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|2019 Sudanese coup d'état|
|Part of the 2018–19 Sudanese protests|
Sudanese Presidential Palace
|Commanders and leaders|
|Casualties and losses|
On the morning of 11 April 2019, Sudanese President Omar al-Bashir was removed from power by the Sudanese Armed Forces amid ongoing protests after holding the office for nearly 30 years.
Sudan or the Sudan, officially the Republic of the Sudan, is a country in Northeast Africa. It is bordered by Egypt to the north, the Red Sea to the northeast, Eritrea to the east, Ethiopia to the southeast, South Sudan to the south, the Central African Republic to the southwest, Chad to the west, and Libya to the northwest. It has a population of 39 million people and occupies a total area of 1,886,068 square kilometres, making it the third-largest country in Africa. Sudan's predominant religion is Islam, and its official languages are Arabic and English. The capital is Khartoum, located at the confluence of the Blue and White Nile. Since 2011, Sudan is the scene of ongoing military conflict in its regions South Kordofan and Blue Nile.
Omar Hassan Ahmad al-Bashir is a Sudanese politician who served as the seventh President of Sudan from 1989 to 2019 and founder of the National Congress Party. He came to power in 1989 when, as a brigadier in the Sudanese Army, he led a group of officers in a military coup that ousted the democratically elected government of prime minister Sadiq al-Mahdi after it began negotiations with rebels in the south. Since then, he has been elected three times as President in elections that have been under scrutiny for electoral fraud. In March 2009, al-Bashir became the first sitting president to be indicted by the International Criminal Court (ICC), for allegedly directing a campaign of mass killing, rape, and pillage against civilians in Darfur.
The Sudanese Armed Forces are the Armed Forces of the Republic of the Sudan. According to 2011 IISS estimates, it numbers 109,300 personnel. They comprise the Land Forces, the Sudanese Navy, the Sudanese Air Force, and the Popular Defence Forces. They also previously had Joint Integrated Units formed together with its rebel enemies the Sudan People's Liberation Army. The Armed Forces operate under the authority of the People's Armed Forces Act 1986. In 1991, the Library of Congress used the term "Sudan People's Armed Forces" to refer to the entire armed forces, but by the late 2000s (decade), the "Sudanese Armed Forces" term was most widespread. In 2004, the Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress estimated that the Popular Defence Forces, the military wing of the National Islamic Front, consists of 10,000 active members, with 85,000 reserves. It has been deployed alongside regular army units against various rebel groups.
Protests have been ongoing in Sudan since 19 December 2018 when a series of demonstrations broke out in several cities due to dramatically rising costs of living and the deterioration of the country's economy.In January 2019, the protests shifted attention from economic matters to calls of resignation for the long-term President of Sudan Omar al-Bashir.
Until the second half of 2002, Sudan's economy boomed on the back of increases in oil production, high oil prices, and large inflows of foreign direct investment. GDP growth registered more than 10% per year in 2006 and 2007. From 1997 to date, Sudan has been working with the IMF to implement macroeconomic reforms, including a managed float of the exchange rate. Sudan began exporting crude oil in the last quarter of 1999.
By February 2019, Bashir had declared the first state of national emergency in twenty years amidst increasing unrest.
A state of emergency is a situation in which a government is empowered to perform actions that it would normally not be permitted to do. A government can declare such a state during a disaster, civil unrest, or armed conflict. Such declarations alert citizens to change their normal behavior and orders government agencies to implement emergency plans. Justitium is its equivalent in Roman law—a concept in which the senate could put forward a final decree that was not subject to dispute.
On 11 April, the Sudanese military removed Omar al-Bashir from his position as President of Sudan, dissolved the cabinet and the National Legislature, and announced a three-month state of emergency, to be followed by a two-year transition period.Lt. Gen. Ahmed Awad Ibn Auf, who was both the defense minister of Sudan and the Vice President of Sudan, declared himself the de facto Head of State, announced the suspension of the country's constitution, and imposed a curfew from 10 pm to 4 am, effectively ordering the dissolution of the ongoing protests. Along with the National Legislature and national government, state governments and legislative councils in Sudan were dissolved as well.
The National Legislature is the legislative branch of the government of the Republic of the Sudan. It is composed of two chambers:
Lt. Gen. Ahmed Awad Ibn Auf is a Sudanese politician and Sudanese Army lieutenant general who served as the de facto Head of State for one day from 11 April 2019 to 12 April 2019 after taking part in the 2019 Sudanese coup d'état. Auf previously served as the Minister of Defense in Sudan from 23 August 2015 to 14 April 2019, and the First Vice President of Sudan from February to April 2019.
The Vice President of Sudan is the second highest political position obtainable in Sudan. Currently there is a provision for two Vice Presidents, who are appointed by the President of Sudan. Historically either the First or the Second Vice President was from Southern Sudan. Since 2011, the Second Vice President has been from Darfur.
State media reported that all political prisoners, including anti-Bashir protest leaders, were being released from jail.Al-Bashir's National Congress Party responded by announcing that they would hold a rally supporting the ousted president. Soldiers also raided the offices of the Islamic Movement, the main ideological wing of the National Congress, in Khartoum.
The National Congress or National Congress Party is a major political party that has dominated domestic politics in Sudan.
On 12 April, the ruling military government agreed to shorten the length of its rule to "as early as a month" and transfer control to a civilian government if negotiations could result in a new government being formed.That evening, Auf stepped down as head of the military council and made Lt. Gen. Abdel Fattah Abdelrahman Burhan, who serves as general inspector of the armed forces, his successor. This came following protests over his decision not to extradite Bashir to the International Criminal Court. The resignation was regarded as a "triumph" by the protestors, who were overjoyed. Burhan is considered to have a cleaner record than the rest of al-Bashir's generals and is not wanted or implicated for war crimes by any international court. He was one of the generals who had reached out to protesters during their week-long encampment near the military headquarters, meeting with them face to face and listening to their views.
Lt. Gen. Abdel Fattah Abdelrahman Burhan is a Sudanese politician and Sudanese Army lieutenant general who is currently serving as de facto Head of State of Sudan after former Chairman Ahmed Awad Ibn Auf resigned and transferred control.
The International Criminal Court is an intergovernmental organization and international tribunal that sits in The Hague in the Netherlands. The ICC has the jurisdiction to prosecute individuals for the international crimes of genocide, crimes against humanity, war crimes, and crimes of aggression. The ICC is intended to complement existing national judicial systems and it may therefore exercise its jurisdiction only when certain conditions are met, such as when national courts are unwilling or unable to prosecute criminals or when the United Nations Security Council or individual states refer situations to the Court. The ICC began functioning on 1 July 2002, the date that the Rome Statute entered into force. The Rome Statute is a multilateral treaty which serves as the ICC's foundational and governing document. States which become party to the Rome Statute, for example by ratifying it, become member states of the ICC. As of March 2019, there are 124 ICC member states.
Despite the imposed curfew, protesters remained on the streets.On 13 April, Burhan announced in his first televised address that the curfew which had been imposed by Auf was now lifted and that an order was issued to complete the release of all prisoners jailed under emergency laws ordered by Bashir. Hours beforehand, members of the ruling military council released a statement to Sudanese television which stated that Burhan had accepted the resignation of intelligence and security chief Salah Gosh. Gosh had overseen the crackdown of protestors who opposed al-Bashir. Following these announcements, talks between the protestors and the military to transition to a civilian government officially started.
In a statement, several Sudanese activists, including those of the Sudanese Professionals Association and the Sudanese Communist Party, denounced the military transitional council as a government of "the same faces and entities that our great people have revolted against". The activists demanded that power be handed over to a civilian government.On 12 April, Col. General Omar Zein al-Abideen, a member of the ruling Transitional Military Council, announced that the transfer of Sudanese government to civilian rule would take place in "as early as a month if a government is formed" and offered to start talks with protestors to start this transition. On April 14, 2019, it was announced that council had agreed to have the protestors nominate a civilian Prime Minister and have civilians run every Government ministry outside the Defense and Interior Ministries. The same day, military council spokesman Shams El Din Kabbashi Shinto announced that Auf had been removed as Defense Minister and Lt. General Abu Bakr Mustafa was named to succeed Gosh as chief of Sudan’s National Intelligence and Security Service (NISS)
On April 15, 2019, Shams al-Din Kabbashi announced that "The former ruling National Congress Party (NCP) will not participate in any transitional government."Despite being barred from the transitional government, the NCP has not been barred from taking part in future elections. Prominent activist Mohammed Naji al-Asam announced that trust was also growing between the military and the protestors following more talks and the release of more political prisoners, despite a poorly organized attempt by the army to disperse the sit-in. It was also announced that the military council was restructuring, which began with the appointments of Colonel General Hashem Abdel Muttalib Ahmed Babakr as army chief of staff and Colonel General Mohamed Othman al-Hussein as deputy chief of staff.
On April 15,the African Union gave Sudan 15 days to install a civilian government. If the ruling military council does not comply, Sudan will be suspended as a member of the AU. On April 16, the military council announced that Burhan had again cooperated with the demands of the protestors and sacked the nation's three top prosecutors, including chief prosecutor Omar Ahmed Mohamed Abdelsalam, public prosecutor Amer Ibrahim Majid, and deputy public prosecutor Hesham Othman Ibrahim Saleh. The same day, two sources with direct knowledge told CNN that Bashir, his former interior minister Abdelrahim Mohamed Hussein, and Ahmed Haroun, the former head of the ruling party, will be charged with corruption and the death of protesters.
After being detained, al-Bashir was reportedly placed under house arrest and held under heavy guard and his personal bodyguard was also replaced.Col. General al-Abideen, a member of the Transitional Military Council, said that the military government would not extradite al-Bashir to The Hague to face charges in the International Criminal Court, where al-Bashir is the subject of an arrest warrant on counts of crimes against humanity and war crimes in connection with the Darfur genocide between 2003 and 2008. Al-Abideen said, however, that the military government would seek to prosecute al-Bashir in Sudan.
More than 100 of al-Bashir's allies,including Prime Minister Mohamed Taher Ayala, National Congress Party leader Ahmed Haroun, member of the National Congress Awad Al-Jaz, former defense minister and Khartoum state Governor Abdel Rahim Mohammed Hussein, and former vice presidents Bakri Hassan Saleh and Ali Othman Taha were also arrested. More people who had served in al-Bashir's government were reported to have been arrested on April 14, 2019, as well. Among the people arrested on April 14 included the head of the party's political sector Abdel Rahman al-Khidir, former Interior Minister Ibrahim Mahmoud, former Presidential Affairs Minister Fadl Abdallah, and head of the party's youth sector Mohamed al-Amin.
On April 17, 2019, two prison officials, as well as members of al-Bashir's family, confirmed that al-Bashir was transferred from the presidential palace, where he had been under house arrest, to Khartoum's Kobar maximum security prison.al-Bashir is reported to be surrounded by tight security and held in solitary confinement. This came a day after Uganda's Minister for Foreign Affairs Henry Oryem Okello considered offering the former Sudan President asylum in Uganda. Kobar is the same prison where al-Bashir had held political prisoners during his time in power. Several other allies of al-Bashir are being held at the prison as well. The reports of al-Bashir's transfer were later confirmed to Al Jazeera by a prison guard. Military council spokesman Shams Eldin Kabashi added that two of al-Bashir's brothers, Abdullah al-Bashir and Alabas al-Bashir, were arrested as well.
Officially, the politics of Sudan takes place in the framework of a presidential representative democratic consociationalist republic, where the President of Sudan is head of state, head of government and commander-in-chief of the Sudanese Armed Forces in a multi-party system. Legislative power is vested in both the government and in the two chambers, the National Assembly (lower) and the Council of States (upper), of the bicameral National Legislature. The judiciary is independent and obtained by the Constitutional Court. However, following a deadly civil war and the still ongoing genocide in Darfur, Sudan was widely recognized as a totalitarian state where all effective political power was held by President Omar al-Bashir and the National Congress Party (NCP). However, al-Bashir and the NCP were ousted in a military coup which occurred on April 11, 2019. The government of Sudan is now led by the "Transitional Military Council".
Abdel Rahim Mohammed Hussein is a Sudanese politician and the current Governor of Khartoum State. Hussein served as the longstanding Minister of National Defense of The Republic of Sudan. Hussein also served for a period as the Minister of Interior Affairs. During his term as Minister of Interior Affairs, he opened the Rabat University. In later years, he was accused of supporting the janjaweed and committing war crimes, allegations he and the government both strongly deny. On April 11, 2019, Hussein was arrested following a coup which overthrew al-Bashir.
The Council of States is the upper house of the parliament of Sudan. Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) caused establishment of bicameral National Legislature, whose members were chosen in mid-2005. The upper chamber is Council of States, which had 54 members. After the independence of South Sudan, the legislature was reduced to 32 members. The members are indirectly elected by state legislatures. Members serve five-year terms. The National Legislature, which includes the Council of States, was dissolved on 11 April 2019 following the overthrow of President Omar al-Bashir and his National Congress of Sudan in a military coup.
The Revolutionary Command Council for National Salvation (RCCNS-Sudan) was the governing body of Sudan following the June 1989 coup. It grew out of the collaboration between the Sudanese military and the National Islamic Front. It was the authority by which the military government of Sudan under Lt. Gen. Omar al-Bashir exercised power.
Major General Salah Abdallah "Gosh" is the former national security advisor of the Republic of the Sudan, prior to this position he was the director of National Intelligence and Security Service, and holds the rank of army major general. Salah Gosh was reinstated to his former position as the Director General of NISS on 11 February 2018 by President Omar al-Bashir. On 13 April 2019 he resigned from his post, which was confirmed to Sudanese TV by the ruling Transitional Military Council.
Ibrahim Mahmoud Hamad is a Sudanese politician of the National Congress Party, who governed Kassala State from 2006 until 2008, whereupon he adopted the position of Minister of the Interior in the Ministry of Interior Affairs. He is noted for his liaison with United Nations peacekeeping forces in Sudan, and the 2009 Sudanese nomadic conflicts. Following the April 2019 Sudanese coup, Hamad lost his position as Minister of Interior. The former Interior Minister was arrested on April 14, 2019 for his role in the crackdown of people protested the rule of former President Omar al-Bashir.
The last Constitution of Sudan was the Interim National Constitution of the Republic of Sudan, 2005 (INC), adopted on 6 July 2005. Since 11 April 2019, the Constitution of Sudan has been suspended by Lt. Gen Ahmed Awad Ibn Auf.
The Cabinet of Sudan is the chief executive body of the Republic of Sudan. The cabinet was dissolved on April 11, 2019 following a military coup. The Defense Minister who led this coup was later removed on April 14, 2019 as well.
The 1989 Sudanese coup d'état was a military coup that occurred in Sudan on 30 June 1989 against the democratically elected government of Prime Minister Sadiq al-Mahdi and President Ahmed Al-Mirghani. The coup was led by military officer Omar al-Bashir who took power in its aftermath and would go on to rule the country for the next 30 years until he was overthrown in 2019.
Bakri Hassan Saleh is a Sudanese politician who served as Prime Minister of Sudan from March 2017 until September 2018 and First Vice President of Sudan from December 2013 until February 2019, when he was dismissed.
The National Intelligence and Security Service is the intelligence service of the federal government of Sudan. The NISS is an incredibly powerful body, and has been granted extensive powers by the National Security Acts of 1999 and 2010 and has been referred to as a secret police organization.
On December 19, 2018, a series of demonstrations broke out in several Sudanese cities, due in part to spiraling costs of living and deterioration of economic conditions at all levels of society. The protests quickly turned from demands for urgent economic reforms into demands for Omar al-Bashir to step down.
The Arab world protests, also referred to as the New Arab Spring or Arab Spring 2.0, are massive anti-government protests in several Arab countries, including Algeria, Iraq, Jordan, Libya, Morocco and Tunisia. Economic protests also took place in the Gaza Strip. Sudan has been the scene of violent protests, resulting in the overthrow of president Omar al-Bashir in a military coup d'état. The protests resemble the earlier Arab Spring wave of pro-democracy protests from 2010 to 2012.
Alaa Salah is a Sudanese student and anti-government protestor. She gained attention from a picture of her taken by Lana Haroun that went viral in April 2019. The image of Salah has been dubbed as "Woman in White" or "Lady Liberty" of Sudan.
The Transitional Military Council is the current military junta governing the Republic of the Sudan. It was established on 11 April 2019 after the 2019 Sudanese coup d'état, and is headed by Abdel Fattah Abdelrahman Burhan, Inspector of the Armed Forces, after Ahmed Awad Ibn Auf resigned as leader one day following the coup.
Before dawn on Thursday, the heads of Sudan's four main security apparatuses arrived at President Omar al-Bashir's residence to deliver the message that he must go. At 3:30 a.m., the leaders of the security agencies, which have so far been loyal to Bashir, told Sudan's longtime leader that 'there was no alternative' but for him to step down…