228 Peace Memorial Park

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228 Peace Memorial Park
228 Memorial Park Taipei.jpg
TypeMunicipal
Location Zhongzheng, Taipei, Taiwan
Area71,520 m2
Created1900
OpenAll year
228 Peace Memorial Park
Traditional Chinese 和平 紀念 公園
Simplified Chinese 和平 纪念 公园
Taipei 228 Memorial Museum Taipei 228 Memorial Museum 20050629.jpg
Taipei 228 Memorial Museum

The 228 Peace Memorial Park is a historic site and municipal park located at 3 Ketagalan Boulevard, Zhongzheng District, Taipei, Taiwan. The park contains memorials to victims of the February 28 Incident of 1947, including the Taipei 228 Memorial that stands at the center of the park and the Taipei 228 Memorial Museum, housed at the site of a former radio station that operated under Japanese and Kuomintang rule. The National Taiwan Museum stands at the park's north entrance. The park also has a bandshell and exercise areas.

Ketagalan Boulevard thoroughfare

Ketagalan Boulevard is an arterial road in Zhongzheng District in Taipei, Taiwan, between the Presidential Building and the East Gate (東門). It is 400 metres (1,300 ft) long and has a total of ten lanes in each direction with no median.

Zhongzheng District District in western Taipei, Republic of China

Zhongzheng District is a district in Taipei, Republic of China. It is the home of most of the national government buildings of the Republic of China, this includes the Presidential Office, the Executive Yuan, the Control Yuan, the Legislative Yuan, the Judicial Yuan and various government ministries. This district is named after Generalissimo and the late President of the Republic of China Chiang Kai-shek.

Taipei Special municipality in Republic of China

Taipei, officially known as Taipei City, is the capital and a special municipality of Taiwan. Located in the northern part of the island, Taipei City is an enclave of the municipality of New Taipei City that sits about 25 km (16 mi) southwest of the northern port city Keelung. Most of the city is located in the Taipei Basin, an ancient lakebed. The basin is bounded by the relatively narrow valleys of the Keelung and Xindian rivers, which join to form the Tamsui River along the city's western border.

Contents

History

Empire of Japan

The park was originally established in 1900 as Taihoku New Park(臺北新公園) during the Japanese colonial period, [1] on former temple grounds. It was the first European-style urban park in Taiwan, placed on the grounds of the Governor-General's Office.

Taiwan under Japanese rule Period of Taiwanese history

Japanese Taiwan was the period of Taiwan and the Penghu Islands under Japanese rule between 1895 and 1945.

Presidential Office Building

The Presidential Office Building houses the Office of the President of the Republic of China. The building, located in the Zhongzheng District in the national capital of Taipei, Taiwan, was designed by architect Uheiji Nagano during the period of Japanese rule of Taiwan (1895–1945). The structure originally housed the Office of the Governor-General of Taiwan. Damaged in Allied bombing during World War II, the building was restored after the war by Chen Yi, the Governor-General of Taiwan Province. It became the Presidential Office in 1950 after the Republic of China lost control of mainland China and relocated the nation's capital to Taipei at the end of the Chinese Civil War. At present, this Baroque-style building is a symbol of the ROC Government and a famous historical landmark in downtown Taipei.

In 1930, Taiwan's Japanese authorities established a radio station at the site. The station initially housed the Taihoku Broadcasting Bureau, an arm of the Government-General Propaganda Bureau's Information Office. The following year, the Taiwan Broadcast Association was formed to handle island-wide broadcasts. [2] The Taihoku Park radio station became the center of broadcast activity for the Association.

In 1935 it was one of the sites used for The Taiwan Exposition: In Commemoration of the First Forty Years of Colonial Rule. [3]

The Taiwan Exposition: In Commemoration of the First Forty Years of Colonial Rule

The The Taiwan Exposition: In Commemoration of the First Forty Years of Colonial Rule was an exhibition held in Taihoku Prefecture in 1935, the 10th year of Hirohito's reign, to mark 40 years of the establishment of Japanese Formosa ..

Republic of China

After the handover of Taiwan from Japan to the Republic of China in 1945, the park was renamed Taipei New Park by the government.[ citation needed ] They renamed the broadcasting agency the Taiwan Broadcasting Company. [2] The station became the primary broadcast organ of the Kuomintang government and military.

Retrocession Day day marking the anniversary of the end of Japanese rule over Taiwan on 25 October 1945

Taiwan Retrocession Day is an annual observance and unofficial holiday in the Republic of China to commemorate the end of 50 years of Japanese rule of Taiwan and Penghu, and their claimed handover to the Republic of China on 25 October 1945. However, the idea of "Taiwan retrocession" is in dispute.

Republic of China (1912–1949) 1912–1949 country in Asia, when the Republic of China governed mainland China

The Republic of China (ROC) ruled the Chinese mainland between 1912 and 1949. It was established in January 1912 after the Xinhai Revolution, which overthrew the Qing dynasty, the last imperial dynasty of China. Its government moved to Taipei in December 1949 due to the Kuomintang's defeat in the Chinese Civil War. The Republic's first president, Sun Yat-sen, served only briefly before handing over the position to Yuan Shikai, leader of the Beiyang Army. Sun's party, then led by Song Jiaoren, won the parliamentary election held in December 1912. Song Jiaoren was assassinated shortly after and the Beiyang Army led by Yuan Shikai maintained full control of the Beiyang government. Between late 1915 and early 1916, Yuan Shikai proclaimed himself as Emperor of China before abdicating due to popular unrest. After Yuan's death in 1916, the authority of the Beiyang government was further weakened by a brief restoration of the Qing dynasty. Cliques in the Beiyang Army claimed their autonomy and clashed with each other during the ensuing Warlord Era.

Government of the Republic of China ROC government since 1948

The Government of the Republic of China, commonly known as the Government of Taiwan, is the democratic, constitutional government that exercises control over Taiwan and the other islands in the free area. The president is the head of state. The government consists of five Yuans (branches), the Executive Yuan, Legislative Yuan, Judicial Yuan, Control Yuan, and Examination Yuan.

In 1947, a group of protesters, angry over a brutal police action against Taiwanese civilians, took over the station and used it to broadcast accusations against the Kuomintang government. The action formed part of a chain of events now referred to as the February 28 Incident. A subsequent, more severe crackdown by the Nationalist government restored the station to Kuomintang control and ushered in Taiwan's period of white terror. Two years later, the Kuomintang lost ground in the Chinese Civil War and its leaders retreated to Taiwan. Trying to establish themselves as China's true national government in exile, they renamed the bureau the Broadcasting Corporation of China (BCC).

In Taiwan, the White Terror was the suppression of political dissidents following the February 28 Incident.

Chinese Civil War 1927–1950 civil war in China

The Chinese Civil War was a civil war in China fought between the Kuomintang (KMT)-led government of the Republic of China and the Communist Party of China (CPC) lasting intermittently between 1927 and 1949. Although particular attention is paid to the four years of Chinese Communist Revolution from 1945 to 1949, the war actually started in August 1927, with the White Terror at the end of Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek's Northern Expedition, and essentially ended when major hostilities between the two sides ceased in 1950. The conflict took place in two stages, the first between 1927 and 1937, and the second from 1946 to 1950; the Second Sino-Japanese War from 1937 to 1945 was an interlude in which the two sides were united against the forces of Japan. The Civil War marked a major turning point in modern Chinese history, with the Communists gaining control of mainland China and establishing the People's Republic of China (PRC) in 1949, forcing the Republic of China (ROC) to retreat to Taiwan. It resulted in a lasting political and military standoff between the two sides of the Taiwan Strait, with the ROC in Taiwan and the PRC in mainland China both officially claiming to be the legitimate government of all China.

Broadcasting Corporation of China

The Broadcasting Corporation of China is a broadcasting company in the Republic of China. It was founded as the Central Broadcasting System in Nanjing in 1928.

The Taipei City government took over operation of the radio station building when the BCC moved in 1972. City officials made it the site of the Taipei City Government Parks and Street Lights Office. [2]

As Taiwan entered its modern democracy period in the 1990s, President Lee Teng-hui offered an official apology in 1995 and invited free discussion of Taiwan's past. [4] For the first time the February 28 Incident of 1947 was officially acknowledged and its significance openly debated. [5] In 1996, the Taipei City Government designated the former radio station building a historical site. Two years later, the building was made the home of the Taipei 228 Memorial Museum and the park was rededicated as 228 Peace Memorial Park. [2] [6]

The 228 Massacre Monument Taipei 228 Monument 20091118.jpg
The 228 Massacre Monument

The 228 Massacre Monument was designed by Taiwanese architect Cheng Tzu-tsai, [7] who was convicted of attempted murder in 1971 following a 1970 assassination attempt on Chiang Ching-kuo. [8] After serving his sentence, he was imprisoned for illegal entry to Taiwan in 1991 [9] and filed his design entry from prison. [10] The Monument is inscribed with an exhortation for peace and unity. [11]

Mistrust between Taiwanese and mainlanders, and the argument on whether Taiwan should declare independence or be united with China, have become hot issues with potentially worrisome implications. [...] the task of healing a serious trauma in a society must depend on the whole-hearted collaborative effort by all its people. [...] It is also hoped that these words will serve as a warning and a lesson to all Taiwanese compatriots. Henceforward, we must be one, no matter which communal group we belong; we must help each other with compassion and treat each other with sincerity; we must dissolve hatred and resentment, and bring about long lasting peace. May Heaven bless Taiwan and keep it evergreen.

Trustees of the 228 Memorial Foundation, Translation of the Inscription on the 228 Massacre Monument

Cultural references

Transportation

The nearest Taipei Metro station is National Taiwan University Hospital Station.

See also

Related Research Articles

February 28 incident 1947 anti-Kuomintang uprising in Taiwan

The February 28 incident or the February 28 massacre, also known as the 228 incident, was an anti-government uprising in Taiwan that was violently suppressed by the Kuomintang-led Republic of China government, which killed thousands of civilians beginning on February 28, 1947. The number of Taiwanese deaths from the incident and massacre was estimated to be between 5,000 and 28,000 The massacre marked the beginning of the White Terror in which tens of thousands of other Taiwanese went missing, died or were imprisoned. The incident is one of the most important events in Taiwan's modern history and was a critical impetus for the Taiwan independence movement.

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The First 228 Peace Memorial Monument

The First 228 Peace Memorial Monument is a monument in East District, Chiayi City, Taiwan. It was built in 1989, which is the earliest 228 Peace Memorial Monument built in the island. It is the only 228 Peace Memorial Monument to have been built before the 1990s. It was built as a memorial of the February 28 Incident of 1947, in which more than 10,000 Taiwan residents were killed during a uprising against the government. The monument is one of the landmarks of Chiayi City.

Juan Mei-shu or Ng Bi-chu was a Taiwanese activist, musician, and researcher. Her father was a victim of the 228 Incident, an anti-government uprising that occurred in 1947 when she was eighteen. She spent much of her life studying the event and the subsequent White Terror period.

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Hsu Hsueh-chi is a Taiwanese historian. She is a distinguished research fellow of the Academia Sinica and holds an adjunct professorship within National Taiwan Normal University's Graduate Institute of Taiwan History.

Wu Mi-cha Taiwanese politician

Wu Mi-cha is a Taiwanese historian. He was the vice chairman of the Council for Cultural Affairs from 2001 to 2004, after which he became director of the National Museum of Taiwan History. In May 2016, Wu was appointed head of Academia Historica, serving until February 2019, when he was named director of the National Palace Museum.

References

  1. Allen, Joseph R. (2005). Exhibiting the Colony, Suggesting the Nation: The Taiwan Exposition, 1935 (PDF). Modern Language Association (MLA) . Retrieved 13 November 2014.
  2. 1 2 3 4 "Taipei 228 Memorial Museum (臺北228紀念館)". culture.tw. Taiwan Ministry of Culture. Archived from the original on 29 November 2014. Retrieved 13 November 2014.
  3. "Taiwan's Most Prominent Exposition" . Retrieved 8 March 2019.
  4. "Taiwan commemorates anniversary of 1947 massacre by nationalists". The Manila Times. AFP. 1 March 1998. Retrieved 13 November 2014.
  5. Hsiao, Edwin (9 March 2007). "Sixty years on, nation marks February 28 Incident". Taiwan Today. Taipei. Archived from the original on 29 November 2014. Retrieved 13 November 2014.
  6. Tung, Beryl (1 March 1997). "Taipei dedicates park to massacre victims". The Nation. Bangkok. Reuter. Retrieved 13 November 2014.
  7. Johnson, Ian (13 December 1994). "Taiwan builds memorial to once-forbidden subject: massacre of 20,000 in 1947". The Baltimore Sun. Retrieved 12 November 2014.
  8. "Taiwan native found guilty of trying to kill politician". The Montreal Gazette. 19 May 1971. Retrieved 12 November 2014.
  9. Shu, Catherine (25 August 2010). "Weaving Taiwanese History". Taipei Times. Retrieved 13 November 2014.
  10. Kuo, Patricia (20 February 1994). "Former fugitive designs monument". Bowling Green Daily News. AP. Retrieved 12 November 2014.
  11. "Translation of the Inscription on the 228 Massacre Monument". taiwandocuments.org. Trustees of the 228 Memorial Foundation. 28 February 1998. Retrieved 13 November 2014.

Further reading

Coordinates: 25°2′30″N121°30′53″E / 25.04167°N 121.51472°E / 25.04167; 121.51472