Presidential elections were held in Chad on 11 April 2021.Incumbent Idriss Déby, who served five consecutive terms since seizing power in the 1990 coup d'état, was running for a sixth. Déby was described as an authoritarian by several international media sources, and as "strongly entrenched". During previous elections, he forbade the citizens of Chad from making posts online, and while Chad's total ban on social media use was lifted in 2019, restrictions continue to exist.
Provisional results released on April 19 showed that incumbent president Idriss Déby won reelection with 79% of the vote.However, on 20 April it was announced by the military that Déby had been killed in action while leading his country's troops in a battle against rebels calling themselves the Front for Change and Concord in Chad (FACT).
Following president Déby's death, a body called the Transitional Military Council – led by his son Mahamat Déby Itno, dissolved the government and the legislature, and proclaimed that it would be assuming power for a period of 18 months. Thereafter, a new presidential election would be held.Some political actors within Chad have labeled the installing of the transitional military government a "coup", as the constitutional provisions regarding the filling of a presidential vacancy were not followed. Namely, according to the constitution, the President of the National Assembly, Haroun Kabadi, should have been named Acting President after Déby's death, and an early election called within a period of no less than 45 and no more than 90 days from the time of the vacancy.
In the electoral system introduced in 1996, the President of Chad is elected to a five-year term using a two-round system, with an absolute majority required to prevent a second round of voting.In the 2016 election, 23 candidates submitted their applications to run for the presidency, including incumbent Idriss Déby; one of the opposition's most prominent members, Ngarlejy Yorongar, was prevented from running due to "administrative irregularities". On the day of the 2016 election, mobile internet, fixed internet connections and SMS messaging were cut. Many foreign TV operators could not cover the post-election scene, as their filming licenses were not renewed. The French broadcaster TV5Monde had their equipment confiscated, and their crew were held for several hours for filming at a polling station. On 21 April 2016, the electoral commission claimed that Déby had received 61.56% of the vote (and that Saleh Kebzabo, who placed second, had received 12.80%). The Constitutional Council validated the results on 4 May 2016, dismissing a joint appeal from opposition candidates on the technical grounds that it "could not review appeals submitted jointly". The final results issued by the court showed Déby with 59.92% of the vote and Kebzabo with 12.77%.
According to Amnesty International, pretrial detentions, systematic bans on gatherings, and attempts to prevent the free exchange of information were rampant in Chad in the leadup to the 2021 elections; they called for the release of activists and others arrested for "disturbing public order".Déby insists that the COVID-19 pandemic and misinformation are more rampant, and that he is simply cracking down on misinformation about the pandemic. He claimed in a speech that, instead of posting "authentic and verified" information, social media users engaged in "disinformation and manipulation, thus sowing doubt, panic and psychosis." He further expressed the necessity of defending democracy by opposing "hate speech and divisiveness".
The Africa Center for Strategic Studies stated that the presidential election was "expected to be a largely ceremonial affair given the highly limited space for the political opposition to operate".Columnist Stephen Kafeero agreed, focusing on the incumbent president's role, writing for Quartz Africa : "Chad is a classic example of what elections under authoritarian regimes often look like. There is limited space for competition against the interests of the incumbent Idriss Déby who has a firm grip on all branches of government and other key stakeholders like the media."
The election took place (as planned) on 11 April 2021.
On the same day, a group of armed rebels, the Front for Change and Concord in Chad (FACT), took over garrisons in the north of Chad. Government authorities stated on 17 April that they had destroyed one of the rebels' columns and were seeking the other rebels.One day later, Déby died while visiting troops, having sustained injuries in clashes with rebels.
After the death of his father, Mahamat Déby Itno formed the Transitional Military Council with the support of France, which said that it was needed under "extraordinary circumstances" to stabilize the country.Protests later erupted to ask for a civilian transition.
Provisional results released on April 19 showed that incumbent president Idriss Déby won reelection with 79.3% of the vote.
|Idriss Déby||Patriotic Salvation Movement||3,663,431||79.32|
|Albert Pahimi Padacké||National Rally for Democracy in Chad||476,464||10.32|
|Lydie Beassemda||Party for Democracy and Independence||145,867||3.16|
|Félix Romadoumngar Nialbé||Union for Renewal and Democracy||87,722||1.90|
|Brice Mbaïmon Guedmbaye||Movement of Patriotic Chadians for the Republic||64,540||1.40|
|Baltazar Alladoum Djarma||Chadian Socialist Action for Renewal||59,965||1.30|
|Saleh Kebzabo||National Union for Democracy and Renewal||47,518||1.03|
|Théophile Bongoro||Party for Rally and Equity in Chad||34,610||0.75|
|Théophile Yombombé||Union of Progressive Workers for Cohesion||19,923||0.43|
|Ngarlejy Yorongar||Federation, Action for the Republic||18,693||0.40|
Chad, officially known as the Republic of Chad, is a landlocked country in north-central Africa. It is bordered by Libya to the north, Sudan to the east, the Central African Republic to the south, Cameroon to the south-west, Nigeria to the southwest, and Niger to the west. It has a population of 16 million, of which 1.6 million live in the capital and largest city N'djamena.
Idriss Déby Itno was a Chadian politician and military officer, and head of the ruling Patriotic Salvation Movement, who was the president of Chad from 1990 until his death at the hands of militant forces when commanding troops on the front in 2021.
Haroun Kabadi is a Chadian politician. He was Prime Minister of Chad from June 2002 to June 2003 and has been President of the National Assembly of Chad since June 2011.
Nagoum Yamassoum is a Chadian politician who was Prime Minister of Chad from 1999 to 2002 and Minister of State for Foreign Affairs from 2003 to 2005. He is from the district of Grande Sido in the region of Moyen Chari.
The People's Movement for Democracy in Chad is a political party in Chad.
Nouradine Delwa Kassiré Koumakoye is a Chadian politician and the head of the National Rally for Development and Progress (VIVA-RNDP) political party. After serving as a minister in the government during the 1980s and early 1990s; he was Prime Minister of Chad from November 6, 1993 to April 8, 1995 and again from February 26, 2007 to April 16, 2008. In 2008, he became President of the Economic, Social and Cultural Council.
The Government of Chad had been ruled and controlled by Idriss Déby and his Patriotic Salvation Movement since December 2, 1990, and officially since February 28, 1991. An amendment to the Constitution of Chad, passed in 2005, allowed Déby to run for his next term which would be his third. He ran for it and won, although the election was criticized harshly.. The Chadian Government would be dissolved following Deby's death on April 20, 2021.
Ibni Oumar Mahamat Saleh is a Chadian politician and opposition leader who headed the Party for Liberties and Development (PLD).
Albert Pahimi Padacké is a Chadian politician who is the current Prime Minister of Chad since 26 April 2021. He was formerly Prime Minister from 2016 to 2018, when he resigned and was not replaced.
Brahim Ahmed Koulamallah is a Chadian politician. He was the candidate of the Renewed African Socialist Movement in the May 2006 presidential election, taking fifth place with 5.31% of the vote. In the government named on August 15, 2006, he was appointed Minister of Tourism Development. He was replaced in this post by Ahmat Barkai Animi in the government announced on April 23, 2008.
Mahamat ibn Idriss Déby Itno, also known as Mahamat Kaka, is the Chairman of the Transitional Military Council of Chad acting as the de facto interim President of Chad. He is the son of the late Chadian President Idriss Déby. He gained power as the acting President of Chad on 20 April 2021 when his father, Idriss Déby died in action while commanding troops in the Northern Chad offensive. He previously served as the second in-command of the military for the Chadian Intervention in Northern Mali (FATIM).
Mahamat Abdoul Kadre Oumar, better known as Baba Laddé is a Chadian Fulani rebel opposing the Chadian regime of Idriss Déby. He is sometimes referred to as Abdel Kader Baba Laddé.
Presidential elections were held in Chad on 10 April 2016. Incumbent President Idriss Déby was re-elected for a fifth term.
The Front for Change and Concord in Chad, or FACT, is a political and military organisation created by SG Mahamat Mahdi Ali in March 2016 in Tanua, in the north of Chad, with the goal of overthrowing the government of Chad. It is a splinter group of the Union of Forces for Democracy and Development (UFDD). Ali declared his preparation for military operations against President Idriss Déby. The group was responsible for the death of Déby in April 2021, when he was killed while commanding troops on the frontline fighting the militants.
Hinda Déby Itno is a former Chadian First Lady who served from 2005 until the death of her husband, President Idriss Déby, in April 2021.
The Transitional Military Council is the ruling military junta in Chad. It announced the death of former President Idriss Déby on 20 April 2021, and declared that it would take charge of the government of Chad and continue hostilities against FACT rebels in the north of the country. It is chaired by Mahamat Idriss Déby, the son of the late President, making him the de facto President of Chad.
The 2021 protests in Chad are ongoing protests in Chad against the dictatorial regime of Mahamat Déby and Idriss Deby, and the results of the presidential election.
Lydie Beassemda is a Chadian politician and the first woman to run for the office of the president of the Republic of Chad. She was one of the six candidates that challenged incumbent president Idriss Deby Itno who won the April 11, 2021 poll. She campaigned on breaking down ethnic rivalries and improving women's rights. Beassemda was previously Minister of Agriculture. She is a human rights activist and gender equality campaigner.
Brice Mbaïmon Guedmbaye is a Chadian politician and the founding president of the Mouvement des Patriotes Tchadiens pour la République. Guedmbaye twice ran unsuccessfully for president of Chad in 2016 and in 2021.
Baltazar Alladoum Djarma is a Chadian politician and founder of Chadian Socialist Action Party for Renewal (ASTRE) who ran for president of the Republic of Chad in the April 11, 2021 presidential election on the ticket of his own political party of Chadian Socialist Action for Renewal (ASTRE). His campaign focused on abolition of the constitution and re-establishment of office of prime minister for balance of power.
Nous notons hélas que les réseaux sociaux, au lieu de diffuser des informations de bonne source, authentiques et vérifiées, s’adonnent à la désinformation et à la manipulation, semant ainsi le doute, la panique et la psychose.
Les jeunes doivent être aux avant-postes pour défendre leur pays, en s’opposant aux discours de haine et de division, en s’investissant dans les actions de développement, en s’engageant dans la lutte contre l’insécurité et l’intolérance.