3M-54 Kalibr

Last updated
Kalibr
3M-54E1.jpg
Export variant of the missile
Type Cruise missile
Anti-ship missile
Anti-submarine missile
Submarine-launched cruise missile
Air-launched cruise missile
Land-attack missile
Surface-to-surface missile
Place of origin Russia
Service history
In service1994
Used bySee Operators
Wars Syrian Civil War
Production history
Manufacturer Novator Design Bureau, KTRV, MKB Fakel, NPO Mash, Raduga, NPO Zvezda Strela (Orenburg)
Produced1990s
Specifications
MassVaries on variant, from 1,300 kg-1,780 kg-2,300 kg
LengthVaries on variant, from 6.2 m to 8.9 m
Diameter0.533 m
Warhead400-500 kg HE or thermonuclear [1] [2] [3]

Engine Multi-stage solid-fuel rocket, turbojet engine for 3M-54/E/TE/E1/TE1, -14/E/TE, solid fuel rocket for 91RE1/RTE2
Operational
range
91RE1: 50 km

3M-54E (export version): 220 km
3M-54E1/3M-14E (export version): 300 km
3M-54/3M-54T: 660 km

3M-14/3M-14T: 1,500-2,500 km

Contents


Kalibr-M (under development): 4,500 km
Flight ceiling1,000 m
Flight altitude50-150 m AGL
20 m over water [1]
Maximum speed 0.8-2.5-2.9 Mach
Guidance
system
Inertial guidance plus terminal Active radar homing, By satellites, DSMAC
Accuracy3 m (Club-S/Kalibr-PL) [4]
Launch
platform
naval ships, submarines, containers, airplanes, TEL

The 3M-54 Kalibr, (Калибр, caliber), also referred to it as 3M54-1 Kalibr, 3M14 Biryuza (Бирюза, turqoise), (NATO codenames SS-N-27 Sizzler and SS-N-30A), 91R1, 91RT2 is a group of Russian surface ship-, submarine-launched and airborne anti-ship and coastal anti ship (AShM), land attack cruise missiles (LACM) and anti-submarine missiles developed by the Novator Design Bureau (OKB-8). Derived export versions are the 3M54E, 3M54E1, 3M14E, 91RE1, 91RTE2. The 3M54T, 3M54K, 3M54A, 3M54E (3M54TE), 3M54KE and 3M54AE have a second stage that performs a supersonic sprint in the terminal approach to the target, reducing the time that target's defense systems have to react. The 3M54T1, 3M54K1, 3M54A1, 3M54E1 (3M54T/K/AE1) only travel at subsonic speeds, although their range is accordingly greater than those of the supersonic versions.

Club is the designation used for the export versions.

Design

The missile is a modular system with five versions: two anti-shipping types, one for land attack and two anti-submarine types. The missile is designed to share common parts between the surface and submarine-launched variants but each missile consists of different components, for example, the booster. The missile can be launched from a surface ship using a Vertical Launch System (VLS). It has a booster with thrust vectoring capability. The missile launched from a submarine torpedo tube has no need for such an addition but has a conventional booster instead. The air launched version is held in a container that is dropped as the missile launches, detaching from the container.

The US has made several claims about the maximum range of Kalibr land attack versions in use by Russia. The U.S. Department of Defense estimates its range at 1,400 km (870 mi), and Russian Defence Minister Sergei Shoigu put its range at "almost 1,500 km (930 mi)." Following its first operational firing in October 2015, Russian Ministry of Defence statements suggested a range of 2,000 km (1,200 mi), while a December 2015 Office of Naval Intelligence report gathered a number of Russian statements projecting ranges between 1,500-2,500 km (1,600 mi). Discrepancies in range values may be attributed to poor understanding of the Russian defence industry, political declarations for strategic effect, [1] or potentially longer 2,500 km-range claims could be associated with a thermonuclear armed variant while shorter 1,500 km-range estimates are for the conventionally armed missile. [5]

Terminal supersonic flight

3M-54E maquette 3M-54E missile MAKS2009.jpg
3M-54E maquette

The Russian domestic variant (3M54T / 3M54K) and export variants (3M54TE/3M54KE) fly at sub-sonic speeds while achieving supersonic speed as they near their target. They are also capable of performing very high angled defensive high speed maneuvers in contrast to the common linear flight path of other anti-ship cruise missiles. [6]

Operational history

Variants

Domestic variants are basic versions of this missile family; these are the 3M54 and 3M14. The export model is called Club (formerly Klub). There are two major launch platforms: the Kalibr-PL (export Club-S), designed for use from submarines, and the Kalibr-NK (export Club-N), designed for surface ships. These two launch platforms can be equipped with the following warhead and guidance combinations: [36]

Domestic variants

Export variants

3M-54E1 maquette 3M-54E1.jpg
3M-54E1 maquette

Club-S

  • 3M-54E Club-S [43] is the submarine-launched anti-shipping variant, Its basic length is 8.2 m (27 ft), with a 200 kg (440 lb) warhead. Its range is 220 km; (note that its range is less than the 3M-54). It is a sea-skimmer with a supersonic terminal speed and a flight altitude of 4.6 metres (15 ft) at its final stage is 2.9 mach. [44]
3M-14E maquette 3M-14E.jpg
3M-14E maquette
  • 3M-54E1 is a submarine-launched anti-shipping variant, Its basic length is 6.2 m (20 ft), with a 200 kg (440 lb) warhead. Its range is 300 km (190 mi). It is a sea-skimmer with a subsonic terminal speed of 0.8 mach.
  • 3M-14E An inertially guided land attack variant; it is launched from a submarine. Its basic length is 6.2 m (20 ft), with a 450 kg (990 lb) warhead. Its range is 300 km (190 mi). It has a subsonic terminal speed of 0.8 mach.
  • 91RE1 A submarine-launched anti-submarine variant, it consists of two stages, one solid booster with four grid fins and one anti-submarine light torpedo. Its basic length is 7.65 m (25.1 ft), it has a range of 50 km (31 mi). It can reach supersonic speed. The torpedo has a warhead weight of 76 kg (168 lb). It is similar to the American ASROC/SUBROC missile/torpedo system. It follows a ballistic path on the surface, with a speed of Mach 2.5.
91RE1 maquette 91RE1 maquette maks2009.jpg
91RE1 maquette

Club-N

  • 3M-54TE Club-N [43] - A surface vessel with VLS launched anti-shipping variant; with a thrust vectoring booster. Its basic length is 8.9 m, its warhead weight and other performance is the same as the 3M-54E. Its range is less than the 3M-54. It is a sea-skimmer with supersonic terminal speed and a flight altitude of 15 feet (4.6 m) at its final stage, when it has a speed of 2.9 mach, with a range of 220 km (140 mi) at supersonic speed.
  • 3M-54TE1 - A surface ship with VLS anti-shipping variant, with thrust vectoring booster. Its basic length is 8.9 m (29 ft), its warhead weight and other performance is the same as the 3M-54E1. A sea-skimmer with a subsonic terminal speed of 0.8 mach.
  • 3M-14TE - An inertially guided land attack variant. It is a surface ship with VLS missile and a thrust vectoring booster. Its basic length is 8.9 m (29 ft), its warhead weight and other performances are the same as the 3M-14E. Its subsonic terminal speed is 0.8 mach, with a range of 300 km (190 mi) at supersonic speed.
91RTE2 maquette 91RTE2 maquette maks2009.jpg
91RTE2 maquette
  • 91RTE2 - A surface ship with the VLS launched anti-submarine variant; it consists of three stages, one booster with thrust vector nozzle, one conventional booster, and one anti-submarine light torpedo. Its basic length is 8.9 m (29 ft), with a range of 40 km (25 mi) at supersonic speed. The torpedo has a warhead weight of 76 kg (168 lb). The lightest of all variants, with a launch weight of 1,300 kg (2,900 lb). Speed is Mach 2.

Club-T

Land-based anti-ship (3M-54E2) and land-attack (3M-14E1) self-propelled missile system for coastal defense. Both missile variants in the system arsenal weigh 1,700 kg and feature a 450 kg warhead and flight speed of 240 m/s. According to the manufacturer, in land-attack mode, the system has a CEP of 50 m. [45]

Club-A

  • 3M-54AE - Air-launched anti-ship variant. Two stages, terminal supersonic speed. Weight 1950 kg. Warhead 200 kg. Range 300 km.
  • 3M-54AE1 - Air-launched anti-ship variant. Subsonic.
  • 3M-14AE - Air-launched land attack variant. Subsonic. INS+satellite guidance. Length 6.2 m. Weight 1400 kg. Warhead 450 kg. Range 300 km.

Launch platforms

Club-K erected in a standard container Club-K001.jpg
Club-K erected in a standard container

'Club-K' - a Russian container complex of missile weapons, placed in the standard 20- and 40-foot sea container. Designed to defeat surface and ground targets. The complex can be mounted on shorelines, vessels of various classes, rail platforms and trucks. It is a modification of the Kalibr missile system.

The Russian Kilo class, Lada class, Amur [46] class, Akula class, Yasen class, and Borei class are the submarine launch platforms for the missiles.

Indian Navy frigate INS Tabar firing the Club missile. INS Tabar firing Klub anti-ship cruise missile.jpg
Indian Navy frigate INS Tabar firing the Club missile.

The Russian Admiral Gorshkov class, Admiral Grigorovich class, and Gepard class frigates are able to carry these missiles. Also the Indian Talwar class frigate is another shipborne launch platform for the Club missile system.

The Russian Gremyashchy class, Buyan-M class, the second batch of Steregushchy class corvettes and the Karakurt class are low displacement platforms with Kalibr system ability.

In addition, it is believed by some analysts that an air-launched variant will be developed to arm the Tu-142s currently in service with the Russian navy. A truck mounted version is planned for development by the Novator Design Bureau. A Club-K variant, which is disguised as a shipping container that can be placed on a truck, train, or merchant vessel, was advertised in 2010 and was shown for the first time at the MAKS 2011 air show. [47] [48] [49] Putting the launcher system into a standard shipping container allows the missiles to be moved and stored without arousing suspicion, which in turn renders pre-emptive strikes against the launcher very difficult.

In MAKS 2007, the 3M-54AE was placed beside a Su-35. This suggests that the aircraft will likely have the ability to launch the Club-A variants. The lighter 3M-14AE was also beside MiG-35.

Operators

Map with kalibr operators 3M-54 operators.png
Map with kalibr operators

See also

Related Research Articles

Cruise missile Guided missile which remains in the atmosphere and flies with approximately constant speed

A cruise missile is a guided missile used against terrestrial targets, that remains in the atmosphere and flies the major portion of its flight path at approximately constant speed. Cruise missiles are designed to deliver a large warhead over long distances with high precision. Modern cruise missiles are capable of travelling at supersonic or high subsonic speeds, are self-navigating, and are able to fly on a non-ballistic, extremely low-altitude trajectory.

Tomahawk (missile) Long-range, subsonic cruise missile

The TomahawkLand Attack Missile (TLAM) is a long-range, all-weather, jet-powered, subsonic cruise missile that is primarily used by the United States Navy and Royal Navy in ship- and submarine-based land-attack operations.

Silkworm (missile) Series of Chinese anti-ship missiles

The Shang You or SY-series, and the Hai Ying or HY-series were early Chinese anti-ship cruise missiles. They were derived from the Soviet P-15 Termit missile.

A cruise missile submarine is a submarine that carries and launches cruise missiles as its primary armament. Missiles greatly enhance a vessel's ability to attack surface combatants and strike land targets, and although torpedoes are a more stealthy option, missiles give a much longer stand-off range, as well as the ability to engage multiple targets on different headings at the same time. Many cruise missile submarines retain the capability to deploy nuclear warheads on their missiles, but they are considered distinct from ballistic missile submarines due to the substantial differences between the two weapons systems' characteristics.

RIM-2 Terrier Medium Range Surface-to-air missile

The Convair RIM-2 Terrier was a two-stage medium-range naval surface-to-air missile (SAM), and was among the earliest surface-to-air missiles to equip United States Navy ships. It underwent significant upgrades while in service, starting with a beam-riding system with 10-nautical-mile (19 km) range at a speed of Mach 1.8, and ending as a semi-active radar homing system with a range of 40 nmi (74 km) at speeds as high as Mach 3. It was replaced in service by the RIM-67 Standard ER (SM-1ER).

P-15 Termit Anti-ship missile

The P-15 Termit is an anti-ship missile developed by the Soviet Union's Raduga design bureau in the 1950s. Its GRAU designation was 4K40, its NATO reporting name was Styx or SS-N-2. China acquired the design in 1958 and created at least four versions: the CSS-N-1 Scrubbrush and CSS-N-2 versions were developed for ship-launched operation, while the CSS-C-2 Silkworm and CSS-C-3 Seersucker were used for coastal defence. Other names for this basic type of missile include: HY-1, SY-1, and FL-1 Flying Dragon. North Korean local produced KN-1 or KN-01, derived from both Silkworm variants and Russian & USSR P-15, Rubezh, P-20 P-22.

The P-700 Granit is a Soviet and Russian naval anti-ship cruise missile. Its GRAU designation is 3M45, its NATO reporting name SS-N-19 Shipwreck. It comes in surface-to-surface and submarine-launched variants, and can also be used against ground targets.

Submarine-launched cruise missile Cruise missile that is launched from a submarine

A submarine-launched cruise missile (SLCM) is a cruise missile that is launched from a submarine. Current versions are typically standoff weapons known as land-attack cruise missiles (LACMs), which are used to attack predetermined land targets with conventional or nuclear payloads. Anti-ship cruise missiles (ASCMs) are also used, and some submarine-launched cruise missiles have variants for both functions.

The Kh-22 is a large, long-range anti-ship missile developed by MKB Raduga in the Soviet Union. It was intended for use against US Navy aircraft carriers and carrier battle groups, with either a conventional or nuclear warhead.

<i>Talwar</i>-class frigate

The Talwar-class frigates or Project 11356 are a class of stealth guided missile frigates designed and built by Russia for the Indian Navy. The Talwar-class guided missile frigates are the improved versions of the Krivak III-class frigates used by the Russian Coast Guard. The design has been further developed as the Admiral Grigorovich-class frigate for the Russian Navy. Six ships were built in two batches between 1999 and 2013.

BrahMos Fastest supersonic cruise missile

The BrahMos is a medium-range ramjet supersonic cruise missile that can be launched from submarine, ships, aircraft, or land. It is the fastest supersonic cruise missile in the world. It is a joint venture between the Russian Federation's NPO Mashinostroyeniya and India's Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO), who together have formed BrahMos Aerospace. It is based on the Russian P-800 Oniks cruise missile and other similar sea-skimming Russian cruise missile technology. The name BrahMos is a portmanteau formed from the names of two rivers, the Brahmaputra of India and the Moskva of Russia.

Hsiung Feng II Surface-to-surface missile

The Hsiung Feng II (HF-2) is an anti-ship missile system developed by the National Chung-Shan Institute of Science and Technology (NCSIST) in Taiwan. The HF-2 is designed to be deployed aboard ships or at facilities on land. An airborne version has also been developed which can be carried by the ROC Air Force's F-CK fighters. The HF-2 has ECCM capabilities and is deployed on the ROC Navy's Cheng Kung class frigates and Lafayette class frigates, as well as at several land-based sites. In 2000, plans were announced to replace the HF-2 missiles stationed on the Cheng Kung frigates with the RGM-84 Harpoon, but the budget for this was cancelled.

P-270 Moskit Anti-ship missile

The P-270 Moskit is a Soviet supersonic ramjet powered anti-ship cruise missile. Its GRAU designation is 3M80, air launched variant is the Kh-41 and its NATO reporting name is SS-N-22 Sunburn. The missile system was designed by the Raduga Design Bureau during the 1970s as a follow up to the P-120 Malakhit. The Moskit was originally designed to be ship-launched, but variants have been adapted to be launched from land, underwater (submarines) and air, as well as on the Lun-class ekranoplan. The missile can carry conventional and nuclear warheads. The exact classification of the missile is unknown, with varying types reported. This uncertainty is due to the secrecy surrounding an active military weapon. The missile has been purchased and exported to the People's Liberation Army Navy (China) and Indian Navy (India).

P-800 Oniks Cruise missileAir-launched cruise missileSubmarine-launched cruise missileAnti-ship missileSurface-to-surface missileLand-attack missile

The P-800 Oniks, also known in export markets as Yakhont, is a Soviet / Russian supersonic anti-ship cruise missile developed by NPO Mashinostroyeniya as a ramjet version of P-80 Zubr. Its GRAU designation is 3M55, the air launched Kh-61 variant also exists. The missile has the NATO codename SS-N-26 "Strobile". Development officially started in 1983, and in the 1990s the anti-ship missile was tested on the Project 1234.7 ship. In 2002 the missile passed the whole range of trials and was commissioned. It is reportedly a replacement of the P-270 Moskit, but possibly also of the P-700 Granit. The P-800 was used as the basis for the joint Russian-Indian supersonic missile BrahMos.

SS-N-3 Shaddock

The P-5 "Pyatyorka", also known by the NATO codename SS-N-3C Shaddock, is a Cold War era turbojet-powered cruise missile of the Soviet Union, designed by the Chelomey design bureau. The missile entered service in 1959. Pyatyorka is a common name for the missile as the "digit 5", corresponding to the R-7 Semyorka, the digit 7.

Otomat Anti-ship missile and land-attack missile

The Otomat is an anti-ship and coastal defence missile developed by the Italian company Oto Melara jointly with Matra and now made by MBDA. The name comes, for the first versions, from the name of the two builders and, for the later versions, Teseo, from the Italian word for Theseus. The MILAS variant is an anti-submarine missile. In its latest version Mk/2E purchased by the Italian Navy is a medium range anti-ship missile and a ground attack missile.

The YJ-12 is a Chinese supersonic anti-ship cruise missile.

SSM-700K Haeseong South Korean anti-ship missile

The SSM-700K Haeseong (C-Star) Anti-ship Missile is a ship launched sea-skimming surface-to-surface anti-ship cruise missile developed by the South Korean Agency for Defense Development (ADD), LIG Nex1 and the Republic of Korea Navy in 2003. The missiles are deployed on KDX-II and KDX-III destroyers as of 2006, each carrying 8 and 16 of the missiles respectively, and on Ulsan-class frigates.

YJ-18 Anti-ship cruise missileLand attack cruise missile"`UNIQ--ref-00000000-QINU`"

The YJ-18 is a Chinese family of anti-ship and land attack cruise missiles.

The 3M22 Zircon also spelled as 3M22 Tsirkon is a scramjet powered maneuvering anti-ship hypersonic cruise missile currently in testing by Russia.

References

  1. 1 2 3 Game changer: Russian sub-launched cruise missiles bring strategic effect. Jane's Information Group .
  2. "صواريخ روسية غيرت مفهوم المعركة وأخافت العالم" [Russian missiles changed the concept of the battle frightened the world]. YouTube (in Arabic).
  3. "ЦАМТО / Новости / Сводка боевых действий ВКС России в Сирии за 8 декабря". armstrade.org. Retrieved Feb 18, 2019.
  4. "Kalibr-PL". www.deagel.com. Retrieved Feb 18, 2019.
  5. Sokov on Russian Cruise Missiles - Armscontrolwonk.com, 25 August 2015
  6. "Navy Lacks Plan to Defend Against `Sizzler' Missile". Bloomberg. 2007-03-23. Archived from the original on 19 November 2007. Retrieved 2007-11-11.
  7. "Kalibr cruise missiles strike IS targets in Syria". Oct 7, 2015. Retrieved Feb 18, 2019 via YouTube.
  8. Aji, Albert; Vasilyeva, Nataliya (7 October 2015). "Russia fires cruise missiles from warships into Syria". Yahoo News. Associated Press. Retrieved 9 October 2015.
  9. U.S.: Several Russian cruise missiles landed in Iran - Militarytimes.com, 8 October 2015
  10. "Russia, Iran Deny US Claims of Cruise Missiles Crashing on Iran". News From Antiwar.com. Retrieved 2015-10-20.
  11. "Russia denies missiles aimed at Syria landed in Iran". the Guardian. Retrieved 2015-10-20.
  12. Russia Refutes Pentagon Claims Some Caspian Strike Missiles Failed Over Iran - News.USNI.org, 9 October 2015
  13. "Russian Caspian Sea Flotilla launches Kalibr missiles". Nov 20, 2015. Retrieved Feb 18, 2019 via YouTube.
  14. "YouTube". www.youtube.com. Retrieved Feb 18, 2019.
  15. "Kalibr vs ISIS compound". Nov 23, 2015. Retrieved Feb 18, 2019 via YouTube.
  16. "Syria - Russian submarine "Rostov-on-Don" launches missiles at Raqqa - December 2015". Dec 9, 2015. Retrieved Feb 18, 2019 via YouTube.
  17. "Russia fires Kalibr missiles at IS positions from sub deployed in the Mediterranean". TASS. Retrieved Feb 18, 2019.
  18. "Russia: Mossad, other foreign agents killed in Aleppo strike" . Retrieved 2016-09-22.
  19. "YouTube". www.youtube.com. Retrieved Feb 18, 2019.
  20. "Terrorist positions hit with cruise missiles from Russian frigate 'Admiral Grigorovich' – MoD". Nov 15, 2016. Retrieved Feb 18, 2019 via YouTube.
  21. "YouTube". www.youtube.com. Retrieved Feb 18, 2019.
  22. "Russian warships fire cruise missiles at Isil targets near Palmyra". The Telegraph. Retrieved 2017-05-31.
  23. "Russia fires cruise missiles at IS targets in Syria". BBC News. 2017-05-31. Retrieved 2017-05-31.
  24. "Удар крылатыми ракетами "Калибр" по объектам ИГИЛ в Сирии кораблями ВМФ РФ в Средиземном море". Jun 23, 2017. Retrieved Feb 18, 2019 via YouTube.
  25. "Russian warships fire Kalibr missiles, destroy ISIS arms depots in Syria". www.rbth.com. Jun 23, 2017. Retrieved Feb 18, 2019.
  26. "Удар крылатыми ракетами "Калибр" по объектам ИГИЛ в Сирии кораблями ВМФ РФ в Средиземном море". Ministry of Defence (Russia) . 2017-06-23.
  27. "Russian warships fire Kalibr cruise missiles, destroy IS arms depots in Syria". TASS . 2017-06-23.
  28. "Russian submarine, frigates hit ISIS from Mediterranean, again". NavalToday . 2017-06-23.
  29. http://eng.mil.ru/en/news_page/country/more.htm?id=12142271@egNews
  30. "Пуск крылатых ракет "Калибр" по объектам террористов в Сирии с подводной лодки "Великий Новгород"". Russian MOD . 2017-09-22.
  31. "Нанесение ударов по террористам в Сирии из акватории Средиземного моря подводными лодками ЧФ". Russian MOD . 2017-10-05.
  32. "Поражение объектов террористов комплексами "Калибр"". Russian MOD . 2017-10-05.
  33. "Russia targets ISIS with Kalibr cruise missiles". Missile Threat. Nov 3, 2017. Retrieved Feb 18, 2019.
  34. http://eng.mil.ru/en/news_page/country/more.htm?id=12149470@egNews
  35. "Russian cruise missiles kill at least 30 Syrian rebels after jet fighter downed". USA Today . Retrieved 4 February 2018.
  36. Jane's Weapons: Naval 2012-2013, Janes Information Group, 2012, p. 13
  37. "Вести недели / Эфир от 11.10.2015" [Vesti nedeli/Stream from 11.10.2015]. russia.tv (in Russian). Retrieved 20 November 2015.
  38. "Ракетный "привет" для ИГ" [Rocket "Hello" for IS]. vesti7.ru (in Russian). 11 October 2015. Retrieved 20 November 2015.
  39. Cenciotti, David (Dec 8, 2015). "Russia has launched a barrage of cruise missiles against Syria. For the first time from submarine" . Retrieved Feb 18, 2019.
  40. https://www.janes.com/article/91514/russia-upgrades-kalibr-cruise-missiles
  41. https://tass.com/defense/1079266
  42. "New Kalibr-M cruise missile with range of over 4,500 km in development in Russia - source - Military & Defense - TASS".
  43. 1 2 Jane's Weapons: Naval 2012-2013, Janes Information Group, 2012, p. 15
  44. "KLUB (SS-N-27) ASCM". bharat-rakshak.com. Archived from the original on 20 April 2010.
  45. "Defexpo 2020: Almaz-Antey upgrades Club-T cruise missile system". Jane's Information Group. 6 February 2020. Retrieved 19 April 2020.
  46. http://ckb-rubin.ru/en/projects/naval_engineering/submarines/amur_950/
  47. Stott, Michael (2010-04-26). "Deadly new Russian weapon hides in shipping container". Reuters. Retrieved 2016-12-19.
  48. "MAKS: Russian firm debuts shipping container-housed cruise missiles". Flight Global. Retrieved 2011-08-23.
  49. "Russian company unveils 'bomb in a box' cruise missile system". RIA Novosti. Retrieved 2011-08-23.
  50. "Advanced anti-ship cruise missile systems enter service with Russian Navy". TASS. Retrieved Feb 18, 2019.
  51. Pandit, Rajat (August 4, 2008). "India to acquire new undersea cruise missiles". The Times of India . Archived from the original on October 21, 2012. Retrieved 2008-08-04.
  52. Vietnam Buys Deadly New Missiles Capable of Hitting China - Thediplomat.com, 30 April 2015
  53. Newsweek, article "China's Carrier Killers", Oct. 4, 2010
  54. Strategy Page, article Iranian Submarine Launched Missiles, Aug. 30, 2006
  55. NTI, article Iran Submarine Import and Export Behavior | NTI Iran Submarine Import and Export Behavior], Aug. 8, 2012