|Parliaments of England|
|List of Parliaments of England|
The Second Parliament of Charles I was summoned by Charles I of England on 26 December 1625 in another attempt to solve his growing monetary problems.
The King deliberately set out to secure a more docile body than his 1st Parliament by attempting to reduce the numerical strength of his opponents that were returned to the House of Commons. The main tactic he employed was to ensure that a number of the people who were potentially troublesome MPs were chosen to be sheriffs of their county.This prevented the MPs from being elected to parliament since a sheriff was expected to remain within his county during his period in office.
Charles also raised some other potential trouble makers to aristocratic titles which again made them ineligible for the Commons. Of course, this tactic gave them an automatic place in the House of Lords, which at least one of the new lords used to continue his attacks on Charles’ policies.
The newly chosen members of the House of Commons met for the first time at Westminster on 6 February 1626, a few days after Charles’ coronation. The first business was the election of a Speaker. Having chosen Sir Heneage Finch as Speaker, the Commons then had to decide who would preach to them at their first service in St Margaret's, Westminster, which the Commons preferred to Westminster Abbey because the Abbey services involved rituals with which the Puritans felt uncomfortable. The commons rejected John Donne, Dean of St Paul's and chose instead the Dean of Canterbury.Having decided this weighty issue, the Commons could turn its attention to the other matters facing the country.
Although this session of parliament had been called by the King to address his financial problems, the Commons continued to have other ideas about the country's priorities. The topic they considered most significant was the role of the Duke of Buckingham as the King's advisor. For a while, the issue remained beneath the surface, but a large section of the Commons was determined to attack his authority when the opportunity arose.In the meantime, they once again ensured that the Commons did not grant the King any new taxes while Buckingham remained in office. In the end, it was the opposition of the Commons to Buckingham that led to the dissolution of Parliament.
The Commons were anxious to separate the King from his advisors. To some extent it was a polite fiction that the King was not himself behaving wrongly, but that he was badly advised. However, among many members of parliament there was a genuine dislike for the Duke of Buckingham. Buckingham had originally been a favourite of the James I and had a great deal of contact with Charles while he was growing up. With the accession of Charles as king, Buckingham began to play an ever-growing role in the formulation and execution of policy. The Commons openly criticised him and would not provide the King with money until their complaints about him had been addressed. On 18 March, the house considered the report from the committee for evils, causes and remedies which put forward six complaints about the Duke of Buckingham.
Charles attempted to intimidate the Commons into granting him his revenue before it considered Buckingham's impeachment.However, the members of the Commons were in no mood to back down. Instead, the attacks on Buckingham intensified. On 15 June, Charles I dissolved the parliament of 1626 before it had voted him any significant new money in order to prevent Buckingham being impeached. When asked by a group of Peers to delay the dissolution, Charles replied “not by a second”.
Charles I was King of England, King of Scotland, and King of Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution in 1649.
Charles Montagu, 1st Earl of Halifax was an English poet and statesman.
John Pym, was an English politician, who helped establish the foundations of Parliamentary democracy in history. One of the Five Members whose attempted arrest in January 1642 sparked the First English Civil War, his use of procedure to out manoeuvre his opponents was unusual for the period, and as a result, he was respected, rather than admired.
William Strode was an English politician who sat in the House of Commons variously between 1624 and 1645. He was one of the Five Members whose impeachment and attempted unconstitutional arrest by King Charles I in the House of Commons in 1642 sparked the Civil War, during which he fought on the Parliamentarian side.
Thomas Wentworth, 1st Earl of Strafford was an English statesman and a major figure in the period leading up to the English Civil War. He served in Parliament and was a supporter of King Charles I. From 1632 to 1640 he was Lord Deputy of Ireland, where he established a strong authoritarian rule. Recalled to England, he became a leading advisor to the King, attempting to strengthen the royal position against Parliament. When Parliament condemned Wentworth to death, Charles reluctantly signed the death warrant and Wentworth was executed.
The Cavalier Parliament of England lasted from 8 May 1661 until 24 January 1679. It was the longest English Parliament, enduring for nearly 18 years of the quarter-century reign of Charles II of England. Like its predecessor, the Convention Parliament, it was overwhelmingly Royalist and is also known as the Pensioner Parliament for the many pensions it granted to adherents of the King.
Anthony Ashley Cooper, 1st Earl of Shaftesbury PC, known as Anthony Ashley Cooper from 1621 to 1630, as Sir Anthony Ashley Cooper, 2nd Baronet from 1630 to 1661, and as The Lord Ashley from 1661 to 1672, was a prominent English politician during the Interregnum and the reign of King Charles II. A founder of the Whig party, he was also the patron of John Locke.
Thomas Osborne, 1st Duke of Leeds, KG, was a prominent English politician. Under King Charles II, he was the leading figure in the government for around five years in the mid 1670s. He fell out of favour due to corruption and other scandals, and was impeached and eventually imprisoned in the Tower of London for five years until the accession of James II of England in 1685. In 1688 he was one of the Immortal Seven group that invited William III, Prince of Orange to depose James II as monarch during the Glorious Revolution. He was again the leading figure in government, known at the time as the Marquess of Carmarthen, for a few years in the early 1690s.
Algernon Percy, 10th Earl of Northumberland, 4th Baron Percy, KG was an English aristocrat, and supporter of the Parliamentary cause in the First English Civil War.
Tonnage and poundage were duties and taxes first levied in Edward II's reign on every tun (cask) of imported wine, which came mostly from Spain and Portugal, and on every pound weight of merchandise exported or imported. Traditionally tonnage and poundage was granted by Parliament to the king for life, but this practice did not continue into the reign of Charles I. Tonnage and poundage were swept away by the Customs and Excise Act 1787.
Francis Mitchell was the last English knight of the realm to be publicly degraded, after being found guilty of extorting money from licensees following his being granted monopoly on the licensing of inns by George Villiers, 1st Duke of Buckingham and James I.
The Cádiz expedition of 1625 was a naval expedition against Spain by English and Dutch forces. The plan was put forward because after the Dissolution of the Parliament of 1625, the Duke of Buckingham, Lord High Admiral, wanted to undertake an expedition that would match the exploits of the raiders of the Elizabethan era and in doing so, would return respect to the country and its people after the political stress of the preceding years.
Sir RanulphCrewe was an English judge and Chief Justice of the King's Bench.
Sir John Maynard KS was an English lawyer and politician, prominent under the reigns of Charles I, the Commonwealth, Charles II, James II and William III.
Henry Powle was an English lawyer and politician who sat in the House of Commons at various times between 1660 and 1690. He was Speaker of the House of Commons from January 1689 to February 1689. He was also Master of the Rolls.
Sir Benjamin Rudyerd or Rudyard was an English poet and politician who sat in the House of Commons at various times between 1621 and 1648. He was also a colonial investor who was one of the incorporators of the Providence Company in 1630. He was a moderate supporter of the Parliamentary cause in the English Civil War.
John Wilde was an English lawyer and politician. As a serjeant-at-law he was referred to as Serjeant Wilde before he was appointed judge. He was a judge, chief baron of the exchequer, and member of the Council of State of the Commonwealth period.
The Useless Parliament was the first Parliament of England of the reign of King Charles I, sitting only from June until August 1625. It gained its name because it transacted no significant business, making it 'useless' from the king's point of view. Parliament adjourned to Oxford on 1 August, and was dissolved on 12 August, having offended the king.
Sir John Eliot was an English statesman who was serially imprisoned in the Tower of London, where he eventually died, by King Charles I for advocating the rights and privileges of Parliament.
The 3rd Parliament of King Charles I was summoned by King Charles I of England on 31 January 1628 and first assembled on 17 March 1628. The elected Speaker of the House of Commons was Sir John Finch, the Member of Parliament for Canterbury.