2K11 Krug

Last updated
2K11 Krug
NATO reporting name: SA-4 "Ganef"
2P24 Krug spb.jpg
2K11 TEL in transit
TypeTransportable SAM system
Place of originSoviet Union
Service history
In service1965-present
1965- 1990s (USSR)
Used bySee list of operators
Production history
Designer Lyulev Novator
Manufacturer MZiK
VariantsKrug, Krug-A, Krug-M, Krug-M1, Krug-M2, Krug-M3[ clarification needed ]
Specifications (2K11 Krug [1] )
Mass28,200 kg
Length7.5 m (9.46 m with missiles)
Width3.2 m
Height4.472 m (with missiles)
Crew3 to 5

Armour 15 mm
EngineV59 V-12 water-cooled diesel
520 hp
Power/weight17.33 hp/t
Ground clearance0.44 m
Fuel capacity850 litres
780 km
Maximum speed 35 km/h

The 2K11 Krug (Russian : 2К11 «Круг»; English: circle ) is a Soviet and now Russian medium-range, medium-to-high altitude surface-to-air missile (SAM) system. The system was designed by NPO Novator and produced by Kalinin Machine Building Plant. Its GRAU designation is "2K11." Its NATO reporting name is SA-4 Ganef , after a word of Yiddish origin meaning "thief" or "rascal."


Development and service

Development of the Krug ZRK-SD (2K11) air defense system started in 1957 by the Lyulev OKB design bureau. It was first displayed during a parade in Moscow in May 1965. The system started to be fielded in 1967 and became fully operational in 1969. It was used by the Soviet Army as a long-range SAM.

The early version of the Krug entered service in 1965. The first operational deployment version, the Krug-A, entered service in 1967, with extensively modified versions, the Krug-M in 1971 and the Krug-M1 in 1974, which were developed to rectify problems discovered during army service. [1] A target drone called 9M316M Virazh, developed from obsolete Krug missiles, was proposed for export in 1994. [2] [3]

The 2K11 was briefly operated by the Soviet army during the war in Afghanistan in 1979 and 1980, but was withdrawn several months after the initial invasion. [4] In 1997, it was reported [2] that, between 1993 and 1996, some 27 fire units of Krug and 349 missiles had been sold to Armenia. Poland flight tested four missiles in September 2006 against P-15 Termit (SS-N-2 'Styx') targets.

The P-40 "Long Track" radar set. Longtrack.jpg
The P-40 "Long Track" radar set.



The TEL vehicles are tracked based on a GM-123 chassis and carry two missiles each on an elevating turntable for up to 360-degree rotation and 70-degree elevation. The two primary versions of the missile in service are the 9M8M1 (former designation 3M8M1) (2K11M "Krug-M") and 9M8M2 (former designation 3M8M2) (2K11M2/3 "Krug-M1"), both of which are believed to be known to the US DoD as SA-4B. The original 9M8 (former designation 3M8) (SA-4A) was first introduced into service in 1965 and followed by the upgraded 9M8M (2K11A "Krug-A") in 1967 before the 9M8M1 in 1971 and the 9M8M2 in 1973. The 9M8M2 actually has a lower maximum engagement altitude and shorter range in exchange for better performance in engaging aircraft close to the battery. Each battery typically consists of two 9M8M1 missiles and four 9M8M2 missiles as well as the following radars:

Only "Long Track" is mounted on a modified AT-T vehicle, TEL 2P24 and "Pat Hand" 1S32 are mounted on GM-123/ GM-124. "Thin Skin" is mounted on a truck. Batteries may also feature Ural 375D trucks 2T6 carrying spare missiles for reloading the launchers.


ZRK Krug 2005 G1.jpg
TEL at Ukrainian Air Force Museum in Vinnitsa.
Type Surface-to-air missile
Place of originSoviet Union
Production history
Variants3M8 (later 9M8) Krug, 9M8M Krug-M, 9M8M1 Krug-M1, 9M8M2 Krug-M2, 9M8M3 Krug-M3.
Specifications (9M331 [1] )
Mass2,453 kg
Length8.784 m
Diameter86 cm
Warhead weight150 kg
contact and proximity fuzes

Propellantkerosene fuelled ramjet
55 kilometres (34 mi)
Flight altitude24,500 metres (80,400 ft)
Boost timefour solid fuel booster rocket motors
Maximum speed Mach 4
Radio command

The missiles are launched with the aid of four solid fuel rocket motors inside boosters attached to the outside of the missile. Once they have burned and the missile is aloft, a liquid-fuelled ramjet sustainer engine is ignited. It reaches speeds of up to Mach 4 and has an effective range of 50–55 km (31–34 miles) depending upon the version. It carries a 135 kg (300 lb) fragmentation warhead. Possible engagement altitudes range from 100 m to 27 km (330-88,500 feet). The 3M8 missile was designed and produced by NPO Novator.[ citation needed ]

Optical tracking is possible for guidance in a heavy ECM environment.

Survivability and anti-jamming capabilities

The Krug had several features that improved the survivability of the radar against anti-radiation missiles. In PImode (ПИ) the system only briefly illuminated the target and the computer calculated its prolonged path based on data received from early warning radars. After a longer passive period the main radar illuminated the calculated flight direction of the target for a few seconds and recalculate path of the target if necessary (if the distance between the calculated track and the actual position is greater than 7 km). As a result, the system emitted detectable signals only for a few seconds every few minutes, making it difficult to jam or launch an anti-radar missile against the Krug. The system was also able to track the target in full-passive automated PNS (ПHC) mode based on the data provided by "Long Track" mobile EWR via radio datalink. In this mode it was almost impossible to detect the Krug system until the moment of missile launch, because Krug did not emit radiation at all.

In 3M mode (3m aka three-point) the krug track on jamming signal emitting container (e.g., AN/ALQ-99). So the jamming signal that supposed to protect the aircraft made it to a target. [5]

Structure of Krug missile system

SAM-regiment have two SAM-battalions, SAM-brigade have three SAM-battalions. In each headquarter, brigade, regiment and battalion, is one command battery. In each SAM-battalion have three SAM-batteries.




Map of 2K11 operators in blue with former operators in red 2K11 operators.png
Map of 2K11 operators in blue with former operators in red

Current operators

Former operators

UK MoD Intelligence assessment dated 1968. Defe44-173.jpg
UK MoD Intelligence assessment dated 1968.


  1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 "Almaz/Antei Concern of Air Defence – 2K11 Krug (SA-4 'Ganef') medium to high-altitude surface-to-air missile system". Jane's Information Group. 2008-07-02. Retrieved 2008-08-18.
  2. 1 2 "Krug (SA-4 'Ganef')". Jane's Information Group. 2008-02-13. Retrieved 2008-08-18.
  3. Boris Dukhov, Anatoly Shiroky, Building combat skills Archived 2011-07-17 at the Wayback Machine , Military Parade
  4. Urban, Mark. War in Afghanistan, 43, 66.
  5. Szabó, Miklós (2011). "A Krug légvédelmi rakétarendszer" (PDF). Haditechnika. 5: 33.
  6. Miller, David (2015-03-17). The Cold War: A Military History. ISBN   978-1-4668-9227-9.
  7. "Missiles 2". Archived from the original on 2012-12-23. Retrieved 2012-08-13.
  8. http://militaryrussia.ru/blog/topic-532.html

Related Research Articles

S-300 missile system Long-range SAM system

The S-300 is a series of initially Soviet and later Russian long range surface-to-air missile systems produced by NPO Almaz, based on the initial S-300P version. The S-300 system was developed to defend against aircraft and cruise missiles for the Soviet Air Defence Forces. Subsequent variations were developed to intercept ballistic missiles. The S-300 system was first deployed by the Soviet Union in 1979, designed for the air defence of large industrial and administrative facilities, military bases and control of airspace against enemy strike aircraft. The system is fully automated, though manual observation and operation are also possible. Components may be near the central command post, or as distant as 40 km. Each radar provides target designation for the central command post. The command post compares the data received from the targeting radars up to 80 km apart, filtering false targets, a difficult task at such great distances. The central command post features both active and passive target detection modes.

Akash (missile) Indian surface to air missile series

Akash is a medium-range mobile surface-to-air missile defense system developed by the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) and produced by Bharat Dynamics Limited (BDL) for Missile Systems, Bharat Electronics (BEL), Tata Power Strategic Engineering Division and Larsen & Toubro for other radars, control centers, launcher systems in India. The Akash New Generation missile system can target aircraft up to 50–60 km (31–37 mi) away, at altitudes up to 18,000 m. It has the capability to neutralise aerial targets like fighter jets, cruise missiles and air-to-surface missiles as well as ballistic missiles. It is in operational service with the Indian Army and the Indian Air Force.

2K12 Kub Type of Tracked medium-range surface-to-air missile system

The 2K12 "Kub" mobile surface-to-air missile system is a Soviet low to medium-level air defence system designed to protect ground forces from air attack. "2К12" is the GRAU designation of the system.

S-125 Neva/Pechora Type of short-range SAM system

The S-125 Neva/Pechora Soviet surface-to-air missile system was designed by Aleksei Isaev to complement the S-25 and S-75. It has a shorter effective range and lower engagement altitude than either of its predecessors and also flies slower, but due to its two-stage design it is more effective against more maneuverable targets. It is also able to engage lower flying targets than the previous systems, and being more modern it is much more resistant to ECM than the S-75. The 5V24 (V-600) missiles reach around Mach 3 to 3.5 in flight, both stages powered by solid fuel rocket motors. The S-125, like the S-75, uses radio command guidance. The naval version of this system has the NATO reporting name SA-N-1 Goa and original designation M-1 Volna.

S-200 (missile) Surface-to-air missile system

The NPO Almaz S-200 Angara/Vega/Dubna, NATO reporting name SA-5 Gammon, is a very long range, medium-to-high altitude surface-to-air missile (SAM) system designed in the 1960s to defend large areas from bomber attack or other strategic aircraft. Each battalion has 6 single-rail missile launchers for the 10.8 m (35 ft) long missiles and a fire control radar. It can be linked to other, longer-range radar systems.

9K33 Osa Vehicle-launched surface-to-air missile system

The 9K33 Osa is a highly mobile, low-altitude, short-range tactical surface-to-air missile system developed in the Soviet Union in the 1960s and fielded in 1972. Its export version name is Romb.

9K31 Strela-1 Type of Vehicle-mounted SAM system

The 9K31 Strela-1 is a highly mobile, short-range, low altitude infra-red guided surface-to-air missile system. Originally developed by the Soviet Union under the GRAU designation 9K31, it is commonly known by its NATO reporting name, SA-9 "Gaskin". The system consists of a BRDM-2 amphibious vehicle, mounting two pairs of ready-to-fire 9M31 missiles.

Buk missile system Russian surface-to-air missile system

The Buk missile system is a family of self-propelled, medium-range surface-to-air missile systems developed by the Soviet Union and its successor state, the Russian Federation, and designed to counter cruise missiles, smart bombs, fixed- and rotary-wing aircraft, and unmanned aerial vehicles.

Tor missile system Type of Tracked SAM system

The Tor missile system is an all-weather low to medium altitude, short-range surface-to-air missile system designed for destroying airplanes, helicopters, cruise missiles, precision guided munitions, unmanned aerial vehicles and short-range ballistic threats (anti-munitions). Originally developed by the Soviet Union under the GRAU designation 9K330 Tor, the system is commonly known by its NATO reporting name, SA-15 "Gauntlet". A navalized variant was developed under the name 3K95 "Kinzhal", also known as the SA-N-9 "Gauntlet". Tor was also the first air defence system in the world designed from the start to shoot down precision guided weapons like the AGM-86 ALCM day and night, in bad weather and jamming situations. Tor can detect targets while on the move. The vehicle must stop intermittently when firing, although trials are being conducted to eliminate this restriction.

Active radar homing

Active radar homing (ARH) is a missile guidance method in which a missile contains a radar transceiver and the electronics necessary for it to find and track its target autonomously. NATO brevity code for an air-to-air active radar homing missile launch is fox three.

MIM-23 Hawk 1960s surface-to-air missile family by Raytheon

The Raytheon MIM-23 HAWK is an American medium-range surface-to-air missile. It was designed to be a much more mobile counterpart to the MIM-14 Nike Hercules, trading off range and altitude capability for a much smaller size and weight. Its low-level performance was greatly improved over Nike through the adoption of new radars and a continuous wave semi-active radar homing guidance system. It entered service with the US Army in 1959.

Rajendra Radar Fire-control radar

Rajendra is a passive electronically scanned array radar developed by the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO). It is a multifunction radar, capable of surveillance, tracking and engaging low radar cross section targets. It is a ground surveillance radar and is a great source of surveillance operating at frequency around 20 GHz. It is mainly used to track enemy's installations.

S-75 Dvina Type of Strategic SAM system

The S-75 is a Soviet-designed, high-altitude air defence system, built around a surface-to-air missile with command guidance. Following its first deployment in 1957 it became one of the most widely deployed air defence systems in history. It scored the first destruction of an enemy aircraft by a surface-to-air missile, with the shooting down of a Taiwanese Martin RB-57D Canberra over China on 7 October 1959 that was hit by a salvo of three V-750 (1D) missiles at an altitude of 20 km (65,600 ft). This success was credited to Chinese fighter aircraft at the time to keep the S-75 program secret.

2K22 Tunguska Tracked SPAAW system

The 2K22 Tunguska is a Russian tracked self-propelled anti-aircraft weapon armed with a surface-to-air gun and missile system. It is designed to provide day and night protection for infantry and tank regiments against low-flying aircraft, helicopters, and cruise missiles in all weather conditions. The NATO reporting name for the missile used by the weapon system is SA-19 "Grison".

QW-1 Vanguard Chinese surface-to-air missile

The People's Republic of China-developed QW-1 Vanguard is an all-aspect man-portable surface-to-air missile, from which a series of missiles were developed.

S-300VM missile system Type of Mobile surface-to-air missile/anti-ballistic missile system

The S-300VM "Antey-2500" is a Russian anti-ballistic missile system. The system is designed to defeat short- and medium-range ballistic missile, aeroballistic, cruise missiles, fixed-wing aircraft, as well as loitering ECM platforms and precision-guided munitions.

KS-1 (missile)

The Kai Shan - 1 (KS-1) (凯山一号) is the first Chinese surface-to-air missile to adopt a phased array radar.

NPO Novator

NPO Novator is a Russian company that designs long-range anti-aircraft missiles. It was established in 1947 as OKB-8 in Sverdlovsk, became independent in 1991, and then became part of the Almaz-Antey conglomerate. It is perhaps best known for designing the 9M82 and 9M83 missiles of the S-300V SAM system.

The Syrian Air Defense Force (SyADF), officially the Syrian Arab Air Defense Force, is an independent command within the Syrian Armed Forces. The SyADF is one of the most powerful and combat-tested air defence forces in the region.

120 Squadron SAAF

120 Squadron SAAF was a South African Air Force squadron formed in 1970 to operate the South African/French Cactus surface-to-air missile systems in an air defence role. The unit was disbanded when the Cactus system was retired from service in the late 1980s.