|2023 Sudan conflict|
Military situation as of 29 May 2023
Controlled by the Sudanese Armed Forces
Controlled by the Rapid Support Forces(Detailed map)
|Rapid Support Forces||Sudanese Armed Forces|
|Commanders and leaders|
|Hemedti||Abdel Fattah al-Burhan|
|70,000–150,000 ||110,000–120,000 |
|Casualties and losses|
| At least 1,800 killed    and more than 5,100 injured  |
One million internally displaced people 
An armed conflict between rival factions of the military government of Sudan began on 15 April 2023, when clashes broke out in cities, with the fighting concentrated around the capital city of Khartoum and the Darfur region. As of 27 May, at least 1,800 people had been killed    and more than 5,100 others had been injured. 
The conflict began with attacks by the paramilitary Rapid Support Forces (RSF) on government sites. Airstrikes, artillery, and gunfire were reported across Sudan including in Khartoum. Throughout the conflict, RSF leader Mohamed Hamdan "Hemedti" Dagalo and Sudan's de facto leader and army chief Abdel Fattah al-Burhan have disputed control of government sites, including the general military headquarters, the Presidential Palace, Khartoum International Airport, Burhan's official residence, and the SNBC headquarters.    
The history of conflicts in Sudan has consisted of foreign invasions and resistance, ethnic tensions, religious disputes, and competition over resources.   In its modern history, two civil wars between the central government and the southern regions killed 1.5 million people, and a continuing conflict in the western region of Darfur has displaced two million people and killed more than 200,000 people.  Since independence in 1956, Sudan has had more than fifteen military coups  and it has also been ruled by the military for the majority of the republic's existence, with only brief periods of democratic civilian parliamentary rule.  
Former president and military strongman Omar al-Bashir presided over the War in Darfur, a region in the west of the country, and oversaw state-sponsored violence in the region of Darfur, leading to charges of war crimes and genocide.  Approximately 300,000 people were killed and 2.7 million forcibly displaced in the early part of the Darfur conflict; the intensity of the violence later declined.  Key figures in the Darfur conflict included Hemedti, a warlord  who commanded the Rapid Support Forces (RSF) which evolved from the Janjaweed, a collection of Arab militias drawn from camel-trading tribes active in Darfur and portions of Chad. 
Al-Bashir relied upon the Janjaweed and RSF to crush uprisings by ethnic Africans in the Nuba Mountains and Darfur.   The RSF perpetrated mass killings, mass rapes, pillage, torture, and destruction of villages and were accused of committing ethnic cleansing against the Fur, Masalit, and Zaghawa.  Key leaders in the RSF have been indicted by the International Criminal Court (ICC) of genocide, war crimes, and crimes against humanity,  although Hemedti was not personally implicated in the 2003–2004 atrocities.  Bashir formalized the militias in 2013, creating the RSF as a paramilitary organization and giving its commanders formal military ranks;  Hemedti was given the rank of lieutenant general.  In 2017, a new Sudanese law gave the RSF the status of an "independent security force".  Under the patronage of al-Bashir, Hemedti became wealthy and powerful, acquiring gold mines in Darfur.   Bashir sent RSF forces to quash a 2013 uprising in South Darfur and also deployed RSF units to fight in Yemen and Libya.  During this time, the RSF also developed a working relationship with the Russian private military outfit Wagner Group.  These developments ensured that RSF forces grew into the tens of thousands, including thousands of armed pickup trucks, which regularly patrolled the streets of Khartoum.  The Bashir regime allowed the RSF and other armed groups to proliferate to prevent threats to its security from within the armed forces, a practice known as "coup-proofing". 
In December 2018, protests against al-Bashir's regime began, the first phase of the Sudanese Revolution. Eight months of sustained civil disobedience were met with violent repression.  In April 2019, the military (including the RSF) ousted al-Bashir in a coup d'état, ending his three decades of rule; the army established a Transitional Military Council, a junta.    Bashir was imprisoned in Khartoum; he was not turned over to the ICC, which had issued warrants for al-Bashir's arrest on charges of war crimes.  Protests calling for civilian rule continued; in June 2019, the RSF perpetrated the Khartoum massacre, in which more than a hundred demonstrators were slain    and dozens were raped.  Hemedti denied orchestrating the attack. 
In August 2019, after international pressure and mediation by the African Union and Ethiopia, the military agreed to share power in an interim joint civilian-military unity government (the Transitional Sovereignty Council), headed by a civilian Prime Minister, Abdalla Hamdok, with elections to take place in 2023.   However, in October 2021, the military seized power in a coup led by Sudanese Armed Forces (SAF) leader Abdel Fattah al-Burhan and RSF leader Dagalo. The Transitional Sovereignty Council was reconstituted as a military junta led by Al-Burhan, monopolizing power  and halting Sudan's brief transition to democracy. 
Tensions between the RSF and the Sudanese junta began to escalate in February 2023, as the RSF began to recruit members from across Sudan. A brief military buildup in Khartoum was succeeded by an agreement for de-escalation, with the RSF withdrawing its forces from the Khartoum area.  The junta later agreed to hand over authority to a civilian-led government,  but it was delayed due to renewed tensions between generals Burhan and Dagalo, who serve as chairman and deputy chairman of the Transitional Sovereignty Council, respectively.   Chief among their political disputes is the integration of the RSF into the military:   the RSF insisted on a ten-year timetable for its integration into the regular army, while the army demanded integration within two years.  Other contested issues included the status given to RSF officers in the future hierarchy, and whether RSF forces should be under the command of the army chief rather than Sudan's commander-in-chief, who is currently al-Burhan.  They have also clashed over authority over sectors of Sudan's economy that are controlled by the two respective factions. As a sign of their rift, Dagalo expressed regret over the October 2021 coup. 
On 11 April 2023, RSF forces deployed near the city of Merowe and in Khartoum.  Government forces ordered them to leave, but they refused. This led to clashes when RSF forces took control of the Soba military base south of Khartoum.  On 13 April, RSF forces began their mobilization, raising fears of a potential rebellion against the junta. The SAF declared the mobilization illegal. 
On 15 April, the Rapid Support Forces (RSF) attacked several Sudanese Armed Forces (SAF) bases in Sudan, including Khartoum and its airport.   Clashes between the two groups occurred at the Presidential Palace and at the residence of General al-Burhan.  In response, the SAF closed all airports and conducted airstrikes on RSF positions.  There were clashes at the headquarters of the state broadcaster, Sudan TV, which was later captured by RSF forces.  Bridges and roads in Khartoum were closed, and the RSF claimed that all roads heading south of Khartoum were closed.  On 16 April, the SAF announced the rescue of a major general and a brigadier, the arrests of multiple RSF officers, and the taking of Merowe Airport.  The Sudan Civil Aviation Authority closed the country's airspace,  and telecommunications provider MTN shut down internet services.  Clashes resumed on 17 April in Khartoum, Omdurman, and Merowe airport.  The SAF claimed control of the headquarters of Sudan TV and state radio in Khartoum,  and the RSF released a video on their Twitter page. 
Fighting between the SAF and the RSF continued in Khartoum, with heavy weaponry being used. The SAF accused the RSF of assaulting civilians and carrying out acts of looting and burning.  Witnesses said the SAF reinforcements were brought in from near the eastern border with Ethiopia. A ceasefire was announced but fighting continued, with explosions reported in El-Obeid.  The situation in Merowe was returning to normal, with the SAF regaining control over the airport. The RSF claimed to have repelled a SAF attack and shooting down two helicopters.  Heavy shelling and gunfire was reported in Khartoum, Khartoum Bahri, and Omdurman on the day of Eid al-Fitr, 21 April.  Fighting was described as particularly intense along the highway going to Port Sudan and in the industrial zone of al-Bagair.  Fighting also spread along the main road leading southeast out of the capital.  The Chadian Army stopped and disarmed a contingent of 320 Sudanese soldiers who had entered the country from Darfur while fleeing the RSF on 17 April. 
On 23 April, a series of mass escapes occurred at Kobar Prison and four other prisons, with over 25,000 detainees escaping.   There was also a near-total internet outage across the country, which was attributed to electricity shortages caused by attacks on the electric grid.  The RSF claimed to have captured military manufacturing facilities and a power plant north of Khartoum.  The World Health Organization expressed concern over the National Public Health Laboratory, which had been seized by one of the warring sides on 25 April.  AP Moller-Maersk announced it would stop taking new bookings of goods for Sudan,  and intercommunal clashes were reported in Blue Nile State and in Geneina.   Fighting between the SAF and the RSF continued, with heavy artillery fire reported in Omdurman despite a 72-hour ceasefire that started on 27 April.  On 30 April, the SAF announced it was launching an all-out attack to flush out the RSF in Khartoum using air strikes and heavy artillery.  The Sudanese police deployed its Central Reserve Forces in the streets of Khartoum to maintain law and order,  and the unit later said that it had arrested 316 "rebels", referring to the RSF.  Local authorities in Khartoum placed civil servants on open-ended leave. 
Fighting continued in various areas of Sudan, including Khartoum, Khartoum Bahri, Omdurman and Darfur. The Sudanese Armed Forces reported reducing the Rapid Support Forces' combat capabilities, while the RSF claimed to have shot down a MiG fighter jet.  Clashes continued, and almost 5,000 people were reported injured since the conflict began on 15 April.  The United Nations' head of emergency relief, Martin Griffiths, arrived in Port Sudan to inspect aid operations, but reported that the "will to end the fight still was not there" after speaking with the leaders of the RSF and SAF.  The Turkish embassy in Khartoum was moved to Port Sudan after the Turkish ambassador's car was hit by gunfire, with both sides of the conflict blaming each other for the attack. 
As of 27 May, at least 1,800 people had been killed   and more than 5,100 others had been injured,  according to analysts. On 1 May, the Sudan Doctors Syndicate said at least 487 civilians had been killed  and 2,175 others injured.  On 6 May, Save the Children UK said that at least 190 children had been killed in the conflict.  Doctors on the ground warned that stated figures do not include all casualties as many people could not reach hospitals due to difficulties in movement.  A spokesperson for the Sudanese Red Crescent was also quoted as saying that the number of casualties "was not small". 
During initial clashes in El-Obeid and Khartoum at least three civilians were killed and dozens injured.  A statement by the Sudan Doctors' Committee said two civilians were killed at Khartoum airport and another man was shot to death in the state of North Kordofan.  Those killed at the airport were believed to be on board a passenger plane that was hit by a shell.  Many bodies were seen lying on the streets of Khartoum, particularly around the defence ministry and airport, but could not be retrieved given the intensity of the fighting.   A student was shot and killed at the University of Khartoum.  A 6-year-old child died after the RSF shelled a hospital,  while an ambulance driver was reported to be among those injured.  Asia Abdelmajid, one of Sudan’s most prominent actresses, was killed in a crossfire in Khartoum Bahri.  Another prominent singer, Shaden Gardood, was killed in a crossfire in Omdurman, as was former football player Fozi el-Mardi and his daughter. 
At least 25 civilians were killed and 26 injured during clashes in North Darfur, and an additional three civilians were killed by a rocket-propelled grenade, with a woman also being injured by a bullet.  A representative of Médecins Sans Frontières said at least 279 wounded people were admitted to the only functioning hospital in the state capital al-Fashir, of whom 44 died.  In Foro Baranga in West Darfur, tens were reportedly killed and hundreds injured.  The Health Ministry said that at least 450 people had been killed in the state.  In Nyala, in South Darfur, eight civilians were killed.  Nearly 200 people died in ethnic clashes in Geneina, West Darfur in the last week of April.  Another 77 people were killed when fighting resumed in the city on 12 May.  The death toll reached over 350 on 16 May,  including an imam at the city’s mosque. 
Fifteen Syrian citizens,  fifteen Ethiopians  and nine Eritreans  have been killed across the country. An Indian national working in Khartoum died after being hit by a stray bullet on 15 April.  Two Americans were also killed, including a professor working in the University of Khartoum who was stabbed to death while evacuating.   A two-year-old girl from Turkey was killed while her parents were injured after their house was struck by a rocket on 18 April.  The SAF claimed that the Egyptian assistant military attaché was killed by RSF fire while driving his car in Khartoum, which was refuted by the Egyptian ambassador. 
Two Greek nationals who were trapped in a church on 15 April suffered leg injuries when caught in crossfire trying to leave.   A Filipino migrant worker  and an Indonesian student at a school in Khartoum were injured by stray bullets.  On 17 April, the European Union Ambassador to Sudan, Aidan O'Hara of Ireland, was assaulted by unidentified "armed men wearing military fatigues" in his home and suffered minor injuries but was able to resume working on 19 April.   On 23 April, a French evacuation convoy was shot at, leaving one injured.  The French government later confirmed the casualty to be one of its soldiers.  An employee of the Egyptian embassy was shot and injured during an evacuation mission.  
In Kabkabiya, three employees of the World Food Programme (WFP) were killed after being caught in crossfire at a military base. Two other staff members were seriously injured.  On 18 April, the EU's top humanitarian aid officer in Sudan, Wim Fransen of Belgium, was shot in Khartoum and suffered serious injuries.  On 21 April, the International Organization for Migration (IOM) reported that one of its local employees was killed in a crossfire while travelling with his family near El-Obeid. 
On 18 April, a SAF general claimed that two unnamed neighboring countries were trying to provide aid to the RSF.  According to The Wall Street Journal , Libyan warlord Khalifa Haftar, who is backed by the United Arab Emirates and the Russian paramilitary Wagner Group, dispatched at least one plane to fly military supplies to the RSF.  [ when? ] The Observer reported that Haftar assisted in preparing the RSF for months before the conflict broke out.  The Libyan National Army, which is commanded by Haftar, denied providing support to any warring groups in Sudan and said it was ready to play a mediating role. 
Prior to the conflict, the UAE and the Wagner Group were involved in business deals with the RSF.   [ better source needed ] According to CNN , Wagner supplied surface-to-air missiles to the RSF, picking up the items from Syria and delivering some of them by plane to Haftar-controlled bases in Libya to be then delivered to the RSF, while dropping other items directly to RSF positions in northwestern Sudan.  American officials also said that Wagner was offering to supply additional weapons to RSF from its existing stocks in the Central African Republic.  Russian Foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov defended the possible involvement of the Wagner Group, saying that Sudan had the right to use its services.  The head of the Wagner Group, Yevgeny Prigozhin, denied supporting the RSF, saying that the company has not had a presence in Sudan for more than two years.  In addition, the RSF denied allegations that Wagner Group was supporting them, instead stating that the SAF was seeking such support.  Sudan's army chief, Abdel Fattah al-Burhan, stated that "So far, there has been no confirmation about the Wagner Group's support for the RSF."  Sudan has consistently denied the presence of Wagner on its territory.  
On 16 April, the RSF claimed that its troops in Port Sudan had been attacked by foreign aircraft and issued a warning against any foreign interference.  According to former CIA analyst Cameron Hudson, Egyptian fighter jets are a part of these bombing campaigns against the RSF, and Egyptian special forces units have been deployed and are providing intelligence and tactical support to SAF.  The Wall Street Journal said that Egypt had sent fighter jets and pilots to support the Sudanese military.  On 17 April, satellite imagery obtained by The War Zone revealed that one Egyptian Air Force MiG-29M2 fighter jet had been destroyed and two others had been heavily damaged or destroyed at Merowe Airbase. A Sudanese Air Force Guizhou JL-9 was among the destroyed aircraft.  After initial confusion, the RSF accepted the explanation that Egyptian equipment and supporting personnel were conducting exercises with the Sudanese military prior to the outbreak of hostilities. 
On 15 April, RSF forces claimed, via Twitter, to have taken several Egyptian troops prisoner near Merowe,   as well as a military plane carrying markings of the Egyptian Air Force.  Initially, no official explanation was given for the Egyptian soldiers' presence, while Egypt and Sudan have had military cooperation due to diplomatic tensions with Ethiopia.  Later on, the Egyptian Armed Forces stated that around 200 of its soldiers were in Sudan to conduct exercises with the Sudanese military.  Around that time, the SAF reportedly encircled RSF forces in Merowe airbase. As a result, the Egyptian Armed Forces announced that it was following the situation as a precaution for the safety of its personnel.   The RSF later stated that it would cooperate in repatriating the soldiers to Egypt.  On 19 April, the RSF stated that it had moved the soldiers to Khartoum and would hand them over when the "appropriate opportunity" arose.  177 of the captured Egyptian troops were released and flown back to Egypt aboard three Egyptian military planes that took off from Khartoum airport later in the day. The remaining 27 soldiers, who were from the Egyptian Air Force, were sheltered at the Egyptian embassy to be evacuated once the situation improved.  
On 19 April, the Sudanese newspaper Al-Sudani reported that the SAF had repelled an invasion by the Ethiopian Armed Forces in the disputed Al Fushqa District. The report alleged that the Ethiopian Army had carried out an attack with tanks, armored vehicles, and infantry and that the SAF had inflicted heavy losses on Ethiopian personnel and equipment. It said that the SAF was monitoring "unusual activity among the Ethiopian forces" since the start of hostilities with the RSF and that Ethiopian forces were carrying out intensive reconnaissance and surveillance operations along the border.  Ethiopian Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed denied that clashes had occurred, blaming agitators for the reports.  
Abdul Qadir Al-Haymi, a journalist at Al-Sudani, expressed his regret for publishing the story about the Ethiopian incursion, emphasizing that the story was not true and that no clashes had occurred between Sudanese and Ethiopian forces, regretting what he called "confusion" caused by the news. 
On 5 May, the British newspaper i reported that the RSF sent "special bulletins" to UK politicians, which it claimed was to combat "the disproportionate amount of disinformation" about the conflict. The bulletins were created with the assistance of Capital Tap Holdings, a Dubai-based investment firm which has mining interests in Sudan and the wider continent. The i also reported that the RSF's Facebook page was being run jointly from the UAE and Sudan, and its Instagram account appeared to be based in Saudi Arabia, despite the RSF saying its media team was based in Khartoum. 
Kyle Walter of Logically, a British disinformation analysis firm, said, "What's most concerning from this latest example of potential foreign interference is that it provides a look into how the nature of these threats are evolving, particularly in the context of the rapid onset of generative AI being used to create fake images and text. Although we don't know if this so-called sophisticated 'special bulletin' was created by this technology, it is symbolic of the wider issue at hand: an inability to trust what you're seeing, reading, and the undermining of the entire information landscape." 
The outbreak of violence has led foreign governments to monitor the situation in Sudan and move towards the evacuation and repatriation of its nationals. Among some countries with a number of expatriates in Sudan are Egypt, which has more than 10,000 citizens in the country,  and the United States, which has more than 16,000 citizens, most of whom are dual nationals.  Efforts at extraction were hampered by the fighting within the capital Khartoum, particularly in and around the airport. This has forced evacuations to be undertaken by road via Port Sudan on the Red Sea, which lies about 650 km (400 miles) northeast of Khartoum.  from where they were airlifted or ferried directly to their home countries or to third ones. Other evacuations were undertaken through overland border crossings or airlifts from diplomatic missions and other designated locations with direct involvement of the militaries of some home countries. Some major transit hubs used during the evacuation include the port of Jeddah in Saudi Arabia and Djibouti, which hosts military bases of the United States, China, Japan, France, and other European countries. 
The humanitarian crisis following the fighting was further exacerbated by the violence occurring during a period of high temperatures, drought and it starting during the latter part of the fasting month of Ramadan. Most residents were unable to venture outside of their homes to obtain food and supplies for fear of getting caught in the crossfire. A doctors' group said that hospitals remained understaffed and were running low on supplies as wounded people streamed in.  The World Health Organization recorded around 26 attacks on healthcare facilities, some of which resulted in casualties among medical workers and civilians.  The Sudanese Doctors' Union said more than two-thirds of hospitals in conflict areas were out of service with 32 forcibly evacuated by soldiers or caught in the crossfire.  The United Nations reported that shortages of basic goods, such as food, water, medicines and fuel have become "extremely acute".  The delivery of badly-needed remittances from overseas migrant workers was also halted after Western Union announced it was closing all operations in Sudan until further notice.  The World Food Programme said that more than $13 million worth of food aid destined for Sudan had been looted since the fighting broke out. 
The International Organization for Migration said on 24 May that the fighting in Sudan had produced over 1,000,000 internally displaced persons,  while more than 250,000 others had fled the country altogether, with Egypt receiving the highest number of refugees at 110,000.  The International Organization for Migration had earlier estimated that around 70% of IDPs had come from the Darfur region. 
On 16 April, representatives from the SAF and the RSF agreed to a proposal by the United Nations to pause fighting between 16:00 and 19:00 local time (CAT).  The SAF announced that it approved a UN proposal to open a safe passage for urgent humanitarian cases for three hours every day starting from 16:00 local time, and stated that it reserved the right to react if the RSF "commit[ted] any violations".  Gunfire and explosives continued to be heard during the ceasefire, drawing condemnation from Special Representative Volker Perthes. 
On 17 April, the governments of Kenya, South Sudan, and Djibouti expressed their willingness to send their presidents to Sudan to act as mediators. Khartoum Airport was closed due to fighting, making arrival by air difficult. 
On 18 April, RSF commander Dagalo said the paramilitary force agreed to a day-long armistice to allow the safe passage of civilians, including those wounded. In a tweet, he said that the decision was reached following a conversation with US Secretary of State Antony Blinken "and outreach by other friendly nations".  The SAF initially said it was unaware of any coordination with mediators or the international community regarding a truce and claimed the RSF was planning to use this time to cover up for a "crushing defeat".  An army general later confirmed that the SAF had agreed to a 24-hour ceasefire to start at 18:00 local time (16:00 UTC). After the start of the promised ceasefire, gunfire and shelling continued to be heard in the center of Khartoum.  The SAF and the RSF issued statements accusing each other of failing to respect the ceasefire. The SAF's high command said it would continue operations to secure the capital and other regions. 
On 19 April, both the SAF and the RSF said that they had agreed to another 24-hour ceasefire starting at 18:00 local time (16:00 GMT).  Heavy fighting continued between the two sides after the ceasefire had supposedly begun. 
On 21 April, the RSF said it would observe a 72-hour ceasefire which would come into effect at 6:00 (4:00 GMT) that day, the beginning of the Islamic holiday of Eid ul-Fitr. There was no immediate word from the SAF on whether it would reciprocate.  Despite the SAF agreeing to a three-day truce later that afternoon, fighting continued throughout the day in Khartoum and other conflict zones.   A new 72-hour ceasefire agreement was announced on 24 April,  but fighting continued again. 
On 26 April, the Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD) proposed a 72-hour extension of the ceasefire, while South Sudan offered to host mediation efforts. The SAF said it supported the plan and would send an envoy to the South Sudanese capital Juba, to participate in the talks.  The RSF announced its support for the extended ceasefire on 27 April.  Fighting continued after the start of the extended ceasefire. 
On 30 April, the RSF announced that the ceasefire was to be further extended by 72 hours,  to which the SAF later agreed.  Fighting continued during this ceasefire. 
On 1 May, United Nations Special Envoy to Sudan Volker Perthes announced that the SAF and the RSF had agreed to send representatives for negotiations mediated by the UN, but did not give a date or venue for the talks. 
On 2 May, South Sudan's Foreign Ministry said that the SAF and the RSF had agreed "in principle" to a week long ceasefire to start from 4 May,  only for it to break down again.  The Sudanese resistance committees stated that the proposed negotiations between the SAF and the RSF ignored "the only one affected by this war, the Sudanese people", and that the negotiations were aimed at the SAF and RSF "gain[ing] popular and political support". 
On 6 May, delegates from the SAF and the RSF met directly for the first time in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia for what was described by the Saudis and the United States as "pre-negotiation talks".   Jonathan Hutson of the Satellite Sentinel Project stated that a broad range of Sudanese civil society, "political parties, resistance committees, women's organisations, trade unions and human rights defenders", objected to both Burhan and Hemedti, seeing them as illegitimate leaders and insisted on participating in peace negotiations. The civil society activists called for paramilitary forces to be merged into the SAF under civilian authority. 
On 12 May, the SAF and the RSF signed an agreement to allow safe passage for people leaving battle zones, protect relief workers and not to use civilians as human shields; however, there was no ceasefire agreement. 
On 20 May, the SAF and RSF agreed to a week long ceasefire starting at 21:45 local time (19:45 GMT) on 22 May, following talks in Jeddah. 
On 14 April, the official SAF page published a video it said was of operations carried out by the Sudanese Air Force against the RSF. Al Jazeera's monitoring and verification unit claimed the video was fabricated using footage from the video game Arma 3 that was published on TikTok in March 2023. The unit also claimed the video showing Sudanese army commander Abdel Fattah al-Burhan inspecting the Armoured Corps was from before the fighting. A video reportedly of Sudanese helicopters flying over Khartoum to participate in operations by the SAF against the RSF, which also circulated on social media, turned out to be from November 2022. 
Two photos widely circulated on social media that depicted a burning bridge reported as Bahri bridge and a bombed building allegedly in Khartoum, were both revealed to be from the Russian invasion of Ukraine. 
In April, a video supposedly showing the RSF in control of the Khartoum International Airport on 15 April circulated on social media. The fact-checking website Lead Stories found that the video appeared online three months prior to the conflict. 
Rapid Support Forces: In an interview with Al Jazeera, Hemedti, commander of the RSF, accused Abdel Fattah al-Burhan of forcing the RSF to begin confrontations and accused SAF commanders of scheming to bring deposed leader Omar al-Bashir back to power.  On Twitter, Dagalo called for the international community to intervene against Burhan, claiming that the RSF was fighting against radical militants. 
Sudanese Armed Forces: The SAF accused the RSF of seditious conspiracy against the state and said that the RSF would be dissolved without discussion. It labeled Dagalo a criminal and issued a wanted notice for him. The SAF stated it would conduct sweeps for Rapid Support Forces and urged civilians to stay inside. The Sudanese Armed Forces' media representative told Al Jazeera that retired veterans had joined the SAF's fight against the RSF.
Former Prime Minister Abdalla Hamdok publicly appealed to both al-Burhan and Dagalo to cease fighting. 
On 18 April, el-Wasig el-Bereir of the National Umma Party was in communication with the SAF and the RSF to get them to stop fighting immediately,  while el-Fateh Hussein of the Khartoum resistance committees called for the fighting to stop immediately, stating that the resistance committees had long called for the SAF to "return to their barracks" and for the RSF to be dissolved. 
Sudanese resistance committees coordinated medical support networks, sprayed anti-war messages on walls, and encouraged local communities to avoid siding with either the RSF or the SAF. Hamid Murtada, a member of the resistance committees, described the resistance committees as having "an important role in raising awareness to their constituencies and in supporting initiatives that [would] end the war immediately". 
On 22 and 23 April, protests against the conflict were held by residents in Khartoum Bahri, Arbaji, and Damazin. 
On 19 April, diplomatic missions in Sudan, which included those of Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, South Korea, Spain, Switzerland, Sweden, the United Kingdom, the United States, and the European Union, issued a joint statement calling for fighting parties to observe their obligations under international law, specifically urging them to "protect civilians, diplomats and humanitarian actors," avoid further escalations and initiate talks to "resolve outstanding issues." 
Khartoum or Khartum is the capital of Sudan. With a population of 5,274,321, its metropolitan area is the largest in Sudan. It is located at the confluence of the White Nile, flowing north from Lake Victoria, and the Blue Nile, flowing west from Lake Tana in Ethiopia. The place where the two Niles meet is known as al-Mogran or al-Muqran. From there, the Nile continues north towards Egypt and the Mediterranean Sea.
The Janjaweed are a Sudanese Arab militia group that operates in Sudan, particularly in Darfur, and eastern Chad. They have also been speculated to be active in Yemen. Using the United Nations definition, the Janjaweed comprise Sudanese Arab tribes, the core of whom are from the Abbala background with significant recruitment from the Baggara people. This UN definition may not necessarily be accurate, as instances of members from other tribes have been noted.
The Sudanese conflict in South Kordofan and Blue Nile was an armed conflict in the Sudanese southern states of South Kordofan and Blue Nile between the Sudanese Army (SAF) and Sudan People's Liberation Movement-North (SPLM-N), a northern affiliate of the Sudan People's Liberation Movement (SPLM) in South Sudan. After some years of relative calm following the 2005 agreement which ended the second Sudanese civil war between the Sudanese government and SPLM rebels, fighting broke out again in the lead-up to South Sudan independence on 9 July 2011, starting in South Kordofan on 5 June and spreading to the neighboring Blue Nile state in September. SPLM-N, splitting from newly independent SPLM, took up arms against the inclusion of the two southern states in Sudan with no popular consultation and against the lack of democratic elections. The conflict is intertwined with the War in Darfur, since in November 2011 SPLM-N established a loose alliance with Darfuri rebels, called Sudan Revolutionary Front (SRF).
The Rapid Support Forces are paramilitary forces formerly operated by the Government of Sudan. It grew out of, and is primarily composed of, the Janjaweed militias which fought on behalf of the Sudanese government during the War in Darfur, and was responsible for atrocities against civilians. Its actions in Darfur qualify as crimes against humanity according to Human Rights Watch.
Wadi Seidna Air Base is a military airport 22 kilometres (14 mi) north of Khartoum in Sudan.
Abdel Fattah Abdelrahman al-Burhan is a Sudanese army general who is the de facto ruler of Sudan. Following the Sudanese Revolution in April 2019, he was handed control of the military junta, the Transitional Military Council, a day after it was formed, due to protesters' dissatisfaction with the establishment ties of initial leader Ahmed Awad Ibn Auf. He served as chairman of the TMC until a draft constitutional declaration signed with civilians went into effect in August 2019, and a collective head of state Transitional Sovereignty Council was formed, also to be initially headed by al-Burhan.
Mohamed Hamdan Dagalo, generally referred to mononymously as Hemetti, Hemedti, Hemeti or Hemitte, is a Sudanese general from the Mehriya tribe of the Awlad Mansur sub clan in Darfur. Dagalo previously served as the Deputy Chairman of the Transitional Military Council (TMC) following the 2019 Sudanese coup d'état. On 21 August 2019, the TMC transferred power to the civilian–military Transitional Sovereignty Council, of which Hemetti is a member. Under Article 19 of the August 2019 Draft Constitutional Declaration, Hemetti and the other Sovereignty Council members were to be ineligible to run in the 2022 Sudanese general election.
The Khartoum massacre occurred on 3 June 2019, when the armed forces of the Sudanese Transitional Military Council, headed by the Rapid Support Forces (RSF), the immediate successor organisation to the Janjaweed militia, used heavy gunfire and tear gas to disperse a sit-in by protestors in Khartoum, killing more than 100 people, with difficulties in estimating the actual numbers. At least forty of the bodies had been thrown in the River Nile. Hundreds of unarmed civilians were injured, hundreds of unarmed citizens were arrested, many families were terrorised in their home estates across Sudan, and the RSF raped more than 70 women and men. The Internet was almost completely blocked in Sudan in the days following the massacre, making it difficult to estimate the number of victims.
The 2019–2022 Sudanese protests were street protests in Sudan which began in mid-September 2019, during Sudan's transition to democracy, about issues which included the nomination of a new Chief Justice and Attorney General, the killing of civilians by the Rapid Support Forces (RSF), the toxic effects of cyanide and mercury from gold mining in Northern state and South Kordofan, opposition to a state governor in el-Gadarif and to show trials of Sudanese Professionals Association (SPA) coordinators, and advocating the dismissal of previous-government officials in Red Sea, White Nile, and South Darfur. The protests follow the Sudanese Revolution's street protests and civil disobedience of the early September 2019 transfer of executive power to the country's Sovereignty Council, civilian prime minister Abdalla Hamdok, and his cabinet of ministers. Hamdok described the 39-month transition period as defined by the aims of the revolution.
Events in the year 2021 in Sudan.
The following lists events during 2023 in the Republic of the Sudan.
The Battle of Khartoum is an ongoing battle for control of Khartoum, the capital of Sudan, between the paramilitary Rapid Support Forces (RSF), and the Sudanese Armed Forces. The battle began on 15 April 2023, after the RSF allegedly captured Khartoum International Airport, several military bases, and the presidential palace, starting an escalating series of clashes.
An ongoing refugee crisis began in Africa in mid-April 2023 after the outbreak of the 2023 Sudan conflict. By 19 May 2023, more than 250,000 had fled the country, while 843,000 had been internally displaced. These included diplomats and citizens and foreign nationals from countries including Somalia, Eritrea, Brazil, the United States, the United Kingdom, Kenya and Uganda. Thousands more were reported to have been displaced, mainly residents of Khartoum. On 24 April 2023, several countries including Chad and South Sudan reported several thousand civilians, some coming by bus or car or on foot in severely dangerous conditions.
The battle of Geneina is an ongoing battle for control of Geneina, the capital of West Darfur in Sudan, between the paramilitary Rapid Support Forces (RSF), and the Sudanese Armed Forces. By April 25, fighting intensified, and devolved along tribal lines, with Masalit and non-Arab peoples supporting the SAF and the aligned Joint Darfur Force, consisting of former rebel groups including the Sudan Liberation Movement/Army and the Justice and Equality Movement, against the RSF and allied Arab militias. Thousands of civilians and soldiers have been killed since the fighting broke out
The Darfur campaign or Darfur offensive is a theatre of operation in the ongoing 2023 Sudan conflict that affects five states in Darfur: South Darfur, East Darfur, North Darfur, Central Darfur and West Darfur. The offensive mainly started on 15 April 2023 in West Darfur where the RSF forces captured Geneina, the conflict came after several days of high tensions between the forces and the government.
The following is a timeline of the 2023 Sudan conflict.
The Battle of Merowe was a military engagement of the 2023 Sudan conflict between RSF and SAF for the control of the city of Merowe.
The battle of Nyala was a battle for control of Nyala, the capital of South Darfur in Sudan, between the paramilitary Rapid Support Forces (RSF), and the Sudanese Armed Forces during the ongoing Darfur campaign. The battle occurred between 15 and 20 April 2023, during which hundreds were reported dead. A civilian-brokered ceasefire paused the fighting by April 20.
The humanitarian crisis following the 2023 Sudan conflict was further exacerbated by the violence occurring during a period of high temperatures, drought and the conflict starting during the latter part of the fasting month of Ramadan. Most residents were unable to venture outside of their homes to obtain food and supplies for fear of getting caught in the crossfire. A doctors' group said that hospitals remained understaffed and were running low on supplies as wounded people streamed in. The World Health Organization recorded around 26 attacks on healthcare facilities, some of which resulted in casualties among medical workers and civilians. The Sudanese Doctors' Union said more than two-thirds of hospitals in conflict areas were out of service with 32 forcibly evacuated by soldiers or caught in the crossfire. The United Nations reported that shortages of basic goods, such as food, water, medicines and fuel have become "extremely acute". The delivery of badly-needed remittances from overseas migrant workers was also halted after Western Union announced it was closing all operations in Sudan until further notice. The World Food Programme said that more than $13 million worth of food aid destined for Sudan had been looted since the fighting broke out.
The battle of El Fasher is an ongoing battle for control of the town of El Fasher in North Darfur during the 2023 Sudan conflict. The first battle for the city took place between April 15 and April 20, and resulted in a ceasefire that held until May 12.
"Mr. Haftar, who is backed by Russia and the United Arab Emirates, sent at least one shipment of ammunition on Monday (17 April) from Libya to Sudan to replenish supplies for Gen. Dagalo," the people familiar with the matter said.
The Russian mercenary group Wagner has been supplying Sudan's Rapid Support Forces (RSF) with missiles to aid their fight against the country's army, Sudanese and regional diplomatic sources have told CNN. The sources said the surface-to-air missiles have significantly buttressed RSF paramilitary fighters and their leader Mohamed Hamdan Dagalo
Yevgeny Prigozhin, the founder of the notorious private military company Wagner, has offered weapons to the paramilitaries fighting for control of Sudan, according to American officials.
The Egyptians are already heavily involved," Cameron Hudson, a former CIA analyst, told MEE. "They are actively in the fight. There are Egyptian fighter jets that are part of these bombing campaigns. Egyptian special forces units have been deployed and the Egyptians are providing intelligence and tactical support to the SAF.
Ethiopian forces carried out an invasion and attack on Al-Fashqa, reinforced by tanks, armored vehicles, and large crowds of infantry. Immediately, the armed forces units dealt with them with their various long-range fire systems, causing them heavy losses in personnel and equipment