2020 Summer Olympics

Last updated

Games of the XXXII Olympiad
2020 Summer Olympics logo new.svg
Host city Tokyo, Japan
MottoDiscover Tomorrow
(Japanese: 未来あしたをつかもう, translit.  Ashita o tsukamō) [lower-alpha 1] [1]
Nations206 (expected)
Athletes11,091 (expected)
Events339 in 33 sports (50 disciplines)
Opening 24 July
Closing 9 August
Stadium New National Stadium
Summer
Rio 2016 Paris 2024
Winter
Pyeongchang 2018 Beijing 2022

The 2020 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XXXII Olympiad(Japanese:第三十二回オリンピック競技大会, Hepburn:Dai Sanjūni-kai Orinpikku Kyōgi Taikai) [2] and commonly known as Tokyo 2020, is an upcoming international multi-sport event that is scheduled to take place from 24 July to 9 August 2020 in Tokyo, Japan.

Japanese is an East Asian language spoken by about 128 million people, primarily in Japan, where it is the national language. It is a member of the Japonic language family, and its relation to other languages, such as Korean, is debated. Japanese has been grouped with language families such as Ainu, Austroasiatic, and the now-discredited Altaic, but none of these proposals has gained widespread acceptance.

Hepburn romanization is a system for the romanization of Japanese that uses the Latin alphabet to write the Japanese language. It is used by most foreigners learning to spell Japanese in the Latin alphabet and by the Japanese for romanizing personal names, geographical locations, and other information such as train tables, road signs, and official communications with foreign countries. Largely based on English writing conventions, consonants closely correspond to the English pronunciation and vowels approximate the Italian pronunciation.

A multi-sport event is an organized sporting event, often held over multiple days, featuring competition in many different sports among organized teams of athletes from (mostly) nation-states. The first major, modern, multi-sport event of international significance is the modern Olympic Games.

Contents

Tokyo was selected as the host city during the 125th IOC Session in Buenos Aires on 7 September 2013. [3] These Games will mark the return of the Summer Olympics to Tokyo for the first time since 1964, the first city in Asia to host the Olympics twice, and the fourth Olympics overall to be held in Japan, following the 1972 Winter Olympics in Sapporo and the 1998 Winter Olympics in Nagano. They will be the second of three consecutive Olympic Games to be held in East Asia, following the 2018 Winter Olympics in Pyeongchang, South Korea, and preceding the 2022 Winter Olympics in Beijing, China.

125th IOC Session International Olympic Committee session

The 125th IOC Session took place at the Buenos Aires Hilton in Buenos Aires, Argentina, from 7 September to 10 September 2013. The International Olympic Committee elected Tokyo as the host city of the 2020 Summer Olympic Games on 7 September. Wrestling was restored to the Olympic program for 2020 and 2024, and Thomas Bach was elected to an eight-year term as IOC President.

Buenos Aires Place in Argentina

Buenos Aires is the capital and largest city of Argentina. The city is located on the western shore of the estuary of the Río de la Plata, on the South American continent's southeastern coast. "Buenos Aires" can be translated as "fair winds" or "good airs", but the former was the meaning intended by the founders in the 16th century, by the use of the original name "Real de Nuestra Señora Santa María del Buen Ayre". The Greater Buenos Aires conurbation, which also includes several Buenos Aires Province districts, constitutes the fourth-most populous metropolitan area in the Americas, with a population of around 15.6 million.

1964 Summer Olympics Games of the XVIII Olympiad, celebrated in Tokyo in 1964

The 1964 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XVIII Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event held in Tokyo, Japan, from 10 to 24 October 1964. Tokyo had been awarded the organization of the 1940 Summer Olympics, but this honour was subsequently passed to Helsinki because of Japan's invasion of China, before ultimately being cancelled because of World War II.

These Games will see the introduction of additional disciplines within several of the Summer Olympics sports, including 3x3 basketball, freestyle BMX and Madison cycling, as well as further mixed events. Under new IOC policies that allow sports to be added to the Games' programme to augment the permanent "core" Olympic events, these Games will see karate, sport climbing, surfing and skateboarding make their Olympic debuts, and the return of baseball and softball (which were removed from the summer programme after 2008).

Freestyle BMX is bicycle motocross stunt riding on BMX bikes. It is an extreme sport descended from BMX racing that consists of five disciplines: street, park, vert, trails, and flatland. In June 2017, the International Olympic Committee announced that it was to be added as an Olympic event to the 2020 Summer Olympics.

Madison (cycling) style of cycling race

The madison is a relay race event in track cycling, named after the first Madison Square Garden in New York, and known as the "American race" in French and in Italian and Spanish as Americana.

Karate at the Summer Olympics

Karate will make its debut appearance at the Summer Olympics in 2020 in Tokyo, Japan.

Bidding process

Tokyo, Istanbul, and Madrid were the three candidate cities. The applicant cities of Baku (Azerbaijan) and Doha (Qatar) were not promoted to candidate status. A bid from Rome was withdrawn.

Tokyo bid for the 2020 Summer Olympics

Tokyo 2020 was a successful bid for the 2020 Summer Olympics by the city of Tokyo and the Japanese Olympic Committee. On September 7, 2013 at the 125th IOC Session in Buenos Aires, Tokyo won their bid to host the games. Tokyo previously hosted the 1964 Summer Olympics. On August 3, 2016 it was reported that the IOC approved the addition of five sports to the program of the 2020 Olympics including the return of baseball and softball.

Istanbul bid for the 2020 Summer Olympics

Istanbul 2020 was a bid for the 2020 Summer Olympics by the city of Istanbul and the Turkish Olympic Committee.

Madrid bid for the 2020 Summer Olympics

Madrid 2020 was a bid for the 2020 Summer Olympics by the city of Madrid and the Spanish Olympic Committee.

Host city election

The IOC voted to select the host city of the 2020 Summer Olympics on 7 September 2013 at the 125th IOC Session at the Buenos Aires Hilton in Buenos Aires, Argentina. An exhaustive ballot system was used. No city won over 50% of the votes in the first round, and Madrid and Istanbul were tied for second place. A run-off vote between these two cities was held to determine which would be eliminated. In the final vote, a head-to-head contest between Tokyo and Istanbul, Tokyo was selected by 60 votes to 36, as it got at least 49 votes needed for a majority.

The exhaustive ballot is a voting system used to elect a single winner. Under the exhaustive ballot the elector simply casts a single vote for their chosen candidate. However, if no candidate is supported by an overall majority of votes then the candidate with the fewest votes is eliminated and a further round of voting occurs. This process is repeated for as many rounds as necessary until one candidate has a majority.

2020 Summer Olympics host city election [4]
CityNOC nameRound 1RunoffRound 2
Tokyo Flag of Japan.svg  Japan 4260
Istanbul Flag of Turkey.svg  Turkey 264936
Madrid Flag of Spain.svg  Spain 2645

Development and preparation

The Tokyo Big Sight Conference Tower will be used as the IBC-MPC Complex. Tokyo Big Sight at Night.jpg
The Tokyo Big Sight Conference Tower will be used as the IBC-MPC Complex.
View of the Rainbow Bridge from Odaiba Marine Park Odaiba Sunset.jpg
View of the Rainbow Bridge from Odaiba Marine Park
The Sapporo Dome in Sapporo Sapporo Dome moving pitchjpg.jpg
The Sapporo Dome in Sapporo

The Tokyo metropolitan government set aside a fund of 400 billion Japanese yen (over 3.67 billion USD) to cover the cost of hosting the Games. The Japanese government is considering increasing slot capacity at both Haneda Airport and Narita International Airport by easing airspace restrictions. A new railway line is planned to link both airports through an expansion of Tokyo Station, cutting travel time from Tokyo Station to Haneda from 30 minutes to 18 minutes, and from Tokyo Station to Narita from 55 minutes to 36 minutes; the line would cost 400 billion yen and would be funded primarily by private investors. But East Japan Railway Company (East JR) is planning a new route near Tamachi to Haneda Airport. [5] Funding is also planned to accelerate completion of the Central Circular Route, Tokyo Gaikan Expressway and Ken-Ō Expressway, and to refurbish other major expressways in the area. [6] There are also plans to extend the Yurikamome automated transit line from its existing terminal at Toyosu Station to a new terminal at Kachidoki Station, passing the site of the Olympic Village, although the Yurikamome would still not have adequate capacity to serve major events in the Odaiba area on its own. [7]

Japanese yen Official currency of Japan

The yen is the official currency of Japan. It is the third most traded currency in the foreign exchange market after the United States dollar and the euro. It is also widely used as a reserve currency after the U.S. dollar, the euro, and the pound sterling.

United States dollar Currency of the United States of America

The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States and its territories per the United States Constitution since 1792. In practice, the dollar is divided into 100 smaller cent (¢) units, but is occasionally divided into 1000 mills (₥) for accounting. The circulating paper money consists of Federal Reserve Notes that are denominated in United States dollars.

Haneda Airport International airport serving Tokyo, Japan

Tokyo International Airport, commonly known as Haneda Airport, Tokyo Haneda Airport, and Haneda International Airport, is one of the two primary airports that serve the Greater Tokyo Area, and is the primary base of Japan's two major domestic airlines, Japan Airlines and All Nippon Airways, as well as Air Do, Skymark Airlines, Solaseed Air, and StarFlyer. It is located in Ōta, Tokyo, 14 kilometres (8.7 mi) south of Tokyo Station.

The Organizing Committee is headed by former Prime Minister Yoshirō Mori. [8] Olympic and Paralympic Minister Yoshitaka Sakurada is overseeing the preparations on behalf of the Japanese government. [9]

Japan has traditionally used Olympic events to showcase new technology. Telecom company NTT DoCoMo signed a deal with Finland's Nokia to provide 5G-ready baseband networks in Japan in time for the Olympics. [10] [11]

Venues and infrastructure

It was confirmed in February 2012 that the Olympic Stadium in Tokyo would be demolished and reconstructed, and receive a £1 billion upgrade for the 2019 Rugby World Cup as well as the 2020 Olympics. [12] As a result, a design competition for the new stadium was launched. In November 2012, the Japan Sport Council announced that out of 46 finalists, Zaha Hadid Architects was awarded the design for the new stadium. Plans included dismantling the original stadium, and expanding the capacity from 50,000 to a modern Olympic capacity of about 80,000. [13] However, Japanese Prime Minister Shinzō Abe announced in July 2015 that plans to build the New National Stadium would be scrapped and rebid on amid public discontent over the stadium's building costs. In Autumn 2015 a new design by Kengo Kuma was approved as winning project of new stadium design competition which decreased the capacity to between 60,000–80,000 depending by event [14]

Twenty-eight of the thirty-three competition venues in Tokyo are within 8 kilometres (4.97 miles) of the Olympic Village. Eleven new venues are to be constructed. [15]

In September 2016, a review panel stated that the cost of hosting the Olympics and Paralympics could quadruple from the original estimate, and therefore proposed a major overhaul to the current plan to reduce costs, including moving venues outside Tokyo. [16] In October 2018, the Board of Audit issued a report stating that the total cost of the venues could exceed US$25 billion. [17]

Heritage Zone

Seven venues for nine sports will be located within the central business area of Tokyo, northwest of the Olympic Village. Several of these venues were also used for the 1964 Summer Olympics.

Yokohama Stadium - Baseball Yokohama Stadium 2007 -3.jpg
Yokohama Stadium  – Baseball
VenueEventsCapacityStatus
New National Stadium Opening and closing ceremonies60,102Under construction
Athletics
Football finals
Yoyogi National Gymnasium Handball13,291Existing
Ryōgoku Kokugikan Boxing11,098Existing
Tokyo Metropolitan Gymnasium Table tennis10,000Existing
Nippon Budokan Judo14,471Existing
Karate
Tokyo International Forum Weightlifting5,012Existing
Imperial Palace Garden Athletics (marathon, race walk)5,000 seated, unlimited standing room along routeTemporary
Musashino Forest Park [18] Road cycling (start road races)Temporary

Tokyo Bay Zone

13 venues for 15 sports will be located in the vicinity of Tokyo Bay, southeast of the Olympic Village, predominantly on Ariake, Odaiba and the surrounding artificial islands.

VenueEventsCapacityStatus
Kasai Rinkai Park Canoeing (slalom)8,000Under construction
Oi Seaside Park Field hockey15,000Under construction [19]
Olympic Aquatics Centre Aquatics (swimming, diving, synchronized swimming)15,000Under construction
Tokyo Tatsumi International Swimming Center Water polo [20] 3,635Existing
Yumenoshima Park Archery7,000Under construction [21]
Ariake Arena Volleyball15,000Under construction
Olympic BMX Course BMX cycling6,000Under construction
Skateboarding
Olympic Gymnastic Centre Gymnastics (artistic, rhythmic, trampoline)10,000Temporary
Ariake Coliseum Tennis20,000 (10,000 centre court; 5,000 court 1, 3,000 court 2, 8x250 match courts)Existing, Renovated
Odaiba Marine Park Triathlon5,000 seated, unlimited standing room along routeExisting with temporary stands
Aquatics (marathon swimming)
Shiokaze Park Beach volleyball12,000Temporary
Central Breakwater Equestrian (eventing)20,000Existing with temporary infrastructure
Rowing
Canoeing (sprint)
Aomi Urban Sports Venue 3x3 basketball5,000Temporary
Sport climbing

Outlying venues

Twelve venues for 16 sports will be situated farther than 8 kilometres (5 mi) from the Olympic Village.

VenueEventsCapacityStatus
Camp Asaka ShootingExisting, renovated
Musashino Forest Sports Plaza Modern pentathlon (fencing)10,000Ready, built for the games
Badminton [22]
Ajinomoto Stadium Football49,970 [23] Existing
Modern pentathlon (excluding fencing)
Rugby sevens
Saitama Super Arena Basketball22,000 [24] Existing
Enoshima Sailing10,000 [25] Existing with temporary stands
Surfing
Makuhari Messe Fencing6,000Existing with temporary stands
Taekwondo
Wrestling8,000 [26]
Baji Koen Equestrian (dressage, jumping) [27] Existing with temporary stands
Kasumigaseki Country Club Golf30,000 [28] [29] Existing with temporary stands
Izu Velodrome Track cycling5,000 [30] Existing, expanded
Izu Mountain Bike Course Mountain biking [31]
Yokohama Stadium Baseball30,000 [32] Existing
Softball
Fukushima Azuma Baseball Stadium Baseball (opening match)30,000Existing, renovated
Softball (opening match) [33]
Fuji International Speedway Road cycling
(finish road races and time trial)
Existing

Football

VenueLocationEventsMatchesCapacityStatus
International Stadium Yokohama [34] Yokohama Men's and Women's preliminaries, women's quarterfinal and semifinal, men's quarterfinal1070,000Existing
Tokyo Stadium Tokyo Men's and Women's opening round of preliminaries only449,000Existing
Saitama Stadium Saitama Men's and Women's preliminaries and quarterfinal, semifinal and 3rd place1162,000Existing
Miyagi Stadium Sendai Men's and Women's preliminaries and quarterfinal1049,000Existing
Kashima Soccer Stadium Ibaraki Men and Women's preliminaries and Men and Women's quarterfinal, semifinal, women's 3rd place1040,728Existing
Sapporo Dome Sapporo Men and Women's preliminaries1042,000Existing
New National Stadium Tokyo Men’s and women's final160,012Under construction

Non-competition venues

VenueEvents
Imperial Hotel, Tokyo IOC
Harumi FutoOlympic Village
Tokyo Big Sight Media Press Center
International Broadcast Center

Security

In December 2018 the Japanese Government chose to ban drones from flying over venues being used for the Olympic and Paralympic Games. A ban was also imposed for the 2019 Rugby World Cup. [35]

Volunteers

Applications for volunteering at the 2020 Olympic and Paralympic Games were accepted from 26 September 2018. By 18 January 2019, a total of 204,680 applications had been received by the organising committee. [36] Interviews to select the requisite number of volunteers began in February 2019 and training will take place in October 2019. [37] The volunteers at the venues will be known as "Field Cast" and the volunteers in the city will be known as "City Cast"; these names were chosen from a shortlist of four from an original 149 pairs of names. The other shortlisted names were "Shining Blue" & "Shining Blue Tokyo", "Games Anchor" & "City Anchor", and "Games Force" & "City Force". The names were chosen by the people who had applied to be volunteers at the Games. [38]

Medals

In February 2017, the Tokyo Organizing Committee announced an electronics recycling program in partnership with Japan Environmental Sanitation Center and NTT docomo, soliciting donations of electronics (such as mobile phones) to be reclaimed as materials for the medals. Aiming to collect 8 tonnes of metals to produce the medals for the Olympic and Paralympic Games, collection boxes were deployed at public locations and NTT docomo retail shops that April. [39] [40] A design competition for the medals launched in December 2017. [41]

In May 2018, the organizing committee reported that they had obtained half the required 2,700 kilograms of bronze, but that they were struggling to obtain the required amount of silver: although silver and bronze medals purely utilize their respective materials, IOC requirements mandate that gold medals utilize silver as a base. [42] The collection of bronze was completed in November 2018, with the remainder estimated to be complete by March 2019. [43]

Torch

Aluminium taken from temporary housing in Fukushima was used to make the torches for the Olympic Flame. More than 10,000 pieces of aluminium were used and organizers contacted local authorities to see which houses were no longer being used. The torch relay will arrive in Japan and begin its journey across the country at Fukushima on 26 March 2020. [44] The relay's slogan is "Hope lights our way" and is sponsored by Toyota, NTT and Nippon Life. [45] [46] In December 2018, it was announced that cauldrons would be placed in the Olympic Stadium and on the waterfront near the Yume-no-Ohashi bridge. After the opening ceremony the flame would be transferred to the waterfront, with the stadium cauldron extinguished until the closing ceremony; with organizers stating that it was difficult to keep the cauldron in the stadium. [47] The torch and the torch relay logo was unveiled on 19 March 2019, the torch is based on an idea of a Japanese cherry blossom sakura flower in gold and sakura color, made from recycled aluminium created from bullet trains. The torch was designed by Tokujin Yoshioka. The torch relay logo was unveiled the same day, The three rectangular shapes that make up the Tokyo 2020 Games emblems have been redesigned to resemble the flame of a torch, and express the dynamic movement of a flame. The design also incorporates the fuki bokashi technique for colour gradation often used in traditional Japanese ukiyoe painting to further imbue the emblem with a Japanese aesthetic.

Ticketing

The opening ceremony tickets will range from 12,000 to 300,000 yen, with a maximum price of 130,000 yen for the finals of athletics. [48] The average price of all the Olympic tickets is 7,700 yen. 50% of the tickets will be sold for 8,000 yen or less. A symbolic ticket price of 2,020 yen will be for families, groups resident in Japan and in conjunction with a school programme. Tickets will be sold through 40,000 shops in Japan and by mail order to Japanese addresses through the Internet. [49] International guests will need to visit Japan during the sales period or arrange for tickets through a third party, such as a travel agent. [50]

The Games

Sports

The official programme for the 2020 Summer Olympics was approved by the IOC executive board on 9 June 2017. The president of the IOC, Thomas Bach, stated that the goal for the Tokyo Games was to make them more "youthful" and "urban", and to increase the number of female participants. [51] [52]

The games will feature 339 events in 33 different sports, encompassing 50 disciplines. Alongside the five new sports that will be introduced in Tokyo, there will be fifteen new events within existing sports, including 3-on-3 basketball, freestyle BMX and Madison cycling, and new mixed events in several sports.

In the list below, the number of events in each discipline is noted in parentheses.

New sports

As part of a goal to control costs and ensure that the Olympics remain "relevant to sports fans of all generations", the IOC assessed the 26 sports contested at the 2012 Olympics, with the remit of dropping one sport and thus retaining 25 "core" sports to join new entrants golf and rugby sevens at the 2020 Games. This move would bring the total number of sports to 27, one less than the requirement of 28 for the 2020 Olympics programme, thus leaving a single vacancy which the IOC would seek to fill from a shortlist containing seven unrepresented sports as well as the sport that had been dropped from the 2012 Olympics programme.

On 12 February 2013, IOC leaders voted to drop wrestling from the "core" programme for the 2020 Games; this was a surprising decision considering that wrestling is one of the oldest Olympic sports, having been included since the ancient Olympic Games and included in the original programme for the modern Games. The New York Times felt that the decision was based on the shortage of well-known talent and the absence of women's events in the sport. [53] [54] [55] Wrestling was duly added to the shortlist of applicants for inclusion in the 2020 Games, alongside the seven new sports that were put forward for consideration.

On 29 May 2013, it was announced that three sports had made the final shortlist: baseball/softball, squash and wrestling. [56] The other five sports were excluded from consideration at this point: karate, roller sports, sport climbing, wakeboarding, and wushu. [57] On 8 September 2013, at the 125th IOC Session, the IOC selected wrestling to be included in the Olympic programme for 2020 and 2024. Wrestling secured 49 votes, while baseball/softball and squash received 24 votes and 22 votes respectively. [58]

Under new IOC policies that shift the Games to an "event-based" programme rather than sport-based, the host organizing committee can now also propose the addition of sports to the programme. This rule is designed so that sports popular in the host country can be added to the programme to improve local interest. [59] As a result of these changes, a new shortlist of eight sports was unveiled on 22 June 2015, consisting of baseball/softball, bowling, karate, roller sports, sport climbing, squash, surfing, and wushu. [60] On 28 September 2015, organisers submitted their shortlist of five proposed sports to the IOC: baseball/softball, karate, sport climbing, surfing, and skateboarding. [61] The five proposed sports were approved on 3 August 2016 by the IOC during the 129th IOC Session in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and will be included in the sports programme for 2020 only, bringing the total number of sports at the 2020 Olympics to 33. [62] [63]

Test events

There will be test events before the Olympic and Paralympic Games they will be contested from June 2019 to June 2020 before the start of the 2020 Summer Olympics. Several of the events are existing championships but some will be created to serve as test events [64] [65] It was announced in February 2019 that test events would be under the banner "Ready, Steady, Tokyo." 22 of the 56 events would be organised by the Tokyo organising committee and the rest by national and international organisations. World Sailing’s World Cup Series held at Enoshima was the first test event, with last one set to be the Tokyo Challenge Track Meet in May 2020. [66]


Calendar

The 2020 schedule by session was approved by the IOC Executive Board on 18 July 2018, with the exception of swimming, diving, and synchronized swimming. A more detailed schedule by event is expected to be available in the spring of 2019. [67] [68]

All times and dates use Japan Standard Time (UTC+9)
OCOpening ceremonyEvent competitions1Gold medal eventsEGExhibition galaCCClosing ceremony
July/August22
Wed
23
Thu
24
Fri
25
Sat
26
Sun
27
Mon
28
Tue
29
Wed
30
Thu
31
Fri
1
Sat
2
Sun
3
Mon
4
Tue
5
Wed
6
Thu
7
Fri
8
Sat
9
Sun
Events
Olympic Rings Icon.svg CeremoniesOCCCN/A
Archery pictogram.svg Archery 111115
Athletics pictogram.svg Athletics 148
Badminton pictogram.svg Badminton 5
Baseball pictogram.svg Baseball 11
Basketball Basketball pictogram.svg Basketball114
3-on-3 basketball pictogram.svg 3x3 Basketball2
Boxing pictogram.svg Boxing 13
Canoeing Canoeing (slalom) pictogram.svg Slalom111116
Canoeing (flatwater) pictogram.svg Sprint444
Cycling Cycling (road) pictogram.svg Road cycling11222
Cycling (track) pictogram.svg Track cycling
Cycling (BMX) pictogram.svg BMX22
Cycling (mountain biking) pictogram.svg Mountain biking11
Diving pictogram.svg Diving 111111118
Equestrian Vaulting pictogram.svg Equestrian 112116
Fencing pictogram.svg Fencing 12
Field hockey pictogram.svg Field hockey 112
Football pictogram.svg Football 112
Golf pictogram.svg Golf 112
Gymnastics Gymnastics (artistic) pictogram.svg Artistic1111455EG18
Gymnastics (rhythmic) pictogram.svg Rhythmic11
Gymnastics (trampoline) pictogram.svg Trampolining11
Handball pictogram.svg Handball 112
Judo pictogram.svg Judo 15
Karate pictogram.svg Karate 8
Modern pentathlon pictogram.svg Modern pentathlon 112
Rowing pictogram.svg Rowing 14
Rugby Sevens pictogram.svg Rugby sevens 112
Sailing pictogram.svg Sailing 10
Shooting pictogram.svg Shooting 15
Skateboarding pictogram.svg Skateboarding 11114
Softball pictogram.svg Softball 11
Sport climbing pictogram.svg Sport climbing 112
Surfing pictogram.svg Surfing 22
Swimming pictogram.svg Swimming 444554451137
Synchronized swimming pictogram.svg Synchronized swimming 112
Table tennis pictogram.svg Table tennis 111115
Taekwondo pictogram.svg Taekwondo 22228
Tennis pictogram.svg Tennis 1135
Triathlon pictogram.svg Triathlon 1113
Volleyball Volleyball (beach) pictogram.svg Beach volleyball114
Volleyball (indoor) pictogram.svg Volleyball11
Water polo pictogram.svg Water polo 112
Weightlifting pictogram.svg Weightlifting 14
Wrestling pictogram.svg Wrestling 18
Daily medal events339
Cumulative total339
July/August22
Wed
23
Thu
24
Fri
25
Sat
26
Sun
27
Mon
28
Tue
29
Wed
30
Thu
31
Fri
1
Sat
2
Sun
3
Mon
4
Tue
5
Wed
6
Thu
7
Fri
8
Sat
9
Sun
Total events

Event scheduling

Per the historical precedent of swimming at the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing and figure skating at the 2018 Winter Olympics in Pyeongchang, swimming finals will be held in the morning to allow live primetime broadcasts in the Americas (due to the substantial fees NBC has paid for rights to the Olympics, the IOC has allowed NBC to have influence on event scheduling to maximize U.S. television ratings when possible; NBC agreed to a $7.75 billion contract extension on 7 May 2014, to air the Olympics through the 2032 games, [69] is also one of the major sources of revenue for the IOC). [70] Japanese broadcasters were said to have criticized the decision, as swimming is one of the most popular Olympic events in the country. [71] [72]

Marketing

Concerns and controversies

IAAF bribery claims

In January 2016, the second part of a World Anti-Doping Agency commission report into corruption included a footnote detailing a conversation between Khalil Diack, son of former International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF) president Lamine Diack, and Turkish officials heading up the Istanbul bid team. [73] A transcript of the conversation cited in the report suggested that a "sponsorship" payment of between US$4 million and 5 million had been made by the Japanese bid team "either to the Diamond League or IAAF". [73] The footnote claimed that because Istanbul did not make such a payment, the bid lost the support of Lamine Diack. The WADA declined to investigate the claims because it was, according to its independent commission, outside the agency's remit. [73]

In July and October 2013 (prior to and after being awarded the Games), Tokyo made two bank payments totalling SG$2.8 million to a Singapore-based company known as Black Tidings. The company is tied to Papa Massata Diack, a son of Lamine Diack who worked as a marketing consultant for the IAAF, and is being pursued by French authorities under allegations of bribery, corruption, and money laundering. [74] Black Tidings is held by Ian Tan Tong Han, a consultant to Athletics Management and Services—which manages the IAAF's commercial rights, and has business relationships with Japanese firm Dentsu. Black Tidings has also been connected to a doping scandal involving the Russian athletics team. [74] [75] [76]

Japanese Olympic Committee and Tokyo 2020 board member Tsunekazu Takeda stated that the payments were for consulting services, but refused to discuss the matter further because it was confidential. Toshiaki Endo called on Takeda to publicly discuss the matter. Massata denied that he had received any money from Tokyo's organizing committee. [74] [76] The IOC established a team to investigate these matters, and will closely follow the French investigation. [77]

In January 2019, a source revealed that Takeda was being formally investigated over alleged corruption. [78] On 19 March 2019, Takeda resigned from the JOC. [79]

Logo plagiarism

2020 Summer Olympics logo.svg
2020 Summer Paralympics Logo.svg
Theatre de Liege.svg
The original logos of the 2020 Summer Olympics (top left) and Paralympics (top right) and the logo of the Théâtre de Liège (bottom).

The initial design for the official emblems of the 2020 Summer Olympics and Paralympics were unveiled on 24 July 2015. The logo resembled a stylized "T": a red circle in the top-right corner representing a beating heart, the flag of Japan, and an "inclusive world in which everyone accepts each other"; and a dark grey column in the centre representing diversity. [80] The Paralympic emblem was an inverted version of the pattern made to resemble an equal sign. [81]

Shortly after the unveiling, Belgian graphics designer Olivier Debie accused the organizing committee of plagiarizing a logo he had designed for the Théâtre de Liège, which aside from the circle, consisted of nearly identical shapes. Tokyo's organizing committee denied that the emblem design was plagiarized, arguing that the design had gone through "long, extensive and international" intellectual property examinations before it was cleared for use. [82] [83] Debie filed a lawsuit against the IOC to prevent use of the infringing logo. [84]

The emblem's designer, Kenjirō Sano, defended the design, stating that he had never seen the Liège logo, while TOCOG released an early sketch of the design that emphasized a stylized "T" and did not resemble the Liège logo. [84] However, Sano was found to have had a history of plagiarism, with others alleging his early design plagiarized work of Jan Tschichold, that he used a photo without permission in promotional materials for the emblem, along with other past cases. On 1 September 2015, following an emergency meeting of TOCOG, Governor of Tokyo Yōichi Masuzoe announced that they had decided to scrap Sano's two logos. The committee met on 2 September 2015 to decide how to approach another new logo design. [84]

On 24 November 2015, an Emblems Selection Committee was established to organize an open call for design proposals, open to Japanese residents over the age of 18, with a deadline set for 7 December 2015. The winner would receive ¥1 million and tickets to the opening ceremonies of both the 2020 Summer Olympics and Paralympics. [85] [86] [87] On 8 April 2016, a new shortlist of four pairs of designs for the Olympics and Paralympics were unveiled by the Emblems Selection Committee; the Committee's selection—with influence from a public poll—was presented to TOCOG on 25 April 2016 for final approval. [86]

The new emblems for the 2020 Olympics and Paralympics were unveiled on 25 April 2016; designed by Asao Tokolo, who won a nationwide design contest, the emblem takes the form of a ring in an indigo-coloured checkerboard pattern. The design is meant to "express a refined elegance and sophistication that exemplifies Japan". [88]

Broadcasting

Sony and Panasonic are partnering with NHK to develop broadcasting standards for 8K resolution television, with a goal to release 8K television sets in time for the 2020 Olympics. [89] [90] Italian broadcaster RAI announced an intent to deploy 8K broadcasting for the Games. [91]

In the United States, the 2020 Summer Olympics will be broadcast by NBCUniversal properties, as part of a US$4.38 billion agreement that began at the 2014 Winter Olympics in Sochi. [92]

In Europe, this will be the first Summer Olympics under the IOC's exclusive pan-European rights deal with Eurosport, which began at the 2018 Winter Olympics and run through 2024. The rights for the 2020 Games cover almost all of Europe, excluding France due to an existing rights deal that will expire following these Games in favour of Eurosport, and Russia due to a pre-existing deal with a marketer through 2024. [93] Eurosport will sub-license coverage to free-to-air networks in each territory and other Discovery Inc.-owned channels. In the United Kingdom, these will be the last Games whose rights are primarily owned by the BBC, although as a condition of a sub-licensing agreement that will carry into the 2022 and 2024 Games, Eurosport holds exclusive pay television rights. [94] [95] [96]

Notes

  1. While ashita literally means 'tomorrow', it is intentionally spelled as mirai 'future'.

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Preceded by
Rio de Janeiro
Summer Olympic Games
Tokyo

XXXII Olympiad (2020)
Succeeded by
Paris