3M-54 Kalibr

Last updated
Export variant of the missile
Type Cruise missile
Anti-ship missile
Anti-submarine missile
Submarine-launched cruise missile
Air-launched cruise missile
Land-attack missile
Surface-to-surface missile
Place of origin Russia
Service history
In service1994
Used bySee Operators
Wars Syrian Civil War
Production history
Manufacturer Novator Design Bureau, KTRV, MKB Fakel, NPO Mash, Raduga, NPO Zvezda Strela (Orenburg)
MassVaries on variant, from 1,300 kg-1,780 kg-2,300 kg
LengthVaries on variant, from 6.2 m to 8.9 m
Diameter0.533 m
Warhead400-500 kg HE or thermonuclear [1] [2] [3]

Engine Multi-stage solid-fuel rocket, turbojet engine for 3M-54/E/TE/E1/TE1, -14/E/TE, solid fuel rocket for 91RE1/RTE2
91RE1: 50 km

3M-54E (export version): 220 km
3M-54E1/3M-14E (export version): 300 km
3M-54/3M-54T: 660 km

3M-14/3M-14T: 1,500-2,500 km


Kalibr-M (under development): 4,500 km
Flight ceiling1,000 m
Flight altitude50-150 m AGL
20 m over water [1]
Maximum speed 0.8-2.5-2.9 Mach
Inertial guidance plus terminal Active radar homing, By satellites, DSMAC
Accuracy3 m (Club-S/Kalibr-PL) [4]
naval ships, submarines, containers, airplanes, TEL

The 3M-54 Kalibr, (Калибр, caliber), also referred to it as 3M54-1 Kalibr, 3M14 Biryuza (Бирюза, turqoise), (NATO codenames SS-N-27 Sizzler and SS-N-30A), 91R1, 91RT2 is a group of Russian surface ship-, submarine-launched and airborne anti-ship and coastal anti ship (AShM), land attack cruise missiles (LACM) and anti-submarine missiles developed by the Novator Design Bureau (OKB-8). Derived export versions are the 3M54E, 3M54E1, 3M14E, 91RE1, 91RTE2. The 3M54T, 3M54K, 3M54A, 3M54E (3M54TE), 3M54KE and 3M54AE have a second stage that performs a supersonic sprint in the terminal approach to the target, reducing the time that target's defense systems have to react. The 3M54T1, 3M54K1, 3M54A1, 3M54E1 (3M54T/K/AE1) only travel at subsonic speeds, although their range is accordingly greater than those of the supersonic versions.

Club is the designation used for the export versions.


The missile is a modular system with five versions: two anti-shipping types, one for land attack and two anti-submarine types. The missile is designed to share common parts between the surface and submarine-launched variants but each missile consists of different components, for example, the booster. The missile can be launched from a surface ship using a Vertical Launch System (VLS). It has a booster with thrust vectoring capability. The missile launched from a submarine torpedo tube has no need for such an addition but has a conventional booster instead. The air launched version is held in a container that is dropped as the missile launches, detaching from the container.

The US has made several claims about the maximum range of Kalibr land attack versions in use by Russia. The U.S. Department of Defense estimates its range at 1,400 km (870 mi), and Russian Defence Minister Sergei Shoigu put its range at "almost 1,500 km (930 mi)." Following its first operational firing in October 2015, Russian Ministry of Defence statements suggested a range of 2,000 km (1,200 mi), while a December 2015 Office of Naval Intelligence report gathered a number of Russian statements projecting ranges between 1,500-2,500 km (1,600 mi). Discrepancies in range values may be attributed to poor understanding of the Russian defence industry, political declarations for strategic effect, [1] or potentially longer 2,500 km-range claims could be associated with a thermonuclear armed variant while shorter 1,500 km-range estimates are for the conventionally armed missile. [5]

Terminal supersonic flight

3M-54E maquette 3M-54E missile MAKS2009.jpg
3M-54E maquette

The Russian domestic variant (3M54T / 3M54K) and export variants (3M54TE/3M54KE) fly at sub-sonic speeds while achieving supersonic speed as they near their target. They are also capable of performing very high angled defensive high speed maneuvers in contrast to the common linear flight path of other anti-ship cruise missiles. [6]

Operational history


Domestic variants are basic versions of this missile family; these are the 3M54 and 3M14. The export model is called Club (formerly Klub). There are two major launch platforms: the Kalibr-PL (export Club-S), designed for use from submarines, and the Kalibr-NK (export Club-N), designed for surface ships. These two launch platforms can be equipped with the following warhead and guidance combinations: [36]

Domestic variants

Export variants

3M-54E1 maquette 3M-54E1.jpg
3M-54E1 maquette


  • 3M-54E Club-S [43] is the submarine-launched anti-shipping variant, Its basic length is 8.2 m (27 ft), with a 200 kg (440 lb) warhead. Its range is 220 km; (note that its range is less than the 3M-54). It is a sea-skimmer with a supersonic terminal speed and a flight altitude of 4.6 metres (15 ft) at its final stage is 2.9 mach. [44]
3M-14E maquette 3M-14E.jpg
3M-14E maquette
  • 3M-54E1 is a submarine-launched anti-shipping variant, Its basic length is 6.2 m (20 ft), with a 200 kg (440 lb) warhead. Its range is 300 km (190 mi). It is a sea-skimmer with a subsonic terminal speed of 0.8 mach.
  • 3M-14E An inertially guided land attack variant; it is launched from a submarine. Its basic length is 6.2 m (20 ft), with a 450 kg (990 lb) warhead. Its range is 300 km (190 mi). It has a subsonic terminal speed of 0.8 mach.
  • 91RE1 A submarine-launched anti-submarine variant, it consists of two stages, one solid booster with four grid fins and one anti-submarine light torpedo. Its basic length is 7.65 m (25.1 ft), it has a range of 50 km (31 mi). It can reach supersonic speed. The torpedo has a warhead weight of 76 kg (168 lb). It is similar to the American ASROC/SUBROC missile/torpedo system. It follows a ballistic path on the surface, with a speed of Mach 2.5.
91RE1 maquette 91RE1 maquette maks2009.jpg
91RE1 maquette


  • 3M-54TE Club-N [43] - A surface vessel with VLS launched anti-shipping variant; with a thrust vectoring booster. Its basic length is 8.9 m, its warhead weight and other performance is the same as the 3M-54E. Its range is less than the 3M-54. It is a sea-skimmer with supersonic terminal speed and a flight altitude of 15 feet (4.6 m) at its final stage, when it has a speed of 2.9 mach, with a range of 220 km (140 mi) at supersonic speed.
  • 3M-54TE1 - A surface ship with VLS anti-shipping variant, with thrust vectoring booster. Its basic length is 8.9 m (29 ft), its warhead weight and other performance is the same as the 3M-54E1. A sea-skimmer with a subsonic terminal speed of 0.8 mach.
  • 3M-14TE - An inertially guided land attack variant. It is a surface ship with VLS missile and a thrust vectoring booster. Its basic length is 8.9 m (29 ft), its warhead weight and other performances are the same as the 3M-14E. Its subsonic terminal speed is 0.8 mach, with a range of 300 km (190 mi) at supersonic speed.
91RTE2 maquette 91RTE2 maquette maks2009.jpg
91RTE2 maquette
  • 91RTE2 - A surface ship with the VLS launched anti-submarine variant; it consists of three stages, one booster with thrust vector nozzle, one conventional booster, and one anti-submarine light torpedo. Its basic length is 8.9 m (29 ft), with a range of 40 km (25 mi) at supersonic speed. The torpedo has a warhead weight of 76 kg (168 lb). The lightest of all variants, with a launch weight of 1,300 kg (2,900 lb). Speed is Mach 2.


Land-based anti-ship (3M-54E2) and land-attack (3M-14E1) self-propelled missile system for coastal defense. Both missile variants in the system arsenal weigh 1,700 kg and feature a 450 kg warhead and flight speed of 240 m/s. According to the manufacturer, in land-attack mode, the system has a CEP of 50 m. [45]


  • 3M-54AE - Air-launched anti-ship variant. Two stages, terminal supersonic speed. Weight 1950 kg. Warhead 200 kg. Range 300 km.
  • 3M-54AE1 - Air-launched anti-ship variant. Subsonic.
  • 3M-14AE - Air-launched land attack variant. Subsonic. INS+satellite guidance. Length 6.2 m. Weight 1400 kg. Warhead 450 kg. Range 300 km.

Launch platforms

Club-K erected in a standard container Club-K001.jpg
Club-K erected in a standard container

'Club-K' - a Russian container complex of missile weapons, placed in the standard 20- and 40-foot sea container. Designed to defeat surface and ground targets. The complex can be mounted on shorelines, vessels of various classes, rail platforms and trucks. It is a modification of the Kalibr missile system.

The Russian Kilo class, Lada class, Amur [46] class, Akula class, Yasen class, and Borei class are the submarine launch platforms for the missiles.

Indian Navy frigate INS Tabar firing the Club missile. INS Tabar firing Klub anti-ship cruise missile.jpg
Indian Navy frigate INS Tabar firing the Club missile.

The Russian Admiral Gorshkov class, Admiral Grigorovich class, and Gepard class frigates are able to carry these missiles. Also the Indian Talwar class frigate is another shipborne launch platform for the Club missile system.

The Russian Gremyashchy class, Buyan-M class, the second batch of Steregushchy class corvettes and the Karakurt class are low displacement platforms with Kalibr system ability.

In addition, it is believed by some analysts that an air-launched variant will be developed to arm the Tu-142s currently in service with the Russian navy. A truck mounted version is planned for development by the Novator Design Bureau. A Club-K variant, which is disguised as a shipping container that can be placed on a truck, train, or merchant vessel, was advertised in 2010 and was shown for the first time at the MAKS 2011 air show. [47] [48] [49] Putting the launcher system into a standard shipping container allows the missiles to be moved and stored without arousing suspicion, which in turn renders pre-emptive strikes against the launcher very difficult.

In MAKS 2007, the 3M-54AE was placed beside a Su-35. This suggests that the aircraft will likely have the ability to launch the Club-A variants. The lighter 3M-14AE was also beside MiG-35.


Map with kalibr operators 3M-54 operators.png
Map with kalibr operators

See also

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