2K6 Luna

Last updated
2K6 Luna
2P16 Luna.jpg
2P16 TEL with 3R9 missile
TypeArtillery rocket system
Place of originFlag of the Soviet Union.svg  Soviet Union
Service history
In service1960–1982 (USSR)
Production history
DesignerNII-1 and TsNII-58
Produced1960–1964
No. built432 SPU 2P16
Variants3R10 (nuclear) (FROG-5), 3R9 (HE) (FROG-3)
Specifications
Crew5

Maximum firing range45 km (28 mi) (3R9)
WarheadHigh explosive, nuclear

EngineRDTT 3Zh6
Guidance
system
Ballistic
Launch
platform
2P16 (PT-76-based)

The 2K6 Luna (Russian : Луна; English: moon ) is a Soviet short-range artillery rocket complex. Luna rockets are solid-fuel,[ citation needed ] unguided and spin-stabilized. "2K6" is its GRAU designation. Its NATO reporting names are FROG-3 (with 3R9 missile) and FROG-5 (with 3R10 missile). From 1965, the 2K6 Luna was replaced by the far more successful 9K52 Luna-M, which was known in the West as the FROG-7.

Contents

Design history

The Luna system was developed in NII-1 from 1953, under the supervision of N. P. Mazurov. Luna followed the earlier designs 2K1 Mars and 2K4 Filin. While NII-1 was responsible for the rocket, the launch and transporter-loader vehicles were designed by TsNII-58. The initial system name was S-125A "Pion". [1] In 1957 the prototypes of the launch vehicle (SPU S-123A on Ob'yekt 160 chassis), the transloader (TZM S-124A on Ob'yekt 161 chassis) and the 3R5 rocket were ready for evaluations. These were carried out in 1958 in Kapustin Yar and in 1959 in the Transbaikal Military District. As a result of these evaluations, it was decided to abandon the TZM, to improve the SPU and to redesign the rocket. This led to the development of the 3R9 and 3R10 rockets. The decision to start series production was taken on 29 December 1959. The first five systems were ready in January 1960 after which the state acceptance trials were carried out until March of that same year. In 1960 the Luna system entered service with the Soviet Army where it remained until 1982. [2] From 1960 till 1964, a total of 432 SPU 2P16s were produced. In the first year alone, 80 launch vehicles and 365 rockets were finished. [1]

System description

The missile complex consisted of [2]

There have been a couple of variants of the launch vehicle, for example the 2P21, also known as Br-226-II, on ZiL-134 8x8 truck, but these never entered service.

The FROG-6 is, according to Western sources [3] the NATO designator for the truck-based training system PV-65. Russian sources [2] however claim that this system is the prototype of the Br-226-I launch vehicle on KrAZ-214.

Operational history

Luna entered service in 1960 and remained in service with the Soviet Army until 1982. Each Motorised Rifle and Tank Division had one Rocket Battalion with two batteries, each with two 2P16s. [2] During the Cuban Missile Crisis, 36 2K6 missiles (24 with conventional warheads, 12 with two-kiloton nuclear warheads) with six launchers were located in Cuba. Although some authorities dispute whether local commanders had authority to use nuclear weapons, they were present and it is argued that if pressured, Soviet soldiers might have used them. [4]

Operators

Related Research Articles

Intercontinental ballistic missile Ballistic missile with a range of more than 5,500 kilometres

An intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) is a missile with a minimum range of 5,500 kilometres (3,400 mi) primarily designed for nuclear weapons delivery. Similarly, conventional, chemical, and biological weapons can also be delivered with varying effectiveness, but have never been deployed on ICBMs. Most modern designs support multiple independently targetable reentry vehicles (MIRVs), allowing a single missile to carry several warheads, each of which can strike a different target. Russia, United States, China, France, India, United Kingdom, and North Korea are the only countries that have operational ICBMs.

Dongfeng (missile) Peoples Republic of Chinas Intercontinental Ballistic Missile

The Dongfeng series, typically abbreviated as "DF missiles", are a family of short, medium, intermediate-range and intercontinental ballistic missiles operated by the Chinese People's Liberation Army Rocket Force.

R-7 Semyorka Intercontinental ballistic missile

The R-7 Semyorka, officially the GRAU index 8K71, was a Soviet missile developed during the Cold War, and the world's first intercontinental ballistic missile. The R-7 made 28 launches between 1957 and 1961, but was never deployed operationally. A derivative, the R-7A, was deployed from 1959 to 1968. To the West it was unknown until its launch. In modified form, it launched Sputnik 1, the first artificial satellite, into orbit, and became the basis for the R-7 family which includes Sputnik, Luna, Molniya, Vostok, and Voskhod space launchers, as well as later Soyuz variants.

T-62 1961 Soviet medium tank

The T-62 is a Soviet medium tank that was first introduced in 1961. As a further development of the T-55 series, the T-62 retained many similar design elements of its predecessor including low profile and thick turret armour. In contrast with previous tanks, which were armed with rifled tank guns, the T-62 was the first tank armed with a smoothbore tank gun that could fire APFSDS rounds at higher velocities. While the T-62 became the standard tank in the Soviet arsenal, it did not fully replace the T-55 in export markets due to its higher manufacturing costs and maintenance requirements compared to its predecessor. Although the T-62 was replaced in Russia and the successor states of the Soviet Union, it is still used in some countries and its design features became standardised in subsequent Soviet and Russian mass-produced tanks.

Strategic Rocket Forces Russian military unit

The Strategic Rocket Forces of the Russian Federation or the Strategic Missile Forces of the Russian Federation are a separate-troops branch of the Russian Armed Forces that control Russia's land-based intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs).

PT-76 Amphibious Light tank

The PT-76 is a Soviet amphibious light tank that was introduced in the early 1950s and soon became the standard reconnaissance tank of the Soviet Army and the other Warsaw Pact armed forces. It was widely exported to other friendly states, like India, Iraq, Syria, North Korea and North Vietnam.

BMD-1 Airborne infantry fighting vehicle

The BMD-1 is a Soviet airborne amphibious tracked infantry fighting vehicle, which was introduced in 1969 and first seen by the West in 1970. BMD stands for Boyevaya Mashina Desanta. It can be dropped by parachute and although it resembles the BMP-1 it is in fact much smaller. The BMD-1 was used as an IFV by the Soviet Army's airborne divisions. An improved variant of the BMD-1 was developed, the BMD-2. The BMD-1 also provided a basis for the BTR-D airborne multi-purpose tracked APC.

R-36 (missile) Type of intercontinental ballistic missile designed by the Soviet Union

The R-36 is a family of intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs) and space launch vehicles (Tsyklon) designed by the Soviet Union during the Cold War. The original R-36 was deployed under the GRAU index 8K67 and was given the NATO reporting name SS-9 Scarp. It was able to carry three warheads and was the first Soviet MRV(multiple reentry vehicle) missile. The later version, the R-36M was produced under the GRAU designations 15A14 and 15A18 and was given the NATO reporting name SS-18 Satan. This missile was viewed by certain United States analysts as giving the Soviet Union first strike advantage over the U.S., particularly because of its rapid silo-reload ability, very heavy throw weight and extremely large number of re-entry vehicles. Some versions of the R-36M were deployed with 10 warheads and up to 40 penetration aids and the missile's high throw-weight made it theoretically capable of carrying more warheads or penetration aids. Contemporary U.S. missiles, such as the Minuteman III, carried up to three warheads at most.

RT-2PM Topol Intercontinental ballistic missile

The RT-2PM Topol is a mobile intercontinental ballistic missile designed in the Soviet Union and in service with Russia's Strategic Missile Troops. By the early 2020s, all SS-25 ICBMs will be replaced by versions of Topol-M.

R-14 Chusovaya Intermediate-range ballistic missile

The R-14 Chusovaya was a single stage Intermediate-range ballistic missile developed by the Soviet Union during the Cold War. It was given the NATO reporting name SS-5 Skean and was known by GRAU index 8K65. It was designed by Mikhail Yangel. Chusovaya is the name of a river in Russia. Line production was undertaken by Facility No. 1001 in Krasnoyarsk.

R-12 Dvina Medium-range ballistic missile

The R-12 Dvina was a theatre ballistic missile developed and deployed by the Soviet Union during the Cold War. Its GRAU designation was 8K63, and it was given the NATO reporting name of SS-4 Sandal. The R-12 rocket provided the Soviet Union with the capability to attack targets at medium ranges with a megaton-class thermonuclear warhead and constituted the bulk of the Soviet offensive missile threat to Western Europe. Deployments of the R-12 missile in Cuba caused the Cuban Missile Crisis in 1962. A total of 2335 missiles were produced; all were destroyed in 1993 under the START II treaty.

OTR-23 Oka Theatre ballistic missileShort-range ballistic missile

The OTR-23 Oka was a mobile theatre ballistic missile deployed by the Soviet Union near the end of the Cold War to replace the obsolete SS-1C 'Scud B'. It carried the GRAU index 9K714 and was assigned the NATO reporting name SS-23 Spider. The introduction of the Oka significantly strengthened Soviet theatre nuclear capabilities as its range and accuracy allowed it not only to strike hardened NATO targets such as airfields, nuclear delivery systems, and command centers, but moving targets as well. It also had a fast reaction time, being able to fire in approximately five minutes, and was nearly impossible to intercept, thereby allowing it to penetrate defenses.

OTR-21 Tochka Tactical ballistic missile

OTR-21 Tochka is a Soviet tactical ballistic missile. Its GRAU designation is 9K79; its NATO reporting name is SS-21 Scarab. It is transported in a 9P129 vehicle and raised prior to launch. It uses an inertial guidance system.

GRAU Department of the Russian Ministry of Defense.

The Main Missile and Artillery Directorate of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation, commonly referred to by its transliterated Russian acronym GRAU (ГРАУ), is a department of the Russian (ex-Soviet) Ministry of Defense. It is subordinate to the Chief of Armament and Munition of the Russian Armed Forces, a vice-minister of defense.

9K52 Luna-M Artillery rocket

The 9K52 Luna-M is a Soviet short-range artillery rocket system which fires unguided and spin-stabilized 9M21 rockets. It was originally developed in the 1960s to provide divisional artillery support using tactical nuclear weapons but gradually modified for conventional use. The 9K52 was eventually succeeded by the OTR-21 Tochka.

ZIL-135 Motor vehicle

The ZIL-135 is a large, eight-wheeled military transport and self-propelled artillery truck produced in the Cold War by the Soviet Union starting in 1959. Its purpose was to carry and launch an artillery missile, specifically a FROG-7, from surface-to-surface. The ZIL-135 was widely exported to other communist countries, most notably North Korea, where it is a common sight in films and military marches. It also served as the TEL for the BM-27 Uragan artillery rocket system.

T-80 models

List of models and variants of the T-80 main battle tank.

R-11 Zemlya

The R-11 Zemlya, GRAU index 8A61 was a Soviet tactical ballistic missile. It is also known by its NATO reporting name SS-1b Scud-A. It was the first of several similar Soviet missiles to be given the reporting name Scud. Variant R-11M was accepted into service, with GRAU index 9K51.

BMP development

The BMP series of infantry fighting vehicles were among the first production line Infantry Fighting Vehicles. Included in the series are the mainline BMPs, the airborne variant BMDs, and licensed modified and reverse engineered versions. BMP stands for Boyevaya Mashina Pekhoty, meaning "infantry fighting vehicle"). They were initially developed in the 1960s in the Soviet Union.

Missile vehicle

In the military, vehicles such as trucks or tractor units can be used to transport or launch missiles, essentially a form of rocket artillery. Such a vehicle may transport one or multiple missiles. The missile vehicle may be a self-propelled unit or the missile holder/launcher may be on a trailer towed by a prime mover. They are used in the military forces of a number of countries in the world. Long missiles are commonly transported parallel to the ground on these vehicles, but elevated into an inclined or vertical position for launching. Missile vehicles include transporter erector launchers (TEL) and multiple rocket launchers (MRL) such as the Patriot missile system. Single or dual missile vehicles often transport their missiles uncovered. The missile batteries of multiple rocket launchers often hold their missiles inside tubular or rectangular canisters for each missile, from which the missiles or rockets can be launched. Many missile trucks use pneumatic (air-filled) tires, although they may be large and specialized for offroad travel. However, some missile vehicles use tractor crawler drive similar to that of a tank.

References

  1. 1 2 Solyankin, A.G.; Zheltov, I.G.; Kudryashov, K.N. (2010). Otechestvenniye Bronirovanniye Mashiny - XX Vek, Tom 3: 1946-1965. OOO "Tsejkhgauz". p. 530-533. ISBN   978-5-9771-0106-6
  2. 1 2 3 4 "Домен не доступен".
  3. 1 2 3 Steven J. Zaloga - The Scud and other Russian Ballistic Missile Vehicles - Concord Publications Company #7037 - ISBN   962-361-675-9
  4. Norris, Robert S. (24 October 2012), The Cuban Missile Crisis: A Nuclear Order of Battle October/November 1962 (PDF), Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, archived from the original (PDF) on 20 October 2018
  5. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 "Trade Registers". Armstrade.sipri.org. Retrieved 20 June 2013.
  6. The Military Balance 1979-1980
  7. Gau L-R., Plate J., Siegert J. (2001) Deutsche Militärfahrzeuge - Bundeswehr und NVA. Motorbuch Verlag. ISBN   3-613-02152-8
  8. The Military Balance 2010
  9. Robert Rochowicz (2018) (in Polish). Rakiety operacyjne i taktyczne w Siłach Zbrojnych PRL. „Poligon” No. 1/2018(62), p. 56-63, ISSN 1895-3344