2019 Pacific hurricane season

Last updated
2019 Pacific hurricane season
2019 Pacific hurricane season summary map.png
Season summary map
Seasonal boundaries
First system formedJune 25, 2019
Last system dissipatedNovember 18, 2019
Strongest storm
NameBarbara
  Maximum winds155 mph (250 km/h)
(1-minute sustained)
  Lowest pressure930 mbar (hPa; 27.46 inHg)
Seasonal statistics
Total depressions21
Total storms19
Hurricanes7
Major hurricanes
(Cat. 3+)
4
Total fatalities7 total
Total damage$16.1 million (2019 USD)
Related articles
Pacific hurricane seasons
2017, 2018, 2019, 2020, 2021

The 2019 Pacific hurricane season was a near average season which produced nineteen named storms, though most were rather weak and short-lived. Only seven hurricanes formed, the fewest since 2010. The season officially began on May 15 in the East Pacific Ocean, and on June 1 in the Central Pacific; they ended on November 30. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the Pacific basin. However, the formation of tropical cyclones is possible at any time of the year.

Contents

The season had a rather slow start, with no tropical cyclones forming in the basin during the month of May for the first time since 2016, and the first time that no storms formed before the month of June since 2011. The season became the latest-starting Pacific hurricane season on record since reliable records began in 1971 with the first tropical depression, which eventually became Hurricane Alvin, forming on June 25. [1] The strongest hurricane of the season, Barbara, formed on June 30 and peaked as a high-end Category 4 hurricane on July 3. August was extremely quiet with no hurricanes forming during the month, a first for a season since 1973. September was much more active with six systems developing, of which three became hurricanes. Activity decreased appreciably in October and November as most of the storms remained weak and short-lived.

Land impact was relatively minimal. The remnants of Barbara caused power outages in Hawaii in early July. Hurricanes Erick and Flossie both threatened Hawaii, but the systems weakened significantly before reaching the islands, both causing minimal effects. Tropical Storm Ivo and Hurricane Juliette both brought strong winds to Clarion Island. In late September, Hurricane Lorena made landfall in southwestern Mexico and Baja California Sur, and its remnant moisture entered the southwestern United States. Lorena was responsible for one death and damages worth $910,000. Tropical Storm Narda took a nearly identical track a week later, killing six and causing $15.2 million in damage. Overall, this season was drastically less active and destructive than the previous year, causing about $16.1 million in damages and seven fatalities.

Seasonal forecasts

RecordNamed
storms
HurricanesMajor
hurricanes
Ref
Average (1981–2010):15.47.63.2 [2]
Record high activity: 1992: 27 2015: 16 2015: 11 [3]
Record low activity: 2010: 8 2010: 3 2003: 0 [3]
DateSourceNamed
storms
HurricanesMajor
hurricanes
Ref
May 15, 2019 SMN 19116 [4]
May 23, 2019 NOAA 15–228–134–8 [5]
AreaNamed
storms
HurricanesMajor
hurricanes
Ref
Actual activity:EPAC1774
Actual activity:CPAC200
Actual activity:1974

On May 15, 2019, the Servicio Meteorológico Nacional (SMN) issued its first forecast for the season, predicting a total of 19 named storms, 11 hurricanes, and six major hurricanes to develop. [4] On May 23, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration released its annual forecast, predicting a 70% chance of a near- to above-average season in both the Eastern and Central Pacific basins, with a total of 15–22 named storms, 8–13 hurricanes, and 4–8 major hurricanes. [5] The reason for their outlook was the forecast of an El Niño to continue through the season, which reduces vertical wind shear across the basin and increases sea surface temperatures, favoring increased tropical cyclone activity. In addition, many global computer models expected a positive Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO), a phase of a multi-decade cycle that favored much warmer than average sea surface temperatures that had been ongoing since 2014 to continue, in contrast to the 1995–2013 period, which generally featured below-normal activity. [6]

Seasonal summary

Tropical Storm Narda (2019)Hurricane Lorena (2019)Saffir–Simpson scale2019 Pacific hurricane season
Three simultaneous tropical cyclones in the Eastern Pacific on September 20, Kiko (left), Mario (center) and Lorena (right) Kiko, Mario and Lorena 2019-09-20 1720Z.jpg
Three simultaneous tropical cyclones in the Eastern Pacific on September 20, Kiko (left), Mario (center) and Lorena (right)

The season officially began on May 15 in Eastern Pacific and on June 1 in Central Pacific; both ended on November 30. [7] Initial activity was slow, with the first tropical depression forming on June 25. The strongest storm of the season, hurricane Barbara, reached peak intensity on July 2 as a high-end category 4 hurricane. The season became more active in July, with five tropical cyclones forming, including two storms that intensified into hurricanes. Among them was Hurricane Erick, which reached Category 4 status on July 31. [8] This level of activity came to a halt in August, with only three named storms forming, none of which reached hurricane strength.

On the first day of September, Hurricane Juliette formed, becoming the third major hurricane of the season. [9] Moreover, tropical activity also began in the Central Pacific with the formation of Tropical Storm Akoni on September 3, which dissipated two days later. There were no tropical cyclones for five days until the formation of Hurricane Kiko on September 12 and the formation of Tropical Storm Mario and Hurricane Lorena five days later. In late September, Tropical Storm Narda became the sixth named storm to form during the month, tying the record for the most active September with the seasons of 1966, 1992, 1994, 1997 and 2005.

Three tropical storms formed in the month of October, the first one was Tropical Storm Ema which formed on October 12 in the Central Pacific, becoming the first such occurrence since 2016 in which more than one tropical cyclone was named in the basin. The second named storm of the month, Octave, formed on October 17 and dissipated two days later without threatening land. Priscilla formed on October 20 and later dissipated the next day while it brushed Western Mexico. In mid-November, Tropical Storm Raymond formed on November 15, just fifteen days before the season officially ended.

The Accumulated Cyclone Energy (ACE) index for the 2019 Pacific hurricane season was 83.56 units in the Eastern Pacific and 14.4275 units in the Central Pacific. The total ACE in the basin is 97.9875 units. [nb 1]

Systems

Hurricane Alvin

Category 1 hurricane (SSHWS)
Alvin 2019-06-27 2055Z.jpg   Alvin 2019 track.png
DurationJune 25 – June 29
Peak intensity75 mph (120 km/h) (1-min)  992  mbar  (hPa)

A tropical wave emerged off Africa's western coast on June 12, reaching the Caribbean Sea a week later and continuing across Central America. The wave spawned an area of low pressure on June 24, and this feature organized into the season's first tropical depression by 12:00 UTC on June 25 while located a few hundred miles south of Mexico. The depression initially struggled to organize, but it eventually intensified into Tropical Storm Alvin around 12:00 UTC on June 26. As a mid-level ridge steered the storm west, it began to organize in a more favorable environment. Very deep convection fired over its center, and Alvin became a minimal Category 1 hurricane by 00:00 UTC on August 28 as it developed a 10 mi (16 km) diameter eye. After attaining peak intensity, the system encountered cooler waters and increasing wind shear, causing it to weaken. Alvin became devoid of deep convection by 06:00 UTC on June 29, degenerating to a remnant low to the west-southwest of Baja California Sur at that time. The remnant low drifted west and dissipated around a day later. [10]

Hurricane Barbara

Category 4 hurricane (SSHWS)
Barbara 2019-07-02 2145Z.jpg   Barbara 2019 track.png
DurationJune 30 – July 5
Peak intensity155 mph (250 km/h) (1-min)  930  mbar  (hPa)

Less than a week after the wave that spawned Alvin, a new tropical wave moved off Africa on June 18. It remained disorganized while crossing the Atlantic, and it progressed into the eastern Pacific on June 26. The disturbance organized over the coming days and developed into Tropical Storm Barbara by 06:00 UTC on June 30, having already possessed gale-force winds at the time of formation. It moved quickly westward while struggling to intensify in an environment of wind shear and dry air. By July 1, however, more favorable environmental conditions allowed the storm to intensify. Barbara became a hurricane by 18:00 UTC on July 1 and began to rapidly intensify, ultimately reaching its peak at Category 4 intensity with winds of 155 mph (250 km/h) at 00:00 UTC on July 3. The storm maintained a 15 mi (24 km) diameter eye surrounded by an intense central dense overcast and numerous rainbands at that time. A turn toward the northwest brought the storm into cooler waters and drier air, with an increasingly rapid rate of weakening through July 5. Barbara degenerated to a remnant low by 00:00 UTC on July 6 after losing its deep convection. The low turned west and dissipated into a trough on July 8 to the east-southeast of Hawaii. [11]

Barbara's remnants passed 120 mi (190 km) south of Hawai'i on July 8, producing showers over the windward regions of the island and nearby Maui. [12] The storms generated by Barbara's remnants were cited by Hawaiian Electric Industries as the likely cause of power outages affecting 45,000 electricity customers. [13]

Tropical Storm Cosme

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Cosme 2019-07-06 1820Z.jpg   Cosme 2019 track.png
DurationJuly 6 – July 7
Peak intensity50 mph (85 km/h) (1-min)  1001  mbar  (hPa)

Another tropical wave moved off Africa on June 23 and crossed into the East Pacific on July 2. The favorable influence of a kelvin wave and the Madden-Julian Oscillation allowed the disturbance to organize, and it developed into Tropical Storm Cosme by 12:00 UTC on July 6. Anomalously strong high pressure aided in accelerating the storm's winds, and it attained a peak intensity of 50 mph (85 km/h) upon formation. Thereafter, cooler waters, dry air, and wind shear arrested Cosme's development, and the cyclone instead weakened while turning northwest. By 00:00 UTC on July 8, Cosme degenerated to a remnant low. The low later turned west before dissipating into a trough early on July 11. [14]

Tropical Depression Four-E

Tropical depression (SSHWS)
96E 2019-07-12 1740Z.jpg   04E 2019 track.png
DurationJuly 12 – July 13
Peak intensity35 mph (55 km/h) (1-min)  1006  mbar  (hPa)

The tropical wave that spawned Cosme was succeeded a weak later by another. It entered the East Pacific on July 8 but remained disorganized for several days while tracking west. The wave gave way to an area of low pressure on July 12, which then organized into a tropical depression only six hours later. The depression was located over very warm ocean temperatures but under the influence of moderate wind shear, preventing organization. By July 12, persistent upper-level winds began to shear away the cyclone's convection. It degenerated to a remnant low at 00:00 UTC on July 14 while located south-southwest of Baja California Sur. The low produced intermittent bursts of convection as it moved west-northwest but ultimately dissipated early on July 15. [15]

Tropical Storm Dalila

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Dalila 2019-07-23 2105Z.jpg   Dalila 2019 track.png
DurationJuly 22 – July 25
Peak intensity45 mph (75 km/h) (1-min)  1004  mbar  (hPa)

A tropical wave moved off Africa on July 8, showing some signs of organization until it reached the western Caribbean. It continued into the East Pacific and formed a tropical depression around 06:00 UTC on July 22. The cyclone remained disorganized for much of its duration, plagued by northerly wind shear and cooler waters. However, the formation of spiral bands allowed it to become Tropical Storm Dalila by 06:00 UTC on July 23; the storm attained peak winds of 45 mph (75 km/h) six hours later. It progressed over even cooler waters, causing Dalila to become a remnant low by 12:00 UTC on July 25. The low drifted west and dissipated the following day. [16]

Hurricane Erick

Category 4 hurricane (SSHWS)
Erick 2019-07-30 1900Z.jpg   Erick 2019 track.png
DurationJuly 27 – August 4
Peak intensity130 mph (215 km/h) (1-min)  952  mbar  (hPa)

Erick originated as a tropical wave that emerged off the coastline of Africa on July 12. It entered the eastern Pacific in late July, where convection blossomed in the presence of a very strong kelvin wave. Moderately wind shear slowed the formation process, but a tropical depression finally developed around 12:00 UTC on July 27 and organized into a tropical storm six hours later. Dry air and the elongation of its center likewise slowed organization shortly after development, but a center relocation placed the storm in a favorable environment. Erick intensified into a hurricane at 18:00 UTC on July 29 and began a period of rapid intensification, intensifying 60 mph (85 km/h) in just 24 hours as it crossed into the central Pacific basin. This bout of strengthening brought Erick to its peak as a Category 4 hurricane with winds of 130 mph (215 km/h) around 18:00 UTC on July 30. The cyclone subsequently weakened while passing south of Hawaii, degenerating to a remnant low by 00:00 UTC on August 5 and dissipating later that day. [17]

Hurricane Flossie

Category 1 hurricane (SSHWS)
Flossie 2019-07-30 2200Z.jpg   Flossie 2019 track.png
DurationJuly 28 – August 5
Peak intensity80 mph (130 km/h) (1-min)  987  mbar  (hPa)

A tropical wave moved off Africa on July 16 and crossed into the East Pacific eight days later. The disturbance coalesced while positioned south of Mexico, organizing into a tropical depression by 12:00 UTC on July 28. It slowly intensified while moving rapidly west-northwest, becoming Tropical Storm Flossie early on July 29 and a hurricane later the next day. After attaining peak winds of 80 mph (130 km/h), the storm weakened amid increasing westerly wind shear. These unfavorable upper-level winds abated on August 1, causing Flossie to fluctuate in intensity for the next day. By August 3, however, the storm embarked on a gradual weakening trend. It degenerated to a remnant low to the north of Hawaii at 00:00 UTC on August 6. The low turned north-northwest and dissipated the next morning. [18]

Tropical Storm Gil

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Gil 2019-08-03 1845Z.jpg   Gil 2019 track.png
DurationAugust 3 – August 4
Peak intensity40 mph (65 km/h) (1-min)  1006  mbar  (hPa)

On July 28, an area of disturbed weather that could not reliably be traced over the Atlantic was noted over Central America. A broad area of low pressure formed on the final day of July and moved west-northwest, gaining enough organization to be declared a tropical depression around 06:00 UTC on August 3. The depression turned northwest after formation tracked through an unfavorable wind shear environment. Despite this, it intensified into Tropical Storm Gil around 18:00 UTC on August 3, with the center located on the western edge of associated thunderstorm activity. Gil failed to intensify beyond minimal tropical storm intensity, instead losing its bursting convective pattern as the storm encountered dry air. Gil degenerated to a remnant low around 00:00 UTC on August 5 well to the west-southwest of Baja California Sur. It dissipated the next morning. [19]

Tropical Storm Henriette

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Henriette 2019-08-12 2120Z.jpg   Henriette 2019 track.png
DurationAugust 12 – August 13
Peak intensity45 mph (75 km/h) (1-min)  1003  mbar  (hPa)

A vigorous tropical wave crossed the coastline of Africa on July 28 and moved west across the Atlantic. The wave nearly organized into a tropical depression over the eastern Caribbean Sea but soon lost organization, instead crossing into the East Pacific on August 9. Subsequent interaction with a monsoon trough led to the formation of an area of low pressure, which continued on to become a tropical depression around 00:00 UTC on August 12 to the south of Baja California Sur. Increasing thunderstorm activity led to the designation of Tropical Storm Henriette six hours later. Henriette attained peak winds of 45 mph (75 km/h) before the combination of cooler waters and dry air caused weakening. It degenerated to a remnant low around 12:00 UTC on August 13 and dissipated two days later. [20]

Tropical Storm Ivo

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Ivo 2019-08-22 2120Z.jpg   Ivo 2019 track.png
DurationAugust 21 – August 25
Peak intensity70 mph (110 km/h) (1-min)  990  mbar  (hPa)

Two tropical waves crossed the Atlantic in short succession. The leading tropical wave spawned an area of low pressure over the eastern Pacific on August 6, while the second wave enhanced convection. The disturbance gradually developed into a tropical depression by 06:00 UTC on August 21; it intensified into Tropical Storm Ivo six hours later. Favorable atmospheric conditions allowed Ivo to intensify over subsequent days, and it reached a peak intensity of 70 mph (110 km/h) early on August 22 as a mid-level eye became evident on microwave imagery. Although increasing wind shear caused it to slowly weaken, Ivo passed close to Clarion Island early on August 23, producing sustained winds of 61 mph (98 km/h) and gusts to 76 mph (122 km/h). The storm continued to weaken as it entered cooler waters. It degenerated to a remnant low around 06:00 UTC on August 25. The low meandered for a while before dissipating early on August 27 to the west of Baja California Sur. [21]

Hurricane Juliette

Category 3 hurricane (SSHWS)
Juliette 2019-09-03 1800Z.jpg   Juliette 2019 track.png
DurationSeptember 1 – September 7
Peak intensity125 mph (205 km/h) (1-min)  953  mbar  (hPa)

On August 18, a tropical wave moved off Africa. It inconspicuously crossed the Atlantic and emerged into the East Pacific on August 27. A broad area of low pressure formed in association with increased convective activity, leading to the formation of Tropical Storm Juliette by 00:00 UTC on September 1. The newly-formed storm quickly organized amid favorable conditions, becoming a hurricane by 12:00 UTC on September 2 and entering a period of rapid intensification. Within a day, Juliette attained its peak at Category 3 intensity with winds of 125 mph (205 km/h). Beyond that time, the cyclone's eyewall collapsed and caused a persistent weakening trend. Juliette degenerated to a remnant low 06:00 UTC on September 7 to the west of Baja California Sur. The low drifted west and dissipated early on September 9. [22]

Tropical Storm Akoni

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Akoni 2019-09-05 2306Z.jpg   Akoni 2019 track.png
DurationSeptember 4 – September 6
Peak intensity45 mph (75 km/h) (1-min)  1003  mbar  (hPa)

Early on September 4, the NHC began to track a quickly-developing area of low pressure about 1,100 mi (1,770 km) east-southeast of the Big Island of Hawaii. [23] Just a few hours later, following a sudden increase in convection, the system organized into Tropical Depression Twelve-E and moved into the Central Pacific basin. [24] It slowly intensified and eventually reached tropical storm status, whereupon it was named Akoni. [25] The system struggled to organize because of high wind shear and quickly degenerated into a remnant low on September 6. [26]

Akoni is one of only seven tropical cyclones to form as a depression in the Eastern Pacific and be given a name in the Central Pacific.

Hurricane Kiko

Category 4 hurricane (SSHWS)
Kiko 2019-09-15 2130Z.jpg   Kiko 2019 track.png
DurationSeptember 12 – September 24
Peak intensity130 mph (215 km/h) (1-min)  950  mbar  (hPa)

The final major hurricane of the season originated as a tropical wave that moved off Africa on August 27. It crossed into the East Pacific on September 7, where it spawned a tropical depression by 06:00 UTC on September 12. The depression intensified into Tropical Storm Kiko twelve hours later but struggled to organize further as it underwent multiple center reformations. Beginning at 00:00 UTC on September 14, however, Kiko entered a period of rapid intensification that brought the storm to its peak as a Category 4 hurricane with winds of 130 mph (215 km/h) a little over a day later. It displayed a prominent spiral band wrapping into a symmetric central dense overcast and large eye at that time. After reaching peak intensity, Kiko fluctuated in intensity due to varying atmospheric conditions while tracing a sinusoidal across the Pacific. The storm finally lost its deep convection on September 24 and degenerated to a remnant low by 18:00 UTC as a result. The low turned west and dissipated on September 27. [27]

Hurricane Lorena

Category 1 hurricane (SSHWS)
Lorena 2019-09-20 2010Z.jpg   Lorena 2019 track.png
DurationSeptember 17 – September 22
Peak intensity85 mph (140 km/h) (1-min)  985  mbar  (hPa)

A large tropical wave departed Africa on September 4 and entered the East Pacific by September 16. The disturbance quickly organized upon emerging over water, and it became Tropical Storm Lorena at 06:00 UTC on September 17 while moving northwest. Lorena became a hurricane on September 19 while passing very close to the coastline of Jalisco and made landfall near Chatmela-Cuixmala with winds of 75 mph (120 km/h) six hours later. Lorena weakened as it emerged back offshore, but it became a hurricane a second time and reached peak winds of 85 mph (140 km/h) late on September 20 as an eye cleared on satellite. The storm struck Baja California Sur near La Ventana at a slightly reduced strength at 03:00 UTC on September 21. Lorena weakened thereafter as it curved north, degenerating to a remnant low as it reached the coastline of mainland Mexico around 12:00 UTC on September 22 and dissipating six hours later. [28]

Tropical Storm Mario

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Mario 2019-09-18 2042Z.jpg   Mario 2019 track.png
DurationSeptember 17 – September 22
Peak intensity70 mph (110 km/h) (1-min)  991  mbar  (hPa)

A tropical wave, the same that spawned Tropical Storm Gabrielle in the Atlantic, left Africa on August 30 and progressed into the eastern Pacific on September 13. The wave led to the formation of a tropical depression around 12:00 UTC on September 17 and Tropical Storm Mario twelve hours later. Although Mario was located in close proximity to strengthening Tropical Storm Lorena, and experienced shear from that storm's outflow accordingly, it still intensified to a peak of 70 mph (110 km/h) late on September 18 while weaving its way north across the Pacific. Shortly thereafter, upper-level winds increased further and caused a weakening trend that caused the system to degenerate to a remnant low by 00:00 UTC on September 23. The low moved parallel to the Baja California Sur before turning east and dissipating just west of the landmass late on September 24. [29]

Tropical Storm Narda

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Narda 2019-09-30 1740Z.jpg   Narda 2019 track.png
DurationSeptember 29 – October 1
Peak intensity50 mph (85 km/h) (1-min)  997  mbar  (hPa)

The deadliest tropical cyclone of the season originated as a tropical wave that left Africa on September 15. The wave entered the eastern Pacific on September 26, where it became embedded within the Intertropical Convergence Zone and organized. Tropical Storm Narda developed around 00:00 UTC on September 29 as a result. The nascent cyclone moved quickly northwest and made landfall northeast of Lázaro Cárdenas, Michoacán, at 14:00 UTC on September 29; it harbored winds of 45 mph (75 km/h) then. Mountainous terrain slightly weakened Narda as it crossed over land, but its large circulation and outside orographic effects aided in the maintenance of tropical storm-force winds. The storm immediately re-intensified once over water and attained peak winds of 50 mph (85 km/h) while developing a mid-level eye feature. Narda made a second landfall near Las Glorias around 00:00 UTC on October 1 at peak strength. It rapidly weakened after moving inland and dissipated six hours later over southern Sonora. [30]

Narda brought heavy rains and triggered flooding in southwestern Mexico. Two people were killed in Oaxaca, one in Colima, and one in Guerrero. [31] [32]

Tropical Storm Ema

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Ema 2019-10-12 2125Z.jpg   Ema 2019 track.png
DurationOctober 12 – October 14
Peak intensity50 mph (85 km/h) (1-min)  1003  mbar  (hPa)

An area of low pressure developed a few hundred miles to the west of Hawaii on October 12. The system was assessed as having a low chance of development by the Central Pacific Hurricane Center; however, the system quickly organised later the same day. Gale-force winds soon developed, and consequently the CPHC upgraded the system to a tropical storm at 15:00 UTC, naming it Ema. [33] Ema's existence was short-lived, however, as the storm weakened due to strong wind shear, and degenerated to a remnant low on October 14. [34]

Tropical Storm Octave

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Octave 2019-10-17 2130Z.jpg   Octave 2019 track.png
DurationOctober 17 – October 19
Peak intensity45 mph (75 km/h) (1-min)  1006  mbar  (hPa)

An area of low pressure materialized within the monsoon trough across the eastern Pacific on October 15. The low drifted west-southwest and organized into a tropical depression around 12:00 UTC on October 17 before further intensifying into Tropical Storm Octave twelve hours later. The small storm attained peak winds of 45 mph (75 km/h) within a small central dense overcast before it drifted northward into an environment of dry air that prompted weakening. Octave degenerated to a remnant low around 18:00 UTC on October 19 as it curved east-northeast and later south-southwest. The remnant low dissipated two days later in the vicinity of where it first developed. [35]

Tropical Storm Priscilla

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Priscilla 2019-10-20 2025Z.jpg   Priscilla 2019 track.png
DurationOctober 20 – October 21
Peak intensity45 mph (75 km/h) (1-min)  1003  mbar  (hPa)

Another tropical wave moved off Africa on October 3 and fractured over the Caribbean Sea, with the northern portion spawning Tropical Storm Nestor in the Atlantic. The southern portion continued into the eastern Pacific, leading to the formation of a tropical depression around 00:00 UTC on October 20. It intensified into Tropical Storm Priscilla six hours later while turning north. Having spent little time over water, and affected by moderate easterly wind shear, Priscilla quickly moved into the coastline near Cuyutlán, Colima, at 19:30 UTC on October 20 as a minimal tropical storm. The cyclone weakened quickly once inland and dissipated by 06:00 UTC on October 21 over the rugged terrain of southwestern Mexico. [36]

Priscilla and its precursor disturbance over Mexico caused heavy flooding and mudslides in and around areas near Manzanillo. [37]

Tropical Storm Raymond

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Raymond 2019-11-15 2010Z.jpg   Raymond 2019 track.png
DurationNovember 14 – November 17
Peak intensity50 mph (85 km/h) (1-min)  1001  mbar  (hPa)

Yet another tropical wave left Africa on October 27. This feature entered the East Pacific on November 6, where it was enhanced by an ongoing Gulf of Tehuantepec gap wind event and an eastward-moving kelvin wave. The wave spawned a tropical depression by 12:00 UTC on November 14. It moved north and north-northwest while remaining largely disorganized in the presence of moderate northwesterly wind shear. By 06:00 UTC on November 15, the depression intensified into Tropical Storm Raymond. It attained peak winds of 50 mph (85 km/h) later that day before encountering increased wind shear from the southwest. Raymond slowly decayed and dissipated after 00:00 UTC on November 18 to the south of Baja California Sur. [38]

The remnants of the storm brought heavy rain to Southern California and Arizona, leaving over 13 million people under flash flood watch, and alleviating unusually dry conditions, bringing the first significant rainfall to Southern California since May. [39] The system also brought heavy snow to higher elevation areas. [40]

Tropical Depression Twenty-One-E

Tropical depression (SSHWS)
21E 2019-11-17 1745Z.jpg   21E 2019 track.png
DurationNovember 16 – November 18
Peak intensity35 mph (55 km/h) (1-min)  1006  mbar  (hPa)

On November 2, a late-season tropical wave moved off the west coast of Africa. The wave entered the eastern Pacific on November 12 and spawned an area of low pressure the next day. A strong gap wind event kept the system disorganized as it passed south of the Gulf of Tehuantepec. Afterwards, deep convection began to develop closer to the center of the low, and the low's circulation became more apparent. This resulted in the formation of the season's final tropical depression around 00:00 UTC on November 16. Multiple center reformations and intrusions of dry air arrested development despite another favorable environment. This resulted in weakening, and the depression dissipated after 12:00 UTC on November 18. [41]

Other systems

Potential Tropical Cyclone Seventeen-E on October 15 98E 2019-10-15 1950Z.jpg
Potential Tropical Cyclone Seventeen-E on October 15

A tropical wave entered the eastern Pacific by October 14, where it spawned a broad area of low pressure. The disturbance became better defined over the coming days, prompting the NHC to initiate advisories on a potential tropical cyclone at 03:00 UTC on October 16 and facilitate tropical storm watches along the coastline of Mexico. The disturbance soon became poorly organized as its convection dwindled and its center became less defined. The system moved inland between Bahias de Huatulco and Salina Cruz in the Mexican state of Oaxaca without ever having formed into a tropical cyclone. [42] Gusty winds and heavy rain affected parts of El Salvador, causing significant damage. Four people died in storm-related incidents: three from flooding and one from a fallen tree. [43] Eighty families required evacuation in Cangrejera. [44]

Storm names

The following names were used for named storms that form in the northeastern Pacific Ocean during 2019. Retired names, if any, will be announced by the World Meteorological Organization in the spring of 2021 (concurrently with any names to be retired from the subsequent 2020 season). Originally, the retired names were supposed to be announced in the spring of 2020, but it was cancelled due to the COVID-19 pandemic. The names not retired from this list will be used again in the 2025 season. [45] This was the same list used in the 2013 season, with the exception of the name Mario, which replaced Manuel. The name Mario was used for the first time this year.

  • Alvin
  • Barbara
  • Cosme
  • Dalila
  • Erick
  • Flossie
  • Gil
  • Henriette
  • Raymond
  • Sonia (unused)
  • Tico (unused)
  • Velma (unused)
  • Wallis (unused)
  • Xina (unused)
  • York (unused)
  • Zelda (unused)

For storms that form in the Central Pacific Hurricane Center's area of responsibility, encompassing the area between 140 degrees west and the International Date Line, all names are used in a series of four rotating lists. [46] The next four names that were slated for use in 2019 are shown below, though only two of them were used during the season.

  • Akoni
  • Ema
  • Hone (unused)
  • Iona (unused)

Season effects

This is a table of all the storms that have formed in the 2019 Pacific hurricane season. It includes their duration, names, affected areas, damages, and death totals. Deaths in parentheses are additional and indirect (an example of an indirect death would be a traffic accident), but were still related to that storm. Damage and deaths include totals while the storm was extratropical, a tropical wave, or a low, and all the damage figures are in USD. Potential tropical cyclones are not included in this table.

Saffir–Simpson scale
TDTSC1C2C3C4C5
2019 Pacific hurricane season statistics
Storm
name
Dates activeStorm category

at peak intensity

Max 1-min
wind
mph (km/h)
Min.
press.
(mbar)
Areas affectedDamage
(USD)
DeathsRefs
AlvinJune 25 – 29Category 1 hurricane75 (120)992Western MexicoNoneNone
BarbaraJune 30 – July 5Category 4 hurricane155 (250)930 Clipperton Island, Hawaii, Johnston Atoll MinimalNone
CosmeJuly 6 – 7Tropical storm50 (85)1001NoneNoneNone
Four-EJuly 12 – 13Tropical depression35 (55)1006NoneNoneNone
DalilaJuly 22 – 25Tropical storm45 (75)1004NoneNoneNone
ErickJuly 27 – August 4Category 4 hurricane130 (215)952HawaiiNoneNone
FlossieJuly 28 – August 5Category 1 hurricane80 (130)987HawaiiNoneNone
GilAugust 3 – 4Tropical storm40 (65)1006NoneNoneNone
HenrietteAugust 12 – 13Tropical storm45 (75)1003NoneNoneNone
IvoAugust 21 – 25Tropical storm70 (110)990 Clarion Island NoneNone
JulietteSeptember 1 – 7Category 3 hurricane125 (205)953Southwest Mexico, Revillagigedo Islands, Baja California Peninsula NoneNone
AkoniSeptember 4 – 6Tropical storm45 (75)1003NoneNoneNone
KikoSeptember 12 – 24Category 4 hurricane130 (215)950NoneNoneNone
Lorena September 17 – 22Category 1 hurricane85 (140)985 Sonora, Sinaloa, Jalisco, Colima, Michoacán, Baja California Peninsula $910,0001 [47]
MarioSeptember 17 – 22Tropical storm70 (110)991Revillagigedo Islands, Baja California Peninsula NoneNone
Narda September 29 – October 1Tropical storm50 (85)997Western Mexico, Baja California Peninsula$15.2 million6 [31] [48] [49]
EmaOctober 12 – 14Tropical storm50 (85)1003Hawaiian Islands, Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument NoneNone
OctaveOctober 17 – 19Tropical storm45 (75)1006NoneNoneNone
PriscillaOctober 20 – 21Tropical storm45 (75)1003Western MexicoUnknownNone
RaymondNovember 14 – 17Tropical storm50 (85)1001 Revillagigedo Islands, Baja California Peninsula UnknownNone
Twenty-One-ENovember 16 – 18Tropical depression35 (55)1006Southwest MexicoUnknownNone
Season aggregates
21 systemsJune 25 – November 18 155 (250)930$16.1 million7 

See also

Notes

  1. The totals represent the sum of the squares for every tropical storm's intensity of over 33 knots (38 mph, 61 km/h), divided by 10,000. Calculations are provided at Talk:2019 Pacific hurricane season/ACE calcs.

Related Research Articles

2004 Pacific hurricane season Period of formation of tropical cyclones in the Eastern Pacific Ocean in 2004

The 2004 Pacific hurricane season was notable in that no tropical cyclone of at least tropical storm intensity moved ashore, an unusual occurrence. The season officially began on May 15 in the eastern Pacific, and on June 1 in the central Pacific; it officially ended in both basins on November 30. These dates conventionally delimit the period during each year when a majority of tropical cyclones form. Activity throughout the year fell slightly below the long-term average, with 12 named storms, 6 hurricanes, and 3 major hurricanes. The season was reflected by an Accumulated Cyclone Energy (ACE) index of 71 units.

2005 Pacific hurricane season Period of formation of tropical cyclones in the Eastern Pacific Ocean in 2005

The 2005 Pacific hurricane season continued the trend of generally below-average activity that began a decade prior. The season officially began on May 15 in the eastern Pacific, and on June 1 in the central Pacific; it lasted until November 30 in both basins. These dates conventionally delimit the period during each year when most tropical cyclones form in the northeastern Pacific Ocean. Activity began with the formation of Hurricane Adrian, the fourth-earliest-forming tropical storm on record in the basin at the time. Adrian led to flash flooding and several landslides across Central America, resulting in five deaths and $12 million in damage. Tropical storms Calvin and Dora caused minor damage along the coastline, while Tropical Storm Eugene led to one death in Acapulco. In early October, Otis produced tropical storm-force winds and minor flooding across the Baja California peninsula. The remnants of Tropical Depression One-C in the central Pacific, meanwhile, caused minor impacts in Hawaii. The strongest storm of the season was Hurricane Kenneth, which attained peak winds of 130 mph (215 km/h) over the open Pacific. Cooler than average ocean temperatures throughout the year aided in below-average activity through the course of the season, which ended with 15 named storms, 7 hurricanes, 2 major hurricanes, and an Accumulated cyclone energy index of 75 units.

2002 Pacific hurricane season Period of formation of tropical cyclones in the Eastern Pacific Ocean in 2002

The 2002 Pacific hurricane season was a slightly above average Pacific hurricane season that saw three tropical cyclones reach Category 5 intensity on the Saffir–Simpson scale, tied for the most in a season with 1994 and 2018. The strongest storm this year was Hurricane Kenna, which reached Category 5 on the Saffir–Simpson scale. It made landfall near Puerto Vallarta, located in the Mexican state of Jalisco, on October 25. Elsewhere, Tropical Storm Julio made landfall in Mexico, and Tropical Storm Boris dumped torrential rain along the Mexican coast, despite remaining offshore.

2001 Pacific hurricane season Period of formation of tropical cyclones in the Eastern Pacific Ocean in 2001

The 2001 Pacific hurricane season was a near average season. The most notable storm that year was Hurricane Juliette, which caused devastating floods in Baja, California, leading to 12 fatalities and $400 million worth of damage. Two other storms were notable in their own rights, Hurricane Adolph became the strongest May Hurricane until 2014 when both records set by Adolph and Juliette were broken by Hurricanes Amanda and Odile. Tropical Storm Barbara passed just north of Hawaii, bringing minimal impact. The season officially began on May 15, 2001 in the eastern Pacific, and on June 1, 2001 in the central Pacific, and lasted until November 30, 2001. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in this part of the Pacific Ocean. The first storm developed on May 25, while the last storm dissipated on November 3.

1999 Pacific hurricane season Period of formation of tropical cyclones in the Eastern Pacific Ocean in 1999

The 1999 Pacific hurricane season was one of the least active Pacific hurricane seasons on record. The season officially began on May 15 in the Eastern Pacific, and on June 1 in the Central Pacific; in both basins, it ended on November 30. These dates conventionally delimit the period during which most tropical cyclones form in the northeastern Pacific Ocean. The first tropical cyclone of the season, Hurricane Adrian, developed on June 18, while the final storm of the season, Tropical Storm Irwin, dissipated on October 11. No storms developed in the Central Pacific during the season. However, two storms from the Eastern Pacific, Dora and Eugene, entered the basin, with the former entering as a hurricane.

1993 Pacific hurricane season Period of formation of tropical cyclones in the Eastern Pacific Ocean in 1993

The 1993 Pacific hurricane season was a slightly above-average Pacific hurricane season with seven named storms directly impacting land. The season officially started on May 15 in the eastern Pacific, and on June 1 in the central Pacific, and ended on November 30; these dates conventionally delimit the period during which most tropical cyclones form in the northeastern Pacific Ocean. The first tropical cyclone developed on June 11, over a month after the traditional start of the season. The final named storm of the season, Tropical Storm Norma, dissipated on October 14. The Central Pacific Ocean saw very little tropical activity, with only one cyclone, Hurricane Keoni, developing in that particular region. However, many storms out of the season crossed the threshold into the Central Pacific, many as hurricanes, and even major hurricanes.

1989 Pacific hurricane season Period of formation of tropical cyclones in the Eastern Pacific Ocean in 1989

The 1989 Pacific hurricane season officially started on May 15, 1989, in the eastern Pacific, and June 1, 1989, in the central Pacific, and lasted until November 30, 1989. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the northeastern Pacific Ocean. A total of 17 storms and 9 hurricanes formed, which was near long-term averages. Four hurricanes reached major hurricane status on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale.

2007 Pacific hurricane season Period of formation of tropical cyclones in the Eastern Pacific Ocean in 2007

The 2007 Pacific hurricane season was a below-average Pacific hurricane season, featuring one major hurricane. The season officially started on May 15 in the eastern Pacific and on June 1 in the central Pacific, and ended on November 30; these dates conventionally delimit the period during which most tropical cyclones form in the region. The first tropical cyclone of the season, Alvin, developed on May 27, while the final system of the year, Kiko, dissipated on October 23. Due to unusually strong wind shear, activity fell short of the long-term average, with a total of 11 named storms, 4 hurricanes, and 1 major hurricane. At the time, 2007 featured the second-lowest value of the Accumulated cyclone energy (ACE) index since reliable records began in 1971. Two tropical cyclones – Cosme and Flossie – crossed into the central Pacific basin during the year, activity below the average of 4 to 5 systems.

2008 Pacific hurricane season Period of formation of tropical cyclones in the Eastern Pacific Ocean in 2008

The 2008 Pacific hurricane season was a near average hurricane season. It officially started May 15, 2008 in the eastern Pacific, started on June 1, 2008 in the central Pacific, and lasted until November 30, 2008. This season is the first since 1996 to have no cyclones cross into the central Pacific. Activity this year was near average, with 16 storms forming in the Eastern Pacific proper and an additional 1 in the Central Pacific. There were 7 hurricanes, a low number compared to the typical 9, and only 2 major hurricanes, unlike the typical 5. There were only a few notable storms this year. Tropical Storm Alma made landfall along the Pacific coast of Nicaragua, becoming the first known storm to do so. It killed 9 and did US$35 million in damage. It also became the first tropical storm to be retired in the Eastern Pacific basin. Hurricane Norbert became the strongest hurricane to hit the western side of the Baja Peninsula on record, killing 25.

2012 Pacific hurricane season Period of formation of tropical cyclones in the Eastern Pacific Ocean in 2012

The 2012 Pacific hurricane season was a moderately active Pacific hurricane season that saw an unusually high number of tropical cyclones pass west of the Baja California Peninsula. The season officially started on May 15 in the eastern Pacific, and on June 1 in the central Pacific, and ended on November 30; these dates conventionally delimit the period during which most tropical cyclones form in the northeastern Pacific Ocean. However, with the formation of Tropical Storm Aletta on May 14 the season slightly exceeded these bounds.

2006 Pacific hurricane season Summary of the relevant tropical storms

The 2006 Pacific hurricane season was the most active since 2000, producing 19 tropical storms or hurricanes. Eighteen developed within the National Hurricane Center (NHC) area of warning responsibility, which is east of 140°W, and one storm formed between 140°W and the International Date Line, which is under the jurisdiction of the Central Pacific Hurricane Center (CPHC). Of the 19 total storms, eleven became hurricanes, of which six attained major hurricane status. Within the NHC portion of the basin, the season officially began on May 15, and in the CPHC portion, it started on June 1; the season officially ended on November 30. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the eastern Pacific basin.

2009 Pacific hurricane season Period of formation of tropical cyclones in the Eastern Pacific Ocean in 2009

The 2009 Pacific hurricane season was the most active Pacific hurricane season since 1994. The season officially started on May 15 in the East Pacific Ocean, and on June 1 in the Central Pacific; they both ended on November 30. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the Pacific basin. However, the formation of tropical cyclones is possible at any time of the year.

2013 Pacific hurricane season Period of formation of tropical cyclones in the Eastern Pacific Ocean in 2013

The 2013 Pacific hurricane season was the costliest Pacific hurricane season on record, with a total of about $4.56 billion in damages, most of which was attributed to Hurricane Manuel of that year. The season was also the first to see twenty named storms since 2009, although many of the storms were weak. The season officially began on May 15, 2013 in the Eastern Pacific and started on June 1, 2013 in the Central Pacific. Both ended on November 30, 2013. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the eastern Pacific basin. However, the formation of a storm is possible at any time.

2014 Pacific hurricane season Period of formation of tropical cyclones in the Eastern Pacific Ocean in 2014

The 2014 Pacific hurricane season was the fifth-busiest season since reliable records began in 1949, alongside the 2016 season. The season officially started on May 15 in the East Pacific Ocean, and on June 1 in the Central Pacific; they both ended on November 30. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the Pacific basin.

2015 Pacific hurricane season Second-most active Pacific hurricane season, Period of formation of tropical cyclones in the Eastern Pacific Ocean in 2015

The 2015 Pacific hurricane season is the second-most active Pacific hurricane season on record, with 26 named storms, only behind the 1992 season. A record-tying 16 of those storms became hurricanes, and a record 11 storms further intensified into major hurricanes throughout the season. The Central Pacific, the portion of the Northeast Pacific Ocean between the International Date Line and the 140th meridian west, had its most active year on record, with 16 tropical cyclones forming in or entering the basin. Moreover, the season was the third-most active season in terms of accumulated cyclone energy, amassing a total of 287 units. The season officially started on May 15 in the Eastern Pacific and on June 1 in the Central Pacific; they both ended on November 30. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the Northeast Pacific basin. However, the formation of tropical cyclones is possible at any time of the year. This was shown when a tropical depression formed on December 31. The above-average activity during the season was attributed in part to the very strong 2014–16 El Niño event.

2016 Pacific hurricane season Period of formation of tropical cyclones in the Eastern Pacific Ocean in 2016

The 2016 Pacific hurricane season was tied as the fifth-most active season on record, alongside the 2014 season. Throughout the course of the year, a total of 22 named storms, 13 hurricanes and six major hurricanes were observed within the basin. Although the season was very active, it was considerably less active than the previous season, with large gaps of inactivity at the beginning and towards the end of the season. It officially started on May 15 in the eastern Pacific, and on June 1 in the central Pacific; they both ended on November 30. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the Pacific basin. However, as illustrated by Hurricane Pali, which became the earliest Central Pacific tropical cyclone on record, the formation of tropical cyclones is possible at any time of the year. After Pali, however, the active season had a slow start, becoming the first season since 2011 in which no tropical cyclones occurred in May, and also the first since 2007 in which no named storms formed in the month of June.

2017 Pacific hurricane season Period of formation of tropical cyclones in the Eastern Pacific Ocean in 2017

The 2017 Pacific hurricane season was significantly less active than the previous three Pacific hurricane seasons, featuring eighteen named storms, nine hurricanes, and four major hurricanes. Despite the considerable amount of activity, most of the storms were weak and short-lived. The season officially started on May 15 in the eastern Pacific, and on June 1 in the central Pacific; they both ended on November 30. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the basin. However, the formation of tropical cyclones is possible at any time of the year. This was demonstrated when the first storm, Tropical Storm Adrian, was named on May 10, and became the earliest-known tropical storm in the East Pacific since the advent of satellite imagery. The season saw near-average activity in terms of Accumulated Cyclone Energy (ACE), in stark contrast to the extremely active seasons in 2014, 2015, and 2016; and for the first time since 2012, no tropical cyclones formed in the Central Pacific basin. However, for the third year in a row, the season featured above-average activity in July, with the ACE value being the fifth highest for the month. Damage across the basin reached $375.28 million (2017 USD), while 45 people were killed by the various storms.

2019 Atlantic hurricane season Hurricane season in the Atlantic Ocean

The 2019 Atlantic hurricane season was the fourth consecutive year of above-average and damaging seasons dating back to 2016. It is tied with 1969 as the fourth-most active Atlantic hurricane season on record in terms of named storms, with 18 named storms and 20 tropical cyclones in total, although many were weak and short-lived, especially towards the end of the season. Six of those named storms achieved hurricane status, while three intensified into major hurricanes. The season officially began on June 1 and ended on November 30. These dates historically describe the period each year when most tropical cyclones form in the Atlantic basin and are adopted by convention. However, tropical cyclogenesis is possible at any time of the year, as demonstrated by the formation of Subtropical Storm Andrea on May 20, marking the record fifth consecutive year where a tropical or subtropical cyclone developed before the official start of the season.

Timeline of the 2013 Pacific hurricane season

The 2013 Pacific hurricane season was an above-average year in which twenty named storms developed. The hurricane season officially began on May 15 in the East Pacific, coinciding with the formation of Tropical Storm Alvin, and on June 1 in the Central Pacific; it ended on November 30 in both basins. These dates conventionally delimit the period during each year when most tropical cyclones form. The final system of the year, Tropical Storm Sonia, dissipated on November 4.

2018 Pacific hurricane season Period of formation of tropical cyclones in the Eastern Pacific Ocean in 2018

The 2018 Pacific hurricane season produced the highest accumulated cyclone energy value on record in the basin. With 23 named storms, it was the fourth-most active season on record, tied with 1982. The season also featured seven landfalls, six of which occurred in Mexico. The season officially began on May 15 in the eastern Pacific, and on June 1 in the central Pacific; they both ended on November 30. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the Pacific basin. However, tropical cyclone formation is possible at any time of the year, as illustrated when the first tropical depression formed on May 10, five days prior to the official start of the season.

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