21%80
Uttarakhand7,856,3184,861,41561.88%5
West Bengal70,001,28457,230,01881.76%42
India911,950,734614,684,39867.40%543

Opinion polls

Number of seats projected in opinion polls per alliance over time. Opinion polling for the 2019 Indian general election.svg
Number of seats projected in opinion polls per alliance over time.
Indian General Election Trends - 2019 IndianGeneralElectionTrend.jpg
Indian General Election Trends - 2019

Various organisations have carried out opinion polling to gauge voting intentions in India. Results of such polls are displayed in this list. The date range for these opinion polls is from the previous general election, held in April and May 2014, to the present day. The ECI banned the release of exit polls from 11 April to 19 May, the last phase of the elections. [140] The commission also banned the publication or broadcast in the media of predictions made by astrologers and tarot card readers. [141]

Poll typeDate publishedPolling agency Others MajorityRef
NDA UPA
Exit polls India Today -Axis352 ± 1393 ± 1582 ± 1370 ± 13 [142]
News24-Today's Chanakya 350 ± 1495 ± 997 ± 1168 ± 14 [143]
News18-IPSOS
CNN-IBN-IPSOS
3368212464 [144] [145]
VDP Associates3331159461 [146]
Sudarshan News 31312110941 [147]
Times Now-VMR306 ± 3132 ± 3104 ± 334 ± 3 [148]
Republic-Jan Ki Baat30512411333 [149]
Suvarna News 30512410233 [147]
India TV-CNX300 ± 10120 ± 5122 ± 628 ± 10 [150]
India News-Polstrat28712812715 [151]
Republic-CVoter 28712812715 [145]
News Nation 28612213414 [152]
ABP-CSDS 2771301355 [142]
NewsX-Neta242164137Hung [145]
Opinion polls8 April 2019Times Now-VMR2791491157 [153]
6 April 2019 India TV-CNX2751261423 [154]
1 Feb – 4 April 2019Jan Ki Baat31012211138 [155]
Mar 2019Times Now-VMR28313512511 [156]
Mar 2019 News Nation 270134139Hung [157]
Mar 2019Republic-CVoter264141138Hung [158]
Mar 2019India TV-CNX28512613213 [159]
Mar 2019 Zee 24 Taas 264165114Hung [160]
Feb 2019VDP Associates242148153Hung [161]
Jan 2019Times Now-VMR252147144Hung [162]
Jan 2019ABP News-CVoter233167143Hung [163]
Jan 2019India Today-Karvy 237166140Hung [164]
Jan 2019VDP Associates225167150Hung [165]
Dec 2018India Today257146140Hung [166]
Dec 2018ABP News-CVoter247171125Hung [167]
Dec 2018India TV-CNX2811241389 [168]
Nov 2018ABP News-CVoter261119163Hung [169]
Oct 2018ABP News2761121554 [170]
Aug 2018India Today-Karvy2811221409 [171]
May 2018ABP News-CSDS2741641052 [172]
Jan 2018Republic-CVoter3358911963 [173]
Jan 2018India Today30910213237 [174]

Results

A cartogram showing the popular vote in each constituency. India 2019 grid cartogram.png
A cartogram showing the popular vote in each constituency.

Seat share of parties in the election

   BJP (55.80%)
   INC (9.57%)
   DMK (4.41%)
   AITC (4.05%)
   YSRCP (4.05%)
   SS (3.31%)
   JD(U) (2.95%)
   BJD (2.21%)
   BSP (1.84%)
   TRS (1.66%)
  Other (10.15%)

Vote share of parties in the election

   BJP (37.36%)
   INC (19.49%)
   AITC (4.07%)
   BSP (3.63%)
   SP (2.55%)
   YSRCP (2.53%)
   DMK (2.26%)
   SS (2.10%)
   TDP (2.04%)
   CPI(M) (1.75%)
  Other (22.22%)
Lok Sabha Zusammensetzung 2019.svg
PartyVotes%Seats+/–
Bharatiya Janata Party 229,076,87937.36303+21
Indian National Congress 119,495,21419.4952+8
All India Trinamool Congress 24,929,3304.0722–12
Bahujan Samaj Party 22,246,5013.6310+10
Samajwadi Party 15,647,2062.5550
YSR Congress Party 15,537,0062.5322+13
Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam 13,877,9922.2623+23
Shiv Sena 12,858,9042.10180
Telugu Desam Party 12,515,3452.043–13
Communist Party of India (Marxist) 10,744,9081.753–6
Biju Janata Dal 10,174,0211.6612–8
Janata Dal (United) 8,926,6791.4616+14
Nationalist Congress Party 8,500,3311.395–1
All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam 7,830,1461.281–36
Telangana Rashtra Samithi 7,696,8481.269–2
Rashtriya Janata Dal 6,632,2471.080–4
Shiromani Akali Dal 3,778,5740.622–2
Vanchit Bahujan Aaghadi 3,743,5600.610New
Communist Party of India 3,576,1840.582+1
Janata Dal (Secular) 3,457,1070.561–1
Lok Jan Shakti Party 3,206,9790.5260
Aam Aadmi Party 2,716,6290.441–3
Pattali Makkal Katchi 2,297,4310.370–1
Jana Sena Party 1,915,1270.310New
Jharkhand Mukti Morcha 1,901,9760.311–1
Naam Tamilar Katchi 1,668,0790.270New
Makkal Needhi Maiam 1,613,7080.260New
Indian Union Muslim League 1,592,4670.263+1
Asom Gana Parishad 1,480,6970.2400
Rashtriya Lok Samta Party 1,462,5180.240–3
Rashtriya Lok Dal 1,447,3630.2400
All India United Democratic Front 1,402,0880.231–2
All India Majlis-E-Ittehadul Muslimeen 1,201,5420.202+1
Apna Dal (Sonelal) 1,039,4780.172New
Hindustani Awam Morcha (Secular) 956,5010.160New
Desiya Murpokku Dravida Kazhagam 929,5900.1500
Swabhimani Paksha 834,3800.140–1
Jharkhand Vikas Morcha (Prajatantrik) 750,7990.1200
Communist Party of India (Marxist–Leninist) Liberation 711,7150.1200
Revolutionary Socialist Party 709,6850.1210
Vikassheel Insaan Party 660,7060.110New
Rashtriya Loktantrik Party 660,0510.111New
All Jharkhand Students Union 648,2770.111+1
Jannayak Janta Party 619,9700.100New
Bharatiya Tribal Party 539,3190.090New
Viduthalai Chiruthaigal Katchi 507,6430.081+1
Nationalist Democratic Progressive Party 500,5100.081New
Bahujan Vikas Aaghadi 491,5960.0800
Lok Insaaf Party 469,7840.080New
Bodoland People's Front 446,7740.0700
National People's Party 425,9860.0710
Kerala Congress (M) 421,0460.0710
United People's Party Liberal 416,3050.070New
Bahujan Mukti Party 405,9490.0700
Socialist Unity Centre of India (Communist) 403,8350.0700
Ambedkarite Party of India 381,0700.0600
Bharath Dharma Jana Sena 380,8470.060New
Naga People's Front 363,5270.0610
Pragatishil Samajwadi Party (Lohia)344,5460.060New
All India Forward Bloc 322,5070.0500
Suheldev Bharatiya Samaj Party 313,9250.0500
Punjab Ekta Party 296,6200.050New
Maharashtra Swabhiman Paksha 281,5780.050New
Jammu & Kashmir National Conference 280,3560.053+3
United Democratic Party 267,2560.0400
All India N.R. Congress 247,9560.040–1
Indian National Lok Dal 240,2580.040–2
Mizo National Front 224,2860.041New
Tamil Maanila Congress 220,8490.040New
Gondwana Ganatantra Party 210,0880.0300
Jansatta Dal (Loktantrik) 203,3690.030New
Social Democratic Party of India 169,6800.0300
Sikkim Krantikari Morcha 166,9220.031+1
Nawan Punjab Party 161,6450.030New
Kerala Congress 155,1350.030New
Sikkim Democratic Front 154,4890.030–1
Peoples Party of India (Democratic)153,1030.020New
Jammu and Kashmir People's Conference 133,6120.0200
Hindusthan Nirman Dal122,9720.0200
Uttama Prajakeeya Party 120,8000.020New
Bhartiya Shakti Chetna Party105,9970.0200
Voters Party International105,9720.020New
587 other parties with fewer than 100,000 votes5,335,2220.870
Independents16,467,3412.694+1
None of the above6,513,3551.06
Vacant1
Appointed Anglo-Indians 2
Total613,146,768100.005450
Valid votes613,146,76899.92
Invalid/blank votes509,5300.08
Total votes613,656,298100.00
Registered voters/turnout910,512,09167.40
Source: ECI, ECI

Outgoing Cabinet Minister to lose in the election

Outgoing Ministers of State to lose in the election

Former Prime Minister to lose in the election

Former Chief Ministers to lose in the election

Aftermath

Reactions

National

Indian National Congress party leaders such as Rahul Gandhi and others conceded defeat and congratulated Modi and his party. [180] Other opposition parties and political leaders such as Sharad Pawar, [181] Mamata Banerjee and Omar Abdullah, [182] congratulated PM Modi and BJP for their victory.

On 20 November 2019 the Association for Democratic Reforms filed a petition with the Supreme Court of India over alleged ballot-counting discrepancies in the Lok Sabha voting and seeking a probe by the ECI. [183]

International

The leaders of Afghanistan, Argentina, Australia, Austria, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Botswana, Brazil, Bulgaria, Burundi, Canada, China, Comoros, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Estonia, France, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Iceland, Indonesia, Iran, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan Latvia, Lesotho, Lichtenstein, Luxembourg, Madagascar, Malaysia, Maldives, Malta, Mexico, Mongolia, Myanmar, Namibia, Nepal, Netherlands, Nicaragua, North Korea, Nigeria, New Zealand, Oman, Pakistan, Palestine, Portugal, Qatar, Russia, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Singapore, South Africa, South Korea, Sri Lanka, St. Vincent and the Grenadines, Switzerland, Tajikistan, Thailand, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Ukraine, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, United States, Uzbekistan, Venezuela, Vietnam, Zambia, and Zimbabwe congratulated Narendra Modi and the BJP on their victory. [184]

Government formation

Swearing-in ceremony

Narendra Modi, parliamentary leader of the Bharatiya Janata Party, started his tenure after his swearing-in as the 16th Prime Minister of India on 30 May 2019. Several other ministers were also sworn in along with Modi. The ceremony was noted by media for being the first ever swearing-in of an Indian Prime Minister to have been attended by the heads of all BIMSTEC countries.

Impact

The benchmark BSE Sensex and Nifty50 indices hit intraday record highs and the Indian rupee strengthened after the exit polls and on the day the election results were announced. [186]

Timeline

Electoral timelines are as below: [187]

March 2019

  • 10 March 2019: The Election Commission of India announced election scheduled to the 17th Lok Sabha . [187]
  • 18 March 2019: Issue of notification for the 1st poll day. [187]
  • 19 March 2019: Issue of notification for the 2nd poll day. [187]
  • 25 March 2019: Last date for filing nominations for the 1st poll day. [187]
  • 26 March 2019: Last date for filing nominations for the 2nd poll day. [187]
    • Scrutiny of nominations filed for the 1st poll day. [187]
  • 27 March 2019: Scrutiny of nominations filed for the 2nd poll day. [187]
  • 28 March 2019: Issue of notification for the 3rd poll day. [187]
    • Last day for withdrawal of candidature filed for the 1st poll day. [187]
  • 29 March 2019: Last day for withdrawal of candidature filed for the 2nd poll day. [187]

April 2019

  • 2 April 2019: Issue of notification for the 4th poll day. [187]
  • 3 April 2019: Indian National Congress released their manifesto titled Congress Will Deliver. [189]
  • 4 April 2019: Last date for filing nominations for the 3rd poll day. [187]
  • 5 April 2019: Scrutiny of nominations filed for the 3rd poll day. [187]
  • 8 April 2019: Bharatiya Janata Party released its manifesto titled Sankalpit Bharat, Sashakt Bharat. [190] [191]
    • Last day for withdrawal of candidature filed for the 3rd poll day. [187]
  • 9 April 2019: Last date for filing nominations for the 4th poll day. [187]
  • 10 April 2019: Issue of notification for the 5th poll day. [187]
    • Scrutiny of nominations filed for the 4th poll day. [187]
  • 11 April 2019: Polling held at 91 parliamentary constituencies spanning over 20 states for the first poll day. [187]
  • 12 April 2019: Last day for withdrawal of candidature filed for the 4th poll day. [187]
  • 16 April 2019: Issue of notification for the 6th poll day. [187]
  • 18 April 2019: Polling held at 95 parliamentary constituencies spanning over 13 states for the second poll day. [187] (Vellore constituency election cancelled due to illegal cash deposit from Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam candidate.)[ citation needed ]
    • Last date for filing nominations for the 5th poll day. [187]
  • 20 April 2019: Scrutiny of nominations filed for the 5th poll day. [187]
  • 22 April 2019: Issue of notification for the 7th poll day. [187]
    • Last day for withdrawal of candidature filed for the 5th poll day. [187]
  • 23 April 2019: Polling held at 117 parliamentary constituencies spanning over 14 states for the third poll day. [187]
    • Last date for filing nominations for the 6th poll day. [187]
  • 24 April 2019: Scrutiny of nominations filed for the 6th poll day. [187]
  • 26 April 2019: Last day for withdrawal of candidature filed for the 6th poll day. [187]
  • 29 April 2019: Polling held at 71 parliamentary constituencies spanning over 9 states for the fourth poll day. [187]
    • Last date for filing nominations for the 7th poll day. [187]
  • 30 April 2019: Scrutiny of nominations filed for the 7th poll day. [187]

May 2019

  • 2 May 2019: Last day for withdrawal of candidature filed for the 7th poll day. [187]
  • 6 May 2019: Polling held for 51 parliamentary constituencies in more than 7 states for the fifth polling day. [187]
  • 12 May 2019: Polling held for 59 parliamentary constituencies in more than 7 states the sixth polling day. [187]
  • 19 May 2019: Polling held at 59 parliamentary constituencies in more than 8 states the seventh polling day. [187]
  • 23 May 2019: Counting of votes and declaration of results for all polling days. [187]

See also

Notes

  1. Two seats are reserved for Anglo-Indians and filled through Presidential nomination, while the poll in one constituency was cancelled.
  2. In 9 states and union territories of India – such as Arunachal Pradesh, Kerala and Uttarakhand – more women turned out to vote than men in 2019. [7]
  3. 1 2 The unemployment data in India is not collected on a monthly or an annual basis, rather it is determined through a sample survey once every 5 years, with a few exceptions. The survey methodology is unlike those in major world economies, and sub-classifies unemployment into categories such as "usual status unemployment" and "current status unemployment" based on the answers given by the individuals interviewed. Its methodology and results have been questioned by various scholars. [46] [47] [48] The report and the refusal of the BJP government to release it has been criticised by economist Surjit Bhalla. [47] According to Bhalla, the survey methodology is flawed and its results absurd, because the sample survey-based report finds that India's overall population has declined since 2011–12 by 1.2 per cent (contrary to the Census data which states a 6.7 per cent increase). The report finds that India's percent urbanisation and urban workforce has declined since 2012, which is contrary to all other studies on Indian urbanisation trends, states Bhalla. [47] According to NSSO's report's data, "the Modi government has unleashed the most inclusive growth anywhere, and at any time in human history" – which is as unbelievable as the unemployment data it reports, states Bhalla. [47] The NSSO report suggests the inflation-adjusted employment income of casual workers has dramatically increased while those of the salaried wage-earners has fallen during the 5-years of BJP government. [47] The NSSO has also changed the sampling methodology in the latest round, state Bhalla and Avik Sarkar, [49] which is one of the likely sources of its flawed statistics and conclusions. [47]
  4. According to Chandra: in 2009 after the persistently dynastic Samajwadi party, the larger Biju Janata Dal ranked next, followed by the Congress party. In 2004 and 2014, Congress ranked second. [71]
  5. Stanley Kochanek in 1987 published about the "briefcase politics" tradition in Indian politics during the decades when the Congress party dominated Indian national politics. [109] Similarly, Rajeev Gowda and E Sridharan in 2012 have discussed the history of campaign financing laws in India and the role of black money in Indian elections. [110] Devesh Kapur and Milan Vaishnav discuss the rise of "briefcase" black money donations in India triggered by the 1969 campaign financing bans proposed and enacted by Indira Gandhi, and the campaign finance law reforms thereafter through 2017. They call the recent reforms as yielding "greater transparency than ever before, though limited". [111]
  6. Increase2.svg/Decrease2.svg indicate change from the 2014 elections.
  7. Polling in Anantnag was scheduled over three days.
  8. Tamil Nadu has 39 constituencies. Polling in Vellore was cancelled and later held on 5 August 2019.

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