2024 Chadian presidential election

Last updated

2024 Chadian presidential election
Flag of Chad.svg
  2021 6 May 20242027 
  Mahamat Deby.jpg Under Secretary Nuland and Chad PM Masra at the State Dept (2024) (cropped).jpg Albert Pahimi Padacke.jpg
Nominee Mahamat Déby Succès Masra Albert Pahimi Padacké
Party MPS Les Transformateurs RNDT–Le Réveil
Popular vote3,784,3601,149,1991,048,506
Percentage61.03%18.53%16.91%

President before election

Mahamat Déby (transitional)
Military

Elected President

Mahamat Déby
MPS

Presidential elections were held in Chad on 6 May 2024. [1] [2] The elections followed a constitutional referendum held on 17 December 2023, following the death of President Idriss Déby in 2021. [3] [4] Incumbent transitional president Mahamat Déby, the son of Idriss Déby, ran as the candidate of the Patriotic Salvation Movement, winning the election and leading to another extension of 34 years of rule by the Déby family. [5] [6] [7]

Contents

Background

In October 2022, incumbent President Mahamat Déby extended the transition period for another two years. Despite previously declaring that he was not intending to succeed his father, this time he also declared that he was eligible for election for a full term. Chad's security forces gunned down at least 128 protesting people in a day and arrested hundreds more. [7]

Following the announcement of the election date on 28 February 2024, clashes broke out in the capital N'Djamena after the government said that supporters of the opposition Socialist Party without Borders (PSF) attacked the headquarters of the National State Security Agency (ANSE), and attempted to assassinate the head of the Supreme Court, Samir Adam Annour. Government forces subsequently laid siege to PSF headquarters, resulting in several deaths, [8] including that of PSF leader Yaya Dillo Djérou, Déby's cousin who had announced his intention to run for president and was regarded as his main opponent, [9] in what authorities said was a shootout. [10] The attacks were condemned by the African Union, while French Minister for Europe and Foreign Affairs Jean-Yves Le Drian called for an impartial investigation into the incident. [11]

On 12 April 2024, the United Chad party filed a complaint against the United Chad coalition of Mahamat Déby, accusing it of plagiarism. [12]

Electoral system

The President of Chad is elected for a five-year term using a two-round system, with an absolute majority required in the first round to prevent a second round of voting.

Candidates

The Chadian electoral commission announced that it would release the official list of candidates approved by the Constitutional Council on 24 March 2024. [1]

Nominated candidates

Candidate's name, age,
political party
ExperienceCampaignDetails
Mahamat Déby
(39)
Patriotic Salvation Movement
Mahamat Idriss Deby in 2022.jpg Incumbent Transitional President of Chad
(2022–present)
President of the Transitional Military Council
(2021–2022)
In 2021, Déby initially promised he would not stand in the poll to succeed his father. [7] On 13 January 2024, he was announced as the nominee of the Patriotic Salvation Movement by party secretary Mahamat Zene Bada. [13] He confirmed his candidacy on 2 March as a candidate of the wider For a United Chad coalition. [14]

Les Transformateurs

  • Succès Masra, incumbent Prime Minister of Chad (2024–present). [15] His candidacy was approved by the Constitutional Court. [16] On 10 March 2024, that he had accepted his party's nomination of him as its candidate for the presidential election. [17] After being pursued by the junta with an international arrest warrant, he returned to Chad in November 2023 after signing an agreement with the government. [7] It was the first time in Chad's history that a president and a prime minister faced each other in a presidential election. [18]

Other candidates

The candidacies of eight other candidates were approved [19] namely:

Killed candidates

Yaya Djerou YDDB.jpg
Yaya Djérou

Socialist Party Without Borders

Rejected candidates

The candidacies of ten candidates in total were rejected. [22]

Opinion polls

In a poll of 1,000 people residing in the 10 districts of N'Djamena conducted by the Center for Development Studies and the Prevention of Extremism, 487 of the respondents (50.94%) said they did not believe in the credibility of Chad's electoral authorities (the National Election Management Agency  [ fr ] (ANGE) and the Constitutional Council) because they are under the control of supporters of Mahamat Déby. Speaking of credible candidates for the presidential election, 261 (79.09%) of the 330 who did not abstain listed Succès Masra as credible, 46 (13.94%) listed Mahamat Déby, and 23 (6.97%) listed other candidates. [24]

Furthermore, only 45% of the respondents thought that the next presidential election could guarantee peace, security, and social coalition. Indicators of a likely post-election crisis focus on electoral fraud, lack of equality between candidates, and secondarily, possible violence. And when asked which indicators could lead to a post-election crisis, 47.8% thought that fraud would be the main indicator, 40.89% attribute it to the lack of equality between candidates, and 19.4% mentioned violence. Finally, the majority of those questioned (53.87%) thought that Chad is not yet on the right track path to democracy. [24]

Campaign

On 15 March, the period for submitting applications ended, around fifteen candidates submitted their applications to the Constitutional Council. [25]

On 16 March, the "We the People" coalition demanded the postponement of the presidential election and the opening of an inclusive national dialogue. [26] On 23 March, the opposition platform Wakit Tamma called for a boycott of the presidential election, criticizing a "masquerade" whose results were known in advance. [27] On 13 April, bishops of Chad called on political parties to ensure the smooth running of the presidential election. [28]

The Chadian National Election Management Authority (ANGE) issued a prohibition on taking photographs and videos of the results, as well as their publication on social media or any other radio or television platform, [29] saying that opposition parties could upload manipulated results to incite violence. [30]

As part of his campaign, Succès Masra unveiled what he called a "minimum package of dignity", which includes a five-year plan to generate 200,000 jobs, divided equally between the private and public sectors. [31]

Conduct

Early voting was conducted for members of the Chad National Army and nomads on 5 May. [32] On election day, polls opened at 07:00 and closed at 17:00. Some 8.5 million people are eligible to cast their vote. Provisional results are expected to be released by 21 May, while final results are due by 5 June. [33] Several civil society groups said that authorities rejected many of the 2,900 applications sent in by would-be observers. [34] Several violent incidents during voting were reported by local journalists, leading to the deaths of at least two people in Abéché and Moundou, [32] where a soldier was fatally stabbed by angry residents after he was reportedly caught stuffing ballot boxes in favor of Déby. [30]

Following the election, Succès Masra and his Les Transformateurs party said that he and his supporters had been subjected to threats, violence and arbitrary arrests, adding that has his residence had been placed under surveillance. Masra also accused the National Elections Management Agency of rigging the vote in favor of Mahamat Déby and urged voters to defend what he called their will expressed at the ballot box against massive electoral fraud. The Coalition of Moral Authorities for Mediation (CONAMM), an association that includes traditional rulers, clerics, former government ministers and youth and women leaders, also complained of massive fraud and intimidation during the election, including ballot-stuffing and ballot-snatching by government officials. [30] The International Federation for Human Rights said that the election appeared "neither credible, free nor democratic", while the International Crisis Group also said that "a number of problems in the run-up to the balloting cast doubt on its credibility". [35]

Results

On 9 May, just before the release of provisional results, Masra claimed victory in a live broadcast on Facebook, calling on his supporters and security forces to oppose what he saw as an attempt to steal the election. Provisional results were released later that day, indicating a decisive victory for Déby, who garnered 61.3% of the vote, surpassing the required threshold of 50% to avoid a runoff. Masra only secured 18.53% of the vote. [36] The results were announced two weeks earlier than scheduled. [37] Former prime minister and third place finisher, Albert Pahimi Padacké, congratulated Déby on his victory. [38] Gunfire was reported in N'Djamena following the release of the results, [39] while celebrations were held by Déby supporters outside the Presidential Palace. [40] At least ten people were killed in unrest that followed the announcement. [41]

On 12 May, Masra formally appealed to the Constitutional Council to have the election annulled, saying that Les Transformateurs had amassed evidence of electoral fraud. Prior to this, several of his supporters had been arrested on charges of forgery and using false documents to obtain access to vote counts. [42] On 16 May, Deby’s victory was confirmed by the Constitutional Council, which also rejected Masra’s arguments. [43]

Provisional election results

The provisional results of the election were announced by National Elections Management Agency (ANGE) on 9 May. Of the 8,202,207 registered voters, 6,224,387 voted and 23,686 votes were invalid. The turnout was 75.89%. [44] [45] [46] [47]

CandidatePartyVotes%
Mahamat Déby Patriotic Salvation Movement 3,784,36061.03
Succès Masra Les Transformateurs 1,149,19918.53
Albert Pahimi Padacké National Rally for Democracy in Chad 1,048,50616.91
Lydie Beassemda Party for Democracy and Full Independence  [ fr ]59,6690.96
Théophile Bongoro  [ fr ] Party for Rally and Equity in Chad 46,8470.76
Alladoum Djarma  [ ha ] Chadian Socialist Action for Renewal 33,7980.55
Brice Guedmbaye  [ ha ] Movement of Patriotic Chadians for the Republic 27,8830.45
Yacine Abdramane Sakine  [ fr ] Reformist Party  [ fr ]22,4950.36
Mansiri Lopsikréo  [ fr ] Les Élites 15,1880.24
Nasra Djimasngar  [ fr ] A New Day 12,7560.21
Total6,200,701100.00
Valid votes6,200,70199.62
Invalid/blank votes23,6860.38
Total votes6,224,387100.00
Registered voters/turnout8,202,20775.89
Source: Infos235

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Idriss Déby</span> 6th President of Chad from 1990 to 2021

Idriss Déby Itno was a Chadian politician and military officer who was the 6th president of Chad from 1991 until his death in 2021 during the Northern Chad offensive. His term of office of more than 30 years makes him Chad's longest-serving president.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Haroun Kabadi</span> Chadian politician

Haroun Kabadi is a Chadian politician. He was Prime Minister of Chad from June 2002 to June 2003 and was the President of the National Assembly of Chad from June 2011 to April 2021.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Elections in Chad</span> Political elections for public offices in Chad

Chad holds elections on national level for a head of state – the president – and a legislature. The president is elected for a five-year term by the people. The National Assembly has 155 members, elected for a four-year term in 25 single-member constituencies and 34 multi-member constituencies. Chad is a one party dominant state with the Patriotic Salvation Movement in power, although according to the African Union, elections in Chad are generally free and fair. Human Rights Watch, however, has criticized the election process in Chad, arguing that they have problems such as electoral fraud, multiple voting, underage voting, and low voter turnout.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Saleh Kebzabo</span> Chadian politician

Saleh Kebzabo is a Chadian politician. He is the President of the National Union for Democracy and Renewal (UNDR) and a Deputy in the National Assembly of Chad. He was designated Prime Minister by president Mahamat Déby on 12 October 2022.

The People's Movement for Democracy in Chad is a political party in Chad.

Nouradine Delwa Kassiré Koumakoye is a Chadian politician and the head of the National Rally for Development and Progress (VIVA-RNDP) political party. After serving as a minister in the government during the 1980s and early 1990s; he was Prime Minister of Chad from November 6, 1993 to April 8, 1995 and again from February 26, 2007 to April 16, 2008. In 2008, he became President of the Economic, Social and Cultural Council.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Government of Chad</span> National government of the Republic of Chad

The Government of Chad has been ruled by Mahamat Déby since 20 April 2021 as part of the National Transitional Council.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">2006 Chadian presidential election</span>

Presidential elections were held in Chad on 3 May 2006. A referendum in 2005 had led to changes to the constitution that made it possible for President Idriss Déby to run for a third term; having come to power in December 1990, he had previously won elections in 1996 and 2001. Despite a serious rebellion based in the east of the country, the elections were held on schedule; Déby was re-elected with about 65% of the vote, according to official results. The main opposition parties boycotted the election.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Ngarlejy Yorongar</span> Chadian politician

Ngarlejy Koji Yorongar le Moinban is a Chadian politician. He is the Executive Federal Coordinator of the Federation, Action for the Republic, a radical opposition party, as well as a Deputy in the National Assembly of Chad and President of the Federation Parliamentary Group.

Ibni Oumar Mahamat Saleh is a Chadian politician and opposition leader who headed the Party for Liberties and Development (PLD).

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Albert Pahimi Padacké</span> 17th Prime Minister of Chad

Albert Pahimi Padacké is a Chadian politician who was Prime Minister of Chad from 26 April 2021 to 12 October 2022. He was also Prime Minister from 2016 to 2018, when he resigned and was not replaced.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Yaya Dillo Djérou</span> Chadian politician (1974–2024)

Yaya Dillo Djérou Bétchi was a Chadian politician, and president of the opposition Socialist Party Without Borders. He was a cousin of President Mahamat Déby and a major opponent of Déby in the 2024 presidential elections. Shortly after the date of the 2024 elections was announced, Dillo was killed in a reported exchange of fire with government security forces after allegedly leading an attack on the National State Security Agency.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Mahamat Déby</span> Military leader of Chad since 2021

Mahamat Idriss Déby Itno is a Chadian politician and military officer who has been the leader of Chad since 2021, first as President of the Transitional Military Council from 2021 to 2022, then as Transitional President from 2022 to 2024, and then as the 7th President since 2024 following his victory in the presidential elections. He is also the General Secretary of the Patriotic Salvation Movement since 2022. He gained power on 20 April 2021 when his father and predecessor, Idriss Déby, died in action while commanding troops in the Northern Chad offensive. He previously served as the second in-command of the military for the Chadian Intervention in Northern Mali (FATIM).

<span class="mw-page-title-main">2016 Chadian presidential election</span>

Presidential elections were held in Chad on 10 April 2016. Incumbent President Idriss Déby was re-elected for a fifth term.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">2021 Chadian presidential election</span> Presidential elections in Chad

Presidential elections were held in Chad on 11 April 2021. Incumbent Idriss Déby, who served five consecutive terms since seizing power in the 1990 coup d'état, was running for a sixth. Déby was described as an authoritarian by several international media sources, and as "strongly entrenched". During previous elections, he forbade the citizens of Chad from making posts online, and while Chad's total ban on social media use was lifted in 2019, restrictions continue to exist.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Transitional Military Council (Chad)</span> Military junta ruling chad from 2021 to 2022

The Transitional Military Council was a military junta that ruled Chad from 2021 to 2022. It announced the death of former President Idriss Déby on 20 April 2021, and declared that it would take charge of the government of Chad and continue hostilities against FACT rebels in the north of the country. It was chaired by Mahamat Idriss Déby, the son of the late President, making him the de facto President of Chad. It was dissolved on 10 October 2022, following a "national dialogue" that named Déby Transitional President and replaced the CMT with a transitional administration appointed by him.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">National Transitional Council (Chad)</span> 2022–2024 de facto government of Chad

The National Transitional Council of Chad was the de facto government of Chad from 2022 to 2024. The CNT replaced the Transitional Military Council and the dissolved National Assembly. It acts as an interim parliament for the country in its transition to democracy, tasked with preparations for elections in 2024. It was led by the Prime Minister of Chad.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">2023 Chadian constitutional referendum</span>

A constitutional referendum in Chad was held on 17 December 2023 on a new constitution formulated following the death of President Idriss Déby in 2021. The draft had been approved by the National Transitional Council on 27 June 2023. Provisional results were announced on 24 December 2023, and they were validated by the Supreme Court of Chad on 28 December 2023.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Succès Masra</span> Prime Minister of Chad since 2024

Succès Masra is a Chadian economist and politician who has served as the Prime Minister of Chad since 1 January 2024. Having formerly worked for the African Development Bank, in 2018 he founded Les Transformateurs, a political party that became part of the opposition against former president Idriss Déby, and following Déby's death in 2021, the Transitional Military Council.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Les Transformateurs</span> Political party in Chad

The Les Transformateurs is a political party in Chad. It was part of the opposition to the Chadian President Idriss Déby, and the Transitional Military Council that succeeded him after his death in 2021.

References

  1. 1 2 "Chad's election agency sets dates for presidential polls". Africanews. 28 February 2024. Archived from the original on 28 February 2024. Retrieved 28 February 2024.
  2. "Chad To Hold Presidential Vote On May 6 To End Junta Rule". www.barrons.com. Archived from the original on 29 February 2024. Retrieved 29 February 2024.
  3. "Chad's president delays elections and expands his powers". Deutsche Welle. 13 October 2022. Archived from the original on 15 October 2022. Retrieved 15 October 2022.
  4. "Chad Leaders Urge Civilians to Participate in Sunday's Constitutional Referendum". Voice of America. 15 December 2023. Archived from the original on 18 December 2023. Retrieved 17 December 2023.
  5. "Chad's Idriss Deby, a longstanding French ally in the troubled Sahel". France 24. 20 April 2021. Archived from the original on 20 April 2021. Retrieved 20 April 2021.
  6. Henningsen, Troels Burchall (15 September 2021). "Chad has a new roadmap: why it may lead to more of the same, and not democracy". The Conversation . Archived from the original on 27 January 2022. Retrieved 23 January 2022.
  7. 1 2 3 4 "Will Chad be the next Western ally in Africa to fail?". The Economist . 23 November 2023. Archived from the original on 15 March 2024. Retrieved 15 March 2024.
  8. "Chad announces several deaths after foiled intelligence office attack". Al Jazeera. Archived from the original on 8 March 2024. Retrieved 28 February 2024.
  9. 1 2 "Chadian opposition leader dies in gun exchange, state prosecutor says". Al Jazeera. Archived from the original on 3 March 2024. Retrieved 3 March 2024.
  10. "Yaya Dillo: Chad opposition leader killed in shootout". BBC. 29 February 2024. Archived from the original on 16 March 2024. Retrieved 29 February 2024.
  11. Larcher, Laurent (11 March 2021). "Au Tchad, la campagne présidentielle se durcit". La Croix (in French). Archived from the original on 9 March 2024. Retrieved 3 March 2024.
  12. "Ndjamena: le premier dépositaire du nom «Tchad uni» porte plainte contre la coalition de Mahamat Idriss Deby Itno" [N'djamena: the first custodian of the name "United Chad" files a complaint against the coalition of Mahamat Idriss Deby Itno]. Radio France International (in French). 12 April 2024. Archived from the original on 12 April 2024. Retrieved 12 April 2024.
  13. "Opposition condemns designation of Chad's military ruler as presidential candidate". Voice of America . The Standard. 16 January 2024. Archived from the original on 22 February 2024. Retrieved 19 January 2024.
  14. "Chad's transitional leader Déby confirms candidacy for May 6 presidential vote". France 24 . 2 March 2024. Archived from the original on 2 March 2024. Retrieved 2 March 2024.
  15. "Chad's transitional leader General Mahamat Idriss Déby Itno candidate for 2024 elections". North Africa Post . 15 January 2024. Archived from the original on 23 February 2024. Retrieved 20 January 2024.
  16. "Chad: Mahamat Deby, Success Masra among 10 cleared candidates for presidential election". Africanews. 25 March 2024. Archived from the original on 25 March 2024. Retrieved 25 March 2024.
  17. "Success Masra declares candidacy for Chad's presidency". Africanews . 11 March 2024. Archived from the original on 11 March 2024. Retrieved 11 March 2024.
  18. "Chad main opposition figures barred as leaders cleared for election". Al Jazeera. Archived from the original on 25 March 2024. Retrieved 25 March 2024.
  19. "Chad: Mahamat Deby, Success Masra among 10 cleared candidates for presidential election". Africanews . 25 March 2024. Archived from the original on 25 March 2024. Retrieved 25 March 2024.
  20. "Chad's interim president the favourite as the country goes to the polls". Africanews . 3 May 2024. Archived from the original on 3 May 2024. Retrieved 3 May 2024.
  21. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 "What's at stake in Chad's presidential election?". Al Jazeera . 6 May 2024. Archived from the original on 10 May 2024. Retrieved 6 May 2024.
  22. 1 2 3 "Chad court bars key Déby opponents from May 6 presidential vote". France 24. 24 March 2024. Archived from the original on 24 March 2024. Retrieved 25 March 2024.
  23. "Chad presidential vote set to end military rule". BBC. 6 May 2024. Archived from the original on 6 May 2024. Retrieved 6 May 2024.
  24. 1 2 CEDPE. "Un sondage suscite l'enthousiasme pendant la campagne électorale au Tchad". centrerecherche.com (in French). Archived from the original on 10 May 2024. Retrieved 4 May 2024.
  25. "Afrique Tchad: fin du dépôt des candidatures pour l'élection présidentielle". RFI (in French). 16 March 2024. Archived from the original on 15 March 2024. Retrieved 16 March 2024.
  26. "Tchad: la coalition «Nous le Peuple» demande le report de la présidentielle" [Chad: the "We the People" coalition calls for the presidential election to be postponed]. RFI (in French). 17 March 2024. Archived from the original on 17 March 2024. Retrieved 17 March 2024.
  27. "Au Tchad, l'une des principales plateformes de l'opposition appelle au boycott de la présidentielle". Jeune Afrique (in French). 23 March 2024. Archived from the original on 23 March 2024. Retrieved 23 March 2024.
  28. "Afrique Présidentielle au Tchad: les évêques appellent au bon déroulement de la campagne électorale". Radio France International . 13 April 2024. Archived from the original on 14 April 2024. Retrieved 14 April 2024.
  29. "Chadians vigilant ahead of presidential elections on Monday". Africanews . 5 May 2024. Archived from the original on 4 May 2024. Retrieved 5 May 2024.
  30. 1 2 3 "Chad opposition, civil society groups complain of vote rigging and threats". VOA. 9 May 2024. Archived from the original on 9 May 2024. Retrieved 9 May 2024.
  31. "Chad goes to polls to vote for a new president". Africanews . 5 May 2024. Archived from the original on 5 May 2024. Retrieved 5 May 2024.
  32. 1 2 "Chad holds a presidential election after years of military rule". AP News. 6 May 2024. Archived from the original on 7 May 2024. Retrieved 8 May 2024.
  33. "Chad votes for president after three years of military rule". France 24 . 6 May 2024. Archived from the original on 6 May 2024. Retrieved 6 May 2024.
  34. "Chad holds a presidential election after years of military rule". Associated Press . 6 May 2024. Archived from the original on 7 May 2024. Retrieved 7 May 2024.
  35. "Chad's interim leader Déby wins presidential vote, main rival Masra disputes results". France 24. 10 May 2024. Archived from the original on 10 May 2024. Retrieved 10 May 2024.
  36. "Mahamat Déby wins Chad presidential election". BBC. Archived from the original on 9 May 2024. Retrieved 9 May 2024.
  37. "Chad Junta Chief Deby Wins Presidential Vote". Barron's. Archived from the original on 10 May 2024. Retrieved 10 May 2024.
  38. "Tchad: Pahimi Padacké félicite Mahamat Idriss Deby pour sa victoire à la présidentielle". Alwihda Info (in French). Archived from the original on 10 May 2024. Retrieved 10 May 2024.
  39. "Chad's military ruler declared winner of presidential election as opposition disputes result". Africanews. 10 May 2024. Archived from the original on 10 May 2024. Retrieved 10 May 2024.
  40. "Chad: Supporters of Mahamat Deby take to the streets in celebration of electoral win". Africanews. 10 May 2024. Archived from the original on 10 May 2024. Retrieved 10 May 2024.
  41. "Chad confirms Mahamat Idriss Déby as president". Africanews. 17 May 2024. Retrieved 17 May 2024.
  42. "Chad election runner-up Succes Masra files bid to annul presidential poll result". France 24. 13 May 2024. Archived from the original on 13 May 2024. Retrieved 13 May 2024.
  43. "Chad junta chief Mahamat Idriss Déby officially declared winner of presidential election". France 24. 16 May 2024. Retrieved 13 May 2024.
  44. "Mahamat Idriss Deby Itno déclaré vainqueur de la présidentielle du 6 mai". Tchad et culture (in French). 9 May 2024. Archived from the original on 10 May 2024. Retrieved 10 May 2024.
  45. "Présidentielle au Tchad: premières réactions au lendemain de la victoire annoncée de Mahamat Idriss Déby". Yahoo News (in French). 10 May 2024. Archived from the original on 10 May 2024. Retrieved 10 May 2024.
  46. "Election présidentielle au Tchad: ce que disent les résultats provisoires après le duel Masra – Deby". BBC News Afrique (in French). 9 May 2024. Archived from the original on 10 May 2024. Retrieved 10 May 2024.
  47. Ngarndinon, Madjissembaye (9 May 2024). "Élection présidentielle: voici les scores recueillis par les dix candidats". Tchadinfos.com (in French). Archived from the original on 9 May 2024. Retrieved 10 May 2024.