|Type|| Cruise missile |
Submarine-launched cruise missile
Air-launched cruise missile
|Place of origin||Russia|
|Used by||See Operators|
|Wars||Syrian Civil War|
|Manufacturer||Novator Design Bureau, KTRV, MKB Fakel, NPO Mash, Raduga, NPO Zvezda Strela (Orenburg)|
|Mass||Varies on variant, from 1,300 kg-1,780 kg-2,300 kg|
|Length||Varies on variant, from 6.2 m to 8.9 m|
|Warhead||400-500 kg HE or thermonuclear|
|Engine||Multi-stage solid-fuel rocket, turbojet engine for 3M-54/E/TE/E1/TE1, -14/E/TE, solid fuel rocket for 91RE1/RTE2|
|91RE1: 50 km |
3M-54E (export version): 220 km
Kalibr-M (under development): 4,500 km
|Flight ceiling||1,000 m|
|Flight altitude||50-150 m AGL |
20 m over water
|Maximum speed||0.8-2.5-2.9 Mach|
|Inertial guidance plus terminal Active radar homing, By satellites, DSMAC|
|Accuracy||3 m (Club-S/Kalibr-PL)|
|naval ships, submarines, containers, airplanes, TEL|
The 3M-54 Kalibr, (Калибр, caliber), also referred to it as 3M54-1 Kalibr, 3M14 Biryuza (Бирюза, turqoise), (NATO codenames SS-N-27 Sizzler and SS-N-30A), 91R1, 91RT2 is a group of Russian surface ship-, submarine-launched and airborne anti-ship and coastal anti ship (AShM), land attack cruise missiles (LACM) and anti-submarine missiles developed by the Novator Design Bureau (OKB-8). Derived export versions are the 3M54E, 3M54E1, 3M14E, 91RE1, 91RTE2. The 3M54T, 3M54K, 3M54A, 3M54E (3M54TE), 3M54KE and 3M54AE have a second stage that performs a supersonic sprint in the terminal approach to the target, reducing the time that target's defense systems have to react. The 3M54T1, 3M54K1, 3M54A1, 3M54E1 (3M54T/K/AE1) only travel at subsonic speeds, although their range is accordingly greater than those of the supersonic versions.
Club is the designation used for the export versions.
The missile is a modular system with five versions: two anti-shipping types, one for land attack and two anti-submarine types. The missile is designed to share common parts between the surface and submarine-launched variants but each missile consists of different components, for example, the booster. The missile can be launched from a surface ship using a Vertical Launch System (VLS). It has a booster with thrust vectoring capability. The missile launched from a submarine torpedo tube has no need for such an addition but has a conventional booster instead. The air launched version is held in a container that is dropped as the missile launches, detaching from the container.
The US has made several claims about the maximum range of Kalibr land attack versions in use by Russia. The U.S. Department of Defense estimates its range at 1,400 km (870 mi), and Russian Defence Minister Sergei Shoigu put its range at "almost 1,500 km (930 mi)." Following its first operational firing in October 2015, Russian Ministry of Defence statements suggested a range of 2,000 km (1,200 mi), while a December 2015 Office of Naval Intelligence report gathered a number of Russian statements projecting ranges between 1,500-2,500 km (1,600 mi). Discrepancies in range values may be attributed to poor understanding of the Russian defence industry, political declarations for strategic effect, or potentially longer 2,500 km-range claims could be associated with a thermonuclear armed variant while shorter 1,500 km-range estimates are for the conventionally armed missile.
The Russian domestic variant (3M54T / 3M54K) and export variants (3M54TE/3M54KE) fly at sub-sonic speeds while achieving supersonic speed as they near their target. They are also capable of performing very high angled defensive high speed maneuvers in contrast to the common linear flight path of other anti-ship cruise missiles.
Domestic variants are basic versions of this missile family; these are the 3M54 and 3M14. The export model is called Club (formerly Klub). There are two major launch platforms: the Kalibr-PL (export Club-S), designed for use from submarines, and the Kalibr-NK (export Club-N), designed for surface ships. These two launch platforms can be equipped with the following warhead and guidance combinations:
Land-based anti-ship (3M-54E2) and land-attack (3M-14E1) self-propelled missile system for coastal defense. Both missile variants in the system arsenal weigh 1,700 kg and feature a 450 kg warhead and flight speed of 240 m/s. According to the manufacturer, in land-attack mode, the system has a CEP of 50 m.
'Club-K' - a Russian container complex of missile weapons, placed in the standard 20- and 40-foot sea container. Designed to defeat surface and ground targets. The complex can be mounted on shorelines, vessels of various classes, rail platforms and trucks. It is a modification of the Kalibr missile system.
The Russian Kilo class, Lada class, Amurclass, Akula class, Yasen class, and Borei class are the submarine launch platforms for the missiles.
The Russian Admiral Gorshkov class, Admiral Grigorovich class, and Gepard class frigates are able to carry these missiles. Also the Indian Talwar class frigate is another shipborne launch platform for the Club missile system.
The Russian Gremyashchy class, Buyan-M class, the second batch of Steregushchy class corvettes and the Karakurt class are low displacement platforms with Kalibr system ability.
In addition, it is believed by some analysts that an air-launched variant will be developed to arm the Tu-142s currently in service with the Russian navy. A truck mounted version is planned for development by the Novator Design Bureau. A Club-K variant, which is disguised as a shipping container that can be placed on a truck, train, or merchant vessel, was advertised in 2010 and was shown for the first time at the MAKS 2011 air show.Putting the launcher system into a standard shipping container allows the missiles to be moved and stored without arousing suspicion, which in turn renders pre-emptive strikes against the launcher very difficult.
In MAKS 2007, the 3M-54AE was placed beside a Su-35. This suggests that the aircraft will likely have the ability to launch the Club-A variants. The lighter 3M-14AE was also beside MiG-35.
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