2K11 Krug

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2K11 Krug
NATO reporting name: SA-4 "Ganef"
2P24 Krug spb.jpg
2K11 TEL in transit
TypeTransportable SAM system
Place of originSoviet Union
Service history
In service1965-present
1965- 1990s (USSR)
Used bySee list of operators
Production history
Designer Lyulev Novator
Designed1957
Manufacturer MZiK
VariantsKrug, Krug-A, Krug-M, Krug-M1, Krug-M2, Krug-M3[ clarification needed ]
Specifications (2K11 Krug [1] )
Mass28,200 kg
Length7.5 m (9.46 m with missiles)
Width3.2 m
Height4.472 m (with missiles)
Crew3 to 5

Armour 15 mm
EngineV59 V-12 water-cooled diesel
520 hp
Power/weight17.33 hp/t
Ground clearance0.44 m
Fuel capacity850 litres
Operational
range
780 km
Maximum speed 35 km/h

The 2K11 Krug (Russian : 2К11 «Круг»; English: circle ) is a Soviet and now Russian medium-range, medium-to-high altitude surface-to-air missile (SAM) system. The system was designed by NPO Novator and produced by Kalinin Machine Building Plant. Its GRAU designation is "2K11." Its NATO reporting name is SA-4 Ganef , after a word of Yiddish origin meaning "thief" or "rascal."

Contents

Development and service

Development of the Krug ZRK-SD (2K11) air defense system started in 1957 by the Lyulev OKB design bureau. It was first displayed during a parade in Moscow in May 1965. The system started to be fielded in 1967 and became fully operational in 1969. It was used by the Soviet Army as a long-range SAM.

The early version of the Krug entered service in 1965. The first operational deployment version, the Krug-A, entered service in 1967, with extensively modified versions, the Krug-M in 1971 and the Krug-M1 in 1974, which were developed to rectify problems discovered during army service. [1] A target drone called 9M316M Virazh, developed from obsolete Krug missiles, was proposed for export in 1994. [2] [3]

The 2K11 was briefly operated by the Soviet army during the war in Afghanistan in 1979 and 1980, but was withdrawn several months after the initial invasion. [4] In 1997, it was reported [2] that, between 1993 and 1996, some 27 fire units of Krug and 349 missiles had been sold to Armenia. Poland flight tested four missiles in September 2006 against P-15 Termit (SS-N-2 'Styx') targets.

The P-40 "Long Track" radar set. Longtrack.jpg
The P-40 "Long Track" radar set.

Description

Vehicles

The TEL vehicles are tracked based on a GM-123 chassis and carry two missiles each on an elevating turntable for up to 360-degree rotation and 70-degree elevation. The two primary versions of the missile in service are the 9M8M1 (former designation 3M8M1) (2K11M "Krug-M") and 9M8M2 (former designation 3M8M2) (2K11M2/3 "Krug-M1"), both of which are believed to be known to the US DoD as SA-4B. The original 9M8 (former designation 3M8) (SA-4A) was first introduced into service in 1965 and followed by the upgraded 9M8M (2K11A "Krug-A") in 1967 before the 9M8M1 in 1971 and the 9M8M2 in 1973. The 9M8M2 actually has a lower maximum engagement altitude and shorter range in exchange for better performance in engaging aircraft close to the battery. Each battery typically consists of two 9M8M1 missiles and four 9M8M2 missiles as well as the following radars:

Only "Long Track" is mounted on a modified AT-T vehicle, TEL 2P24 and "Pat Hand" 1S32 are mounted on GM-123/ GM-124. "Thin Skin" is mounted on a truck. Batteries may also feature Ural 375D trucks 2T6 carrying spare missiles for reloading the launchers.

Missile

9M8
ZRK Krug 2005 G1.jpg
TEL at Ukrainian Air Force Museum in Vinnitsa.
Type Surface-to-air missile
Place of originSoviet Union
Production history
Variants3M8 (later 9M8) Krug, 9M8M Krug-M, 9M8M1 Krug-M1, 9M8M2 Krug-M2, 9M8M3 Krug-M3.
Specifications (9M331 [1] )
Mass2,453 kg
Length8.784 m
Diameter86 cm
WarheadFrag-HE
Warhead weight150 kg
Detonation
mechanism
contact and proximity fuzes

Propellantkerosene fuelled ramjet
Operational
range
55 kilometres (34 mi)
Flight altitude24,500 metres (80,400 ft)
Boost timefour solid fuel booster rocket motors
Maximum speed Mach 4
Guidance
system
Radio command

The missiles are launched with the aid of four solid fuel rocket motors inside boosters attached to the outside of the missile. Once they have burned and the missile is aloft, a liquid-fuelled ramjet sustainer engine is ignited. It reaches speeds of up to Mach 4 and has an effective range of 50–55 km (31–34 miles) depending upon the version. It carries a 135 kg (300 lb) fragmentation warhead. Possible engagement altitudes range from 100 m to 27 km (330-88,500 feet). The 3M8 missile was designed and produced by NPO Novator.[ citation needed ]

Optical tracking is possible for guidance in a heavy ECM environment.

Survivability and anti-jamming capabilities

The Krug had several features that improved the survivability of the radar against anti-radiation missiles. In PImode (ПИ) the system only briefly illuminated the target and the computer calculated its prolonged path based on data received from early warning radars. After a longer passive period the main radar illuminated the calculated flight direction of the target for a few seconds and recalculate path of the target if necessary (if the distance between the calculated track and the actual position is greater than 7 km). As a result, the system emitted detectable signals only for a few seconds every few minutes, making it difficult to jam or launch an anti-radar missile against the Krug. The system was also able to track the target in full-passive automated PNS (ПHC) mode based on the data provided by "Long Track" mobile EWR via radio datalink. In this mode it was almost impossible to detect the Krug system until the moment of missile launch, because Krug did not emit radiation at all.

In 3M mode (3m aka three-point) the krug track on jamming signal emitting container (e.g., AN/ALQ-99). So the jamming signal that supposed to protect the aircraft made it to a target. [5]

Structure of Krug missile system

SAM-regiment have two SAM-battalions, SAM-brigade have three SAM-battalions. In each headquarter, brigade, regiment and battalion, is one command battery. In each SAM-battalion have three SAM-batteries.

Variants

2K11M
2K11M1

Operators

Map of 2K11 operators in blue with former operators in red 2K11 operators.png
Map of 2K11 operators in blue with former operators in red

Current operators

Former operators

UK MoD Intelligence assessment dated 1968. Defe44-173.jpg
UK MoD Intelligence assessment dated 1968.

Notes

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 "Almaz/Antei Concern of Air Defence – 2K11 Krug (SA-4 'Ganef') medium to high-altitude surface-to-air missile system". Jane's Information Group. 2008-07-02. Retrieved 2008-08-18.
  2. 1 2 "Krug (SA-4 'Ganef')". Jane's Information Group. 2008-02-13. Retrieved 2008-08-18.
  3. Boris Dukhov, Anatoly Shiroky, Building combat skills Archived 2011-07-17 at the Wayback Machine , Military Parade
  4. Urban, Mark. War in Afghanistan, 43, 66.
  5. Szabó, Miklós (2011). "A Krug légvédelmi rakétarendszer" (PDF). Haditechnika. 5: 33.
  6. Miller, David (2015-03-17). The Cold War: A Military History. ISBN   978-1-4668-9227-9.
  7. "Missiles 2". Archived from the original on 2012-12-23. Retrieved 2012-08-13.
  8. http://militaryrussia.ru/blog/topic-532.html

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